Transition to Renewable Energy Systems

This book provides a part on energy strategies as examples how a secure, safe and affordable energy supply can be organized relying on renewable energies.


Detlef Stolten, Viktor Scherer


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Chemical Engineering

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  • Detlef Stolten, Viktor Scherer   
  • 977 Pages   
  • 12 Feb 2015
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    Transition to Renewable Energy SystemsEdited byDetlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer read more..

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    Related TitlesLadewig, B., Jiang, S. P., Yan, Y. (eds.)Materials for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells2012ISBN: 978-3-527-33042-3Bagotsky, V. S.Fuel CellsProblems and Solutions2012ISBN: 978-1-118-08756-5Stolten, D., Scherer, V. (eds.)Eff icient Carbon Capture for Coal Power Plants2011ISBN: 978-3-527-33002-7Wieckowski, A., Norskov, J. (eds.)Fuel Cell ScienceTheory, Fundamentals, and Biocatalysis2010ISBN: 978-0-470-41029-5Crabtree, R. H.Energy Production and StorageInorganic Chemical Strategies for a read more..

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    Transition to Renewable Energy SystemsEdited byDetlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer read more..

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    EditorsProf. Detlef StoltenForschungszentrum Jülich GmbHIEF-3: Fuel CellsLeo-Brandt-StraßeIEF-3: Fuel Cells52425 JülichGermanyViktor SchererRuhr-Universität BochumLS f. Energieanlagen, IB 3/126Universitätsstr. 150LS f. Energieanlagen, IB 3/12644780 BochumGermanyAll books published by Wiley-VCH are carefully produced. Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisher do not warrant the information contained in these books, including this book, to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in read more..

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    VForewordThe Federal Government set out on the road to transforming the German energy system by launching its Energy Concept on 28 September 2010 and adopting the energy package on 6 June 2011. The intention is to make Germany one of the most energy-efficient economies in the world and to enter the era of renewable energy without delay. Quantitative energy and environmental targets have been set which define the basic German energy supply strategy until 2050.Central goals are an 80–95% read more..

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    VIIContentsForeword VPreface XXIXList of Contributors XXXIPart I Renewable Strategies 11 South Korea’s Green Energy Strategies 3Deokyu Hwang, Suhyeon Han, and Changmo Sung1.1 Introduction 31.2 Government-Driven Strategies and Policies 51.3 Focused R&D Strategies 71.4 Promotion of Renewable Energy Industries 91.5 Present and Future of Green Energy in South Korea 10References 102 Japan’s Energy Policy After the 3.11 Natural and Nuclear Disasters – from the Viewpoint of the R&D of read more..

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    VIIIContents 2.3.3 Renewable Energy and Hydrogen Energy 222.3.4 Solar–Hydrogen Stations and Fuel Cell Vehicles 222.3.5 Rechargeable Batteries 232.4 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology 242.4.1 Stationary Use 242.4.2 Mobile Use 252.4.3 Public Acceptance 252.5 Conclusion 26References 263 The Impact of Renewable Energy Development on Energy and CO2 Emissions in China 29Xiliang Zhang, Tianyu Qi and Valerie Karplus3.1 Introduction 293.2 Renewable Energy in China and Policy Context 303.2.1 Energy and read more..

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    IXContents 5.4 The way ahead 735.5 Conclusion 74References 746 The Decreasing Market Value of Variable Renewables: Integration Options and Deadlocks 75Lion Hirth and Falko Ueckerdt6.1 The Decreasing Market Value of Variable Renewables 756.2 Mechanisms and Quantification 776.2.1 Profile Costs 786.2.2 Balancing Costs 836.2.3 Grid-Related Costs 836.2.4 Findings 836.3 Integration Options 846.3.1 A Taxonomy 846.3.2 Profile Costs 856.3.3 Balancing Costs 886.3.4 Grid-Related Costs 896.4 Conclusion read more..

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    XContents 7.4.1.4 Earth 1107.4.1.5 Bioenergy 1107.4.2 Results of Balancing Demand and Supply 1117.5 Discussion 1127.5.1 Power Grids 1127.5.2 The Need for Policy 1137.5.3 Sensitivity of Results 1137.6 Conclusion 114References 115 Appendix 1188 The Transition to Renewable Energy Systems – On the Way to a Comprehensive Transition Concept 119Uwe Schneidewind, Karoline Augenstein, and Hanna Scheck8.1 Why Is There a Need for Change? – The World in the Age of the Anthropocene 1198.2 A Transition read more..

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    XIContents 9.5.2 The International Context: Global Guard Rails 1459.5.2.1 Socio-Economic Guard Rails 1459.5.2.2 Ecological Guard Rails 1469.6 Policies Accelerating Renewable Energies in Developing Countries 1489.6.1 Regulations Governing Market/Electricity Grid Access and Quotas Mandating Capacity/Generation 1489.6.1.1 Feed-in Tariffs 1499.6.1.2 Quotas – Mandating Capacity/Generation 1499.6.1.3 Applicability in the Developing World 1499.6.2 Financial Incentives 1519.6.2.1 Tax relief 1529.6.2.2 read more..

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    XIIContents 10.2.1 Summary of Concept 17110.2.2 Description of Concept 17210.2.2.1 Direct Solar Steam Generation 17210.2.2.2 Rankine Cycle for Steam Turbine 17210.2.2.3 Solar Boiler for Steam Generation 17410.2.2.4 Solar Steam Generation Inside Ducts 17510.2.2.5 Arrangement of Heat-Transfer Sections 17710.2.2.6 Utilization of Waste Heat 17710.2.2.7 Thermal Storage System for Night-Time Operation 17810.3 Practical Implementation of Concept 17910.3.1 Technical Procedure for Implementation read more..

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    XIIIContents 12.7 Assumptions for the Renewable Scenario with a Constant Number of Wind Turbines 20212.8 Procedure 20512.9 Results of the Scenario 20612.10 Fuel Cell Vehicles 20712.11 Hydrogen Pipelines and Storage 20812.12 Cost Estimate 21012.13 Discussion of Results 21212.14 Conclusion 213References 21413 Pre-Investigation of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales for Electric Grid Load Balancing 217Fernando Gutiérrez-Martín13.1 Introduction 21713.2 Electrolytic Hydrogen 21813.2.1 read more..

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    XIVContents 14.4 Environmental Impact 25614.5 Regulatory Framework 25714.6 Economics of Wind Energy 25814.7 The Future Scenario of Onshore Wind Power 261References 26215 Offshore Wind Power 265David Infield15.1 Introduction and Review of Offshore Deployment 26515.2 Wind Turbine Technology Developments 27115.3 Site Assessment 27315.4 Wind Farm Design and Connection to Shore 27415.5 Installation and Operations and Maintenance 27615.6 Future Prospects and Research Needed to Deliver on These read more..

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    XVContents 17 Solar Thermal Power Production 307Robert Pitz-Paal, Reiner Buck, Peter Heller, Tobias Hirsch, and Wolf-Dieter Steinmann17.1 General Concept of the Technology 30717.1.1 Introduction 30717.1.2 Technology Characteristics and Options 30817.1.3 Environmental Profile 31117.2 Technology Overview 31217.2.1 Parabolic Trough Collector systems 31217.2.1.1 Parabolic Trough Collector Development 31217.2.2 Linear Fresnel Collector Systems 31717.2.3 Solar Tower Systems 32017.2.4 Thermal Storage read more..

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    XVIContents 19.5 Technology Readiness 36019.5.1 Tidal Device Case Study 1 36119.5.2 Tidal Device Case Study 2 36219.5.3 Tidal Device Case Study 3 36319.5.4 Tidal Device Case Study 4 36419.5.5 Tidal Device Case Study 5 36519.5.6 Tidal Device Case Study 6 36619.5.7 Tidal Device Case Study 7 36719.5.8 Tidal Device Case Study 8 36819.5.9 Tidal Device Case Study 9 36919.5.10 Tidal Device Case Study 10 37019.5.11 Wave Device Case Study 1 37119.5.12 Wave Device Case Study 2 37219.5.13 Wave Device Case read more..

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    XVIIContents 20.5.3 Carbon Mitigation Potential 39620.5.4 Future Deployment 39720.6 Systems Analysis 39820.6.1 Integration into Broader Energy Systems 39820.6.2 Power System Services 39820.7 Sustainability Issues 39820.7.1 Environmental Impacts 39920.7.2 Lifecycle Assessment 39920.7.3 Greenhouse Gas Emissions 39920.7.4 Energy Payback Ratio 40020.8 Conclusion 400References 40121 The Future Role of Fossil Power Plants – Design and Implementation 403Erland Christensen and Franz Bauer21.1 read more..

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    XVIIIContents 22.3.1 Alkaline Electrolysis 43022.3.2 PEM Electrolysis 43322.3.3 High-Temperature Water Electrolysis 43622.4 Need for Further Research and Development 43822.4.1 Alkaline Water Electrolysis 44022.4.1.1 Electrocatalysts for Alkaline Water Electrolysis 44122.4.2 PEM Electrolysis 44222.4.2.1 Electrocatalysts for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER) 44222.4.2.2 Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) 44322.4.2.3 Separator Plates and Current Collectors 44322.5 read more..

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    XIXContents 24.6 Biomass Potential Studies 49424.7 The Political Task 49424.8 Political Measures, Legislation, Steering Instruments, and Incentives 49524.8.1 Carbon Dioxide Tax: the Most Efficient Steering Instrument 49524.8.2 Less Political Damage 49624.8.3 Use Biomass 496References 49725 Flexible Power Generation from Biomass – an Opportunity for a Renewable Sources-Based Energy System? 499Daniela Thrän, Marcus Eichhorn, Alexander Krautz, Subhashree Das, and Nora Szarka25.1 Introduction read more..

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    XXContents 26.4.1 Differences in LCA Studies for Biofuel Options 53726.4.2 Drivers for GHG Emissions: Biomass Production 53826.4.3 Drivers for GHG Emissions: Biomass Conversion 54026.4.4 Perspectives for LCA Assessments 54126.5 System Analysis on Economic Aspects 54226.5.2 Total Capital Investments for Biofuel Production Plants 54226.5.3 Biofuel Production Costs 54326.6 Conclusion and Outlook 54526.6.1 Technical Aspects 54526.6.2 Environmental Aspects 54526.6.3 Economic Aspects 54626.6.4 Future read more..

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    XXIContents 28.2.1 Lithium-Ion Batteries 58128.2.2 Redox-Flow Batteries 58228.2.3 Sodium–Sulfur Batteries 58328.2.4 Lithium–Sulfur Batteries 58428.2.5 Lithium–Air Batteries 58528.3 Secondary Batteries for Electric Vehicles 58728.4 Secondary Batteries For Energy Storage Systems 59028.4.1 Lithium-Ion Batteries for ESS 59128.4.2 Redox-Flow Batteries for ESS 59228.4.3 Sodium–Sulfur Batteries for ESS 59328.5 Conclusion 594References 59529 Pumped Storage Hydropower 597Atle Harby, Julian read more..

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    XXIIContents 30.2.5 Example: Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) from H2–CO2 62430.2.6 Example: Liquid Fuels from Biomass 62530.2.7 Cost of Hydrogen Production 62630.3 Conclusion 62730.4 Nomenclature 627References 62831 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen Gas 629Jürgen Wackerl, Martin Streibel, Axel Liebscher, and Detlef Stolten31.1 Current Situation 62931.2 Natural Gas Storage 63131.3 Requirements for Subsurface Storage 63331.4 Geological Situation in Central Europe and read more..

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    XXIIIContents 33 Energy Storage Based on Electrochemical Conversion of Ammonia 691Jürgen Fuhrmann, Marlene Hülsebrock, and Ulrike Krewer33.1 Introduction 69133.2 Ammonia Properties and Historical Uses as an Energy Carrier 69233.3 Pathways for Ammonia Conversion: Synthesis 69333.3.1 Haber–Bosch Process 69433.3.2 Electrochemical Synthesis 69733.4 Pathways for Ammonia Conversion: Energy Recovery 69833.4.1 Combustion 69833.4.2 Direct Ammonia Fuel Cells 69933.4.3 Energy Recovery via Hydrogen read more..

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    XXIVContents 35.3.3 Transmission Challenges Driven by the Production Side 73135.3.4 Transmission Challenges Driven by the Demand Side and Developments in the Distribution Grid 73135.3.5 Conclusion 73235.4 Market Options for the Facilitation of Future Bulk Power Transport 73235.4.1 Cross-Border Trading and Market Coupling 73235.4.2 Cross-Border Balancing 73335.4.3 Technological Options for the Facilitation of Future Bulk Power Transport 73335.5 Case Study 735References 73936 Smart Grid: read more..

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    XXVContents 38.2.2 Hydrogen Production Methods 79738.2.3 Options for Producing Hydrogen with Near-Zero Emission 80038.2.4 Hydrogen Delivery Options 80038.2.5 Hydrogen Refueling Stations 80138.3 Economic and Environmental Characteristics of Hydrogen Supply Pathways 80238.3.1 Economics of Hydrogen Supply 80238.3.2 Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen Pathways 80538.3.2.1 Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Air Pollution, and Energy Use 80538.3.2.2 Resource Use and Sustainability 80538.3.2.3 read more..

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    XXVIContents 39.6.1.2 Decentralized Conversion of Natural Gas Mixed with Hydrogen in Gas Engines 83539.6.1.3 Conversion of Hydrogen Mixed with Natural Gas in Combustion Heating Systems 83539.6.2 Passenger Car Powertrains with Fuel Cells and Internal Combustion Engines 83639.6.2.1 Direct-Hydrogen Fuel Cell Systems 83639.6.2.2 Internal Combustion Engines 83739.7 Evaluation of Process Chain Alternatives 83839.8 Conclusion 841References 843Part VII Applications 84940 Transition from read more..

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    XXVIIContents 42.2.2 Limitation of the Total Amount of Available Energy in China 89442.2.3 Limitation of the Total Amount of Building Energy Use in China 89542.3 The Way to Realize the Targets of Building Energy Control in China 89742.3.1 Factors Affecting Building Energy Use 89742.3.1.1 The Total Building Floor Area 89742.3.1.2 The Energy Use Intensity 89942.3.2 The Energy Use of Northern Urban Heating 90042.3.3 The Energy Use of Urban Residential Buildings (Excluding Heating in the North) read more..

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    XXIXPrefaceRenewable energy gets increasingly important for its increasing share in the energy supply, the urgency to act on global climate change and not the least for its increasing competitiveness. Already today, renewable energies deliver substantial shares to the global final energy consumption. As of 2010 16.7% were generated by renewables, out of which 8.2% were accounted for modern renewables, comparing favorably to three times the share of nuclear energy. Worldwide over 20% of the read more..

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    XXXPreface It provides descriptions, data, facts and figures of the major technologies that have the potential to be Game Changers in power production considering the varying climates and topographies worldwide. It addresses biomass, gas production and storage in the same technical depth and includes chapters on power and gas distri-bution, including smart grids, as well as selected chapters on end-use of energy in transportation and the building sector.These papers are based on the overview read more..

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    XXXIList of ContributorsChristopher J. BromleyGNS ScienceWairakei Research CentrePrivate Bag 2000Taupo 3352New ZealandMarcelo CarmoForschungszentrum Jülich GmbHInstitut für Energie- und KlimaforschungIEK-3: Elektrochemische Verfahrenstechnik52425 JülichGermanyPeng ChenTsinghua UniversityDepartment of Building Science and TechnologyBeijing 100084P.R. ChinaPo Wen ChengUniversity of StuttgartAllmandring 5b70569 StuttgartGermanyGöran AnderssonETH ZürichInstitut für El. EnergieübertragungETL G read more..

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    XXXIIList of Contributors Erland ChristensenVGB Power TechKlinkestraße 27–3145136 EssenGermanyYan DaTsinghua UniversityDepartment of Building Science and TechnologyBeijing 100084P.R. ChinaYvonne Y. DengECOFYS GERMANYAm Wassermann 3550829 KölnGermanyBernd EmontsForschungszentrum Jülich GmbHIEK-3 Institut für En. & KlimaforschungWilhelm-Johnen-Str.52428 JülichGermanyDavid FritzForschungszentrum Jülich GmbHInstitut für Energie- und KlimaforschungIEK-3: Elektrochemische read more..

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    XXXIIIList of Contributors Ulrich HueckDESERTEC FoundationFerdinandstr. 28-3020095 HamburgGermanyColin ImrieScottish GovernmentEnergy and Climate Change Directorate4th floor, 5 Atlantic QuayBroomielaw, GlasgowScotlandUKDavid Inf ieldUniversity of Strathclyde16 Richmond StreetGlasgow G1 1XQScotlandUKAnund KillingtveitDepartment of Hydraulic & Environmental EngineeringS. P. Andersens veg 57491 TrondheimNorwayWil KlingEindhoven University of TechnologyDepartment of Electrical EngineeringDen read more..

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    XXXIVList of Contributors Gustav MelinSvebioHolländargatan 17111 60 StockholmSwedenJürgen MergelForschungszentrum Jülich GmbHInstitut für Energie- und KlimaforschungIEK-3: Elektrochemische Verfahrenstechnik52425 JülichGermanyMichael A. MongilloGNS ScienceWairakei Research CentrePrivate Bag 2000Taupo 3352New ZealandFranziska Müller-LangerDBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbHTorgauer Str. 11604347 LeipzigGermanyEike Musall MusallBergische Universität read more..

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    XXXVList of Contributors Martin RobiniusForschungszentrum Jülich GmbHIEK-3 Institut für En. & KlimaforschungWilhelm-Johnen-Str.52428 JülichGermanyCarsten RolleBundesverband der Deutschen Industrie11053 BerlinGermanyIgor SartoriBergische Universität WuppertalFachbereich D – ArchitekturCampus – HaspelHaspeler Str. 2742285 WuppertalGermanyChristian SattlerDeutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.Institut für technische Thermodynamik – SolarforschungLinder Höhe51147 read more..

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    XXXVIList of Contributors Daniela ThränHelmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung – UFZPermoserstr. 1504318 LeipzigGermanyVanessa TietzeForschungszentrum Jülich GmbHIEK-3 Institut für En. & KlimaforschungWilhelm-Johnen-Str.52428 JülichGermanyHirohisa UchidaTokai UniversityDepartment of Nuclear Engineering1117 Kitakaneme, Hiratuka-shiKanagawa 259-1292JapanKees van der LeunECOFYS GERMANYAm Wassermann 3550829 KölnGermanyKarsten VossBergische Universität WuppertalFachbereich D – read more..

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    1Part I Renewable StrategiesTransition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. read more..

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    31 South Korea’s Green Energy StrategiesDeokyu Hwang, Suhyeon Han, and Changmo Sung1.1 IntroductionThe purpose of this chapter is to present an overview of South Korea’s green energy strategies and policy goals set under the National Strategy for Green Growth: (1) govern ment-driven strategies and policy towards green growth; (2) to narrow down the focus and concentrate on R&D for a new growth engine; and (3) to promote renewable energy industries.The Republic of Korea is the world’s read more..

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    41 South Korea’s Green Energy StrategiesTable 1.1 Producers, net exporters, and net importers of crude oil, natural gas, and coal.OilGasCoalNet importersMtNet importersBcmaNet importersMtUnited States 513Japan116China 177China 235Italy 70Japan 175Japan 181Germany 68South Korea 129India 164United States 55India 101South Korea 119South Korea 47Taiwan 66Germany 93Ukraine 44Germany 41Italy 84Turkey 43United Kingdom 32France 64France 41Turkey 24The Netherlands read more..

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    51.2 Government-Driven Strategies and Policiesprotection and securing energy resources. The Korean government has strategically emphasized the development of 27 key national green technologies in areas such as solar and bio-energy technologies, and pursued the target through various policy measures, such as the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), waste energy, and the One Million Green Homes Project.Thus, Korea’s plan is to reduce carbon emissions, improve energy security, create new economic read more..

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    61 South Korea’s Green Energy StrategiesThe National Basic Energy Plan [7] established specific measures to increase energy efficiency, decrease energy intensity, and achieve the target to increase the renewable energy portfolio to 11% by 2030. The government plans on reaching this target by implementing programs such as the Smart Grid, the Two Million Homes strategy (which aims to have two million homes run on a mix of renewable energy resources by the end of 2018) and an 11 year renewable read more..

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    71.3 Focused R&D StrategiesTable 1.3 Prediction of renewable energy demand (thousand toe) and (in parentheses) the expected share of the individual green energy sources (%).Energy20082010201520202030Average annual increase (%)Solar thermal33(0.5)40(0.5)63(0.5)342(2.0)1882(5.7)20.2PV59(0.9)138(1.8)313(2.7)552(3.2)1364(4.1)15.3Wind106(1.7)220(2.9)1084(9.2)2035(11.6)4155(12.6)18.1Bioenergy518(8.1)987(13.02210(18.8)4211(24.0)10357(31.4)14.6Water power946(14.9)972(12.8)1071(9.1)1165(6.6)1447(4.4) read more..

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    81 South Korea’s Green Energy StrategiesFigure 1.2 R&D budget of renewable energy in South Korea.Table 1.4 R&D budget of renewable energy in South Korea.EnergyBudget (million US$)Average annual increase (%)200920102011Solar thermal 5 7 1142PV13015517316Wind 51 51 57 6Bioenergy 57 74 8522Marine 10 17 2867Geothermal 11 8 11 1Fuel cell 92 9812215Waste 54 53 8727Total40445556418Source: GTC-K [9].The commercial and technical feasibility of renewable energy read more..

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    91.4 Promotion of Renewable Energy Industries1.4 Promotion of Renewable Energy IndustriesBased on a consensus among public and private stakeholders, the national strategy for renewable energy envisaged three main directions: (1) a technology roadmap, (2) dissemination and commercialization of technologies, and (3) promotion of export and revenue growth. The Technology Roadmap [3] for green energy placed periodic goals for the industrialization of technology development in three phases: phase I read more..

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    101 South Korea’s Green Energy Strategies1.5 Present and Future of Green Energy in South KoreaAlthough there is still much to be accomplished, South Korea has successfully pushed its green technology initiatives in the last 4 years. With continued support by the government and private sector, South Korea should expect further momentum with the changing economic landscape, as green industries are emerging as a new growth engine. As a consequence, the green industry has been growing rapidly, and read more..

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    11References 5 Ministry of Knowledge Economy (2008) Green Energy Industry Development Strategy. Government Report, Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Seoul. 6 (2010) Basic Act on Low Carbon Green Growth and Related Legislation. 7 Prime Minister’s Office (2008) National Basic Energy Plan (2008–2030). Government report, Prime Minister’s Office, Seoul. 8 Ministry of Knowledge Economy (2008) Renewable Energy R&D Strategy. Government Report, Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Seoul. 9 Green read more..

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    132 Japan’s Energy Policy After the 3.11 Natural and Nuclear Disasters – from the Viewpoint of the R&D of Renewable Energy and Its Current StateHirohisa Uchida2.1 IntroductionOn 11 March 2011, Japan was hit by one of the most powerful earthquakes in recorded history, with a magnitude 9. That earthquake shifted the northeast part of the Japanese islands by 5 m to the east on average. The earthquake induced massive tsunamis, and these natural disasters killed 15 882 people, and forced 324 read more..

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    142 Japan’s Energy Policy After the 3.11 Natural and Nuclear Disastersreactors was performed to reduce internal pressure. However, hydrogen gas seemed to have been produced inside the reactors by radioactive rays and/or by reactions of water vapor with the metal surface of the rods, and hydrogen explosions took place. In addition, radioactively contaminated water leaked out of the reactors. These incidents scattered huge amounts of radioactive substances into the air, forest, soil, ground read more..

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    152.2 Energy Transition in Japan2.2.1 Economic Growth and Energy TransitionFrom the 1960s to the 1970s, Japan experienced rapid economic growth thanks to crude oil at a low price. However, frequent occurrences of regional conflicts in the Middle East steeply raised the oil price from US$ 3 per barrel to more than $ 30 per barrel. Because of these oil problems, Japan started to strengthen its fragile energy supply structure by introducing NP, coal and liquid natural gas (LNG) as alterna-tives to read more..

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    162 Japan’s Energy Policy After the 3.11 Natural and Nuclear DisastersFigure 2.1 Change in the electric power configuration in Japan from 1952 to 2011 [2]. The figures shown are based on the output record of the power companies. The contribution of private generation by enterprises and cogenerations is excluded.Figure 2.2 The power configurations in Japan before and after the FDNPP accident on 11 March 2011. read more..

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    172.3 Diversification of Energy Resource2.2.3 Nuclear Power TechnologyNP generation has been said to be clean, without CO2 emissions, and friendly to the environment in respect of global climate change. These catchphrases accelerated the active use of NP in Japan and other countries. However, the FDNPP accident confronted us with the terrible fact that the accident contaminated the Japanese islands extensively and violently disturbed human life and social systems. This should be seriously read more..

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    182 Japan’s Energy Policy After the 3.11 Natural and Nuclear Disasters2.3.1 Thermal PowerThe Japanese government declared the active introduction and use of thermal power in the realization of the “Green Energy Revolution” (see Section 2.3.2.2) where the dependence on NP is assumed will be reduced until 2030.Fuji Electric and Siemens are constructing a gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) thermal power station in Okinawa, Japan. The energy conversion efficiency of this GTCC is in the range read more..

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    192.3 Diversification of Energy Resourcein 2010 before the FDNPP accident. Up to 2030, the government will introduce RE actively from 25 to 35% in the power configuration, independent of the NP depen-dence, as can be seen from Table 2.1.2.3.2.2 Green Energy RevolutionOn 14 September 2012, the government published an energy policy, the Green Energy Revolution, towards realizing a society independent of NP. In order to realize such a society in the 2030s, the following three regulations are read more..

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    202 Japan’s Energy Policy After the 3.11 Natural and Nuclear DisastersTable 2.3 The Japanese governmental image for the introduction of RE until 2030 (September 2012).Energy(2010)201520202030Power generation (108 kWh)1 1001 4001 8003 000Power plant capacity (104 kW)3 1004 8007 00013 00Power generation without hydropower (108 kWh) 250 500 8001 900Power plant capacity without hydropower (104 kW) 9002 700 4 80010 800Table 2.4 The Japanese governmental image for the introduction of RE in read more..

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    212.3 Diversification of Energy ResourceActive Energy SavingThe government will actively promote energy saving, as shown in Table 2.2. Typical actions are the active introduction of smart meters, a home energy management system (HEMS), a building energy management system (BEMS), the rapid diffusion of next-generation vehicles such as hybrid and fuel cell (FC) vehicles, and the active utilization of waste heat.Rapid Diffusion of REThe government vision for the introduction of RE in 2015, 2020, read more..

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    222 Japan’s Energy Policy After the 3.11 Natural and Nuclear Disasters(20 years), JPY 30.45 kWh–1 for output from 200 to 1000 kWh (20 years), and JPY 35.7 kWh–1 for output below 200 kW (20 years); and geothermal, JPY 27.3 kWh–1 for output over 15 000 kW (15 years) and JPY 42.0 kWh–1 for output below 15 000 kW (15 years). The classification of the FIT of biomass ranges from JPY 13.65 kWh–1 to 40.95 kWh–1 for 20 years according to sources such as biogas, woody materials, and waste read more..

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    232.3 Diversification of Energy ResourceFigure 2.3 A solar–hydrogen power station (Honda) for FCVs at Saitama Prefectural Office, Japan (a). The generated power from FCVs can be used as an AC power source to external systems using an inverter (b).2.3.5 Rechargeable BatteriesRechargeable batteries are used for power peak cut and/or peak shift by power storage, and are essential for the efficient use of unstable RE. Typical rechargeable batteries for power storage are sodium–sulfur (NaS), read more..

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    242 Japan’s Energy Policy After the 3.11 Natural and Nuclear DisastersFigure 2.4 Applications of GIGACELL Ni–MH rechargeable batteries (Kawasaki Heavy Industries) (a) to power storage and control for monorail trains of Tokyo Monorail and (b) to power smoothing of a wind power system in Akita Prefecture: a 1500 kW wind power system combined and controlled with a 102 kWh Ni–MH battery since 2007 by Kawasaki Heavy Industries [11].2.4 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell TechnologyFC technology is at the read more..

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    252.4 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology2.4.2 Mobile UseAutomobile technology is changing from combustion engine drive using oil to electric motor drive using electricity. The number of hybrid or plug-in hybrid vehicles with gasoline engines and electric motors is expanding. On the other hand, auto-mobile companies will also produce electric vehicles (EVs). However, the cruising range of small-sizes EVs is limited to 150 km. Many automobile companies are developing EVs for short-range driving and read more..

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    262 Japan’s Energy Policy After the 3.11 Natural and Nuclear Disasters2.5 ConclusionThe FDNPP accident was a wakeup call to the Japanese people to rethink energy and human security. The Japan Buddhist Federation appealed for “a lifestyle without dependence on nuclear power” on 1 December 2011. A similar appeal was made by the priests of the Eiheiji temple, the centre of Zen meditation. Previously, such official appeals from Buddhist groups have never been made in Japan, indicating that the read more..

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    27References 4 Uchida, H. (2010) Policy and action programs in Japan – hydrogen technology as eco technology, Schriften des Forschungszentrum Jülich, Energy & Environment, Plenary Talk Section, vol. 78 (ed. D. Stolten), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, ISBN 978-3-89336-658-3, pp. 105–115. 5 METI (2012) Feed-in Tariff Scheme in Japan, Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry, Tokyo, http://www.meti.go.jp/english/policy/energy_environment/renewable/pdf/summary201207.pdf (last read more..

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    29Transition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.3 The Impact of Renewable Energy Development on Energy and CO2 Emissions in ChinaXiliang Zhang, Tianyu Qi and Valerie Karplus3.1 IntroductionChina has adopted targets for the deployment of renewable energy through 2020. Compared with many nations, China’s targets are sizable in terms of both total read more..

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    303 The Impact of Renewable Energy Development on Energy and CO2 Emissions in Chinacould play in achieving China’s low-carbon development, we assess the impact of renewable energy targets.This analysis is organized as follows. First, we discuss in detail recent develop-ments in China’s energy and climate policy, the expected contribution of renewable energy and related policies, and the status of renewable energy development in China. Second, we describe the model used in this analysis, the read more..

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    313.3 Data and CGEM Model Description3.2.2 Renewable Electricity TargetsBroad targets for energy and carbon intensity, nonfossil energy, and energy effi-ciency are typically implemented by directly assigning responsibility for target im-plementation at the sectoral, industry, or company level. Renewable energy quotas belong to the category of measures expected to support the achievement of the government’s overall carbon intensity and nonfossil energy goals. China’s National Renewable Energy read more..

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    323 The Impact of Renewable Energy Development on Energy and CO2 Emissions in China Table 3.1 Sectors and regions in the China-in-Global Energy Model (CGEM).SectorDescriptionRegionAdditional descriptionCropsCropsChinaChinese mainlandForestForestUnited StatesLivestockLivestockCanadaCoalMining and agglomeration of hard coal, lignite and peatJapanOilExtraction of petroleumSouth KoreaGasExtraction of natural gasDeveloped AsiaHong Kong, Taiwan, SingaporePetroleum and cokeRefined oil and petrochemical read more..

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    333.3 Data and CGEM Model DescriptionSectorDescriptionRegionAdditional descriptionOther industriesOther industriesRussiaTransportation servicesWater, air, and land Transport, pipeline transportRest of EuropeAlbania, Croatia, Belarus, Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, rest of EuropeOther serviceCommunication, finance, public service, dwellings, and other servicesBrazilLatin AmericaBrazilRest of Latin American Countries3.3.1 Model DataThe CGEM is a read more..

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    343 The Impact of Renewable Energy Development on Energy and CO2 Emissions in ChinaElectricity generated from wind, solar, and biomass is treated as an imperfect substitute for other sources of electricity due to their intermittency. The final five technologies – NGCC, NGCC with CCS, IGCC, IGCC with CCS, and advanced nuclear – all produce perfect substitutes for electricity output.Wind, solar, and biomass electricity have similar production structures, as shown in Figure 3.2. As they produce read more..

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    353.4 Scenario DescriptionTo specify the production cost of these new technologies, we set input shares for each technology for each region. This evaluation is based on demonstration project information or expert elicitations [7, 8]. A markup factor captures how much more expensive the new technologies are compared with traditional fossil technologies. All inputs to advanced technologies are multiplied by this markup factor. For electricity technologies and biofuels, shown later in Table 3.6, we read more..

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    363 The Impact of Renewable Energy Development on Energy and CO2 Emissions in ChinaTable 3.4 Annualized growth rate assumptions for the low, medium, and high GDP scenarios.ScenarioAnnualized growth rate assumption (%)a2007–20102010–20152015–20202020–20252025–20302030–20352035–20402040–20452045–2050Low9.37.55.74.44.02.92.72.42.4Medium9.37.57.35.75.23.93.43.22.9High9.37.59.07.46.84.72.81.81.2a Annualized growth rate assumptions are set for the previous 5 years, unless specified read more..

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    373.4 Scenario DescriptionAfter 2035, we adjust the growth rate downwards, consistent with the developed state of the Chinese economy by that point. Using these growth rate assumptions produces the GDP trajectories and energy consumption patterns in the high, medium, and low cases as shown in Figure 3.3 and Figure 3.4.3.4.2 Current Policy AssumptionsWe then run the low, medium, and high growth scenarios assuming Current Policy for renewable energy through 2020 in China, which is described in read more..

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    383 The Impact of Renewable Energy Development on Energy and CO2 Emissions in ChinaFigure 3.5 Renewable energy generation target by type and relative to total renewable generation in the No Policy scenario (dashed black line).3.4.3 Cost and Availability Assumptions for Energy TechnologiesWe assume that all three renewable energy technologies are available in the base year 2007 at a higher cost relative to fossil generation sources. Each generation type has an associated cost markup as shown in read more..

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    393.5 Resultsthat effectively reduce the future cost of each renewable energy type. In our six main scenarios we assume that the markup on renewable energy relative to conventional fossil generation remains constant over time. However, we also include a scenario in which the subsidized development of renewable energy results in lower costs. In this scenario, the wind markup is 10% (compared with 20%), solar 50% (compared with 200%), and biomass 30% (compared with 60%).Both No Policy and Current read more..

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    403 The Impact of Renewable Energy Development on Energy and CO2 Emissions in Chinaas subsides are phased out between 2020 and 2030, the total generation from renewable energy begins to fall, and its contribution into the future depends on its cost competitiveness relative to other generation types.Figure 3.6 compares the renewable electricity generation and its share of total electricity use in 2010, 2020, 2030, and 2050. The target is met in both cases through 2020. After 2020, under slower read more..

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    413.5 Resultswith an “idealized” reduction that assumes that all new renewable energy generation displaces fossil fuel generation and that there is no incentive to increase the use of carbon-intensive fuels in other sectors as a result of displacing them from electricity.We compute the CO2 emissions reduction achieved in the medium growth case by comparing the No Policy and Current Policy scenarios for each. We find that the renewable electricity target has the effect of lowering emissions read more..

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    423 The Impact of Renewable Energy Development on Energy and CO2 Emissions in Chinaprices for fossil generation types remain lower under the Current Policy scenario for much of the next half century, which provides an incentive to increase their use. The result suggests that once dynamics in the broader economic–energy system are taken into account, the total CO2 reduction predicted due to the deployment of renewable is significantly smaller than the ideal reduction.3.5.3 Impact of a Cost read more..

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    433.5 ResultsHowever, it is important to realize that the leakage effects associated with the sup-ply-side cost shock are also more pronounced. This result is consistent with the fact that in the Current Policy + low cost scenario we find that in 2050 the electricity price is 4% lower and the coal price is 10% lower relative to the Current Policy scenario. Table 3.8 Impact on renewable energy generation and CO2 emissions intensity reductions (No Policy, Current Policy, and Current Policy + low read more..

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    443 The Impact of Renewable Energy Development on Energy and CO2 Emissions in China3.6 ConclusionChina’s renewable energy policy is currently focused on increasing the installed capacity of wind, solar, and biomass electricity and increasing its contribution to total generation. When the current policy is simulated in the CGEM model, we find that the policy does have the effect of increasing the renewable electricity generation from 2010 to 2020 in both absolute (from 92 to 629 TWh) and read more..

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    45References contribution to generation, the greater is the downward pressure on fossil fuel prices, and the greater are the leakage effects. Policymakers would be well served to consider the impact of these offsetting effects as they design complementary or alternative policies to bring renewable energy into the generation mix. One such approach would be to include electricity and other sectors under a cap-and-trade system for CO2 emissions, an approach that is already being piloted on a read more..

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    463 The Impact of Renewable Energy Development on Energy and CO2 Emissions in ChinaScience and Policy of Global Change, Massachusettets Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. 8 Paltsev, S., Reilly, J. M., Jacoby, H. D., Eckaus, R. S., McFarland, J., Sarofim, M., and Babiker, M. H. (2005) The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) Model: Version 4, Report No. 125, MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. 9 read more..

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    474 The Scottish Government’s Electricity Generation Policy StatementColin Imrie4.1 IntroductionThis chapter provides a composite of several documents, primarily the Electricity Generation Policy Statement [1], but also the Energy in Scotland: a Compendium of Scottish Energy Statistics and Information [2] document, and the ISLES Executive Summary [3].4.2 OverviewScotland can achieve its target of meeting the country’s electricity needs from re-newables as well as more from other sources by read more..

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    484 The Scottish Government’s Electricity Generation Policy StatementFigure 4.1 Percentage of electricity generated by fuel, 2010. Source: DECC, Coal includes a small amount of non-renewable waste, Energy Trends, December 2011, www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/statistics/publications/trends/trends.aspx.The Scottish Government aims to develop an electricity generation mix built around four key principles: a secure source of electricity supply; an affordable cost to customers; decarbonized by read more..

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    494.3 Executive Summary4. The Scottish Government’s policy on electricity generation is that Scotland’s generation mix should deliver: a secure source of electricity supply; at an affordable cost to consumers; that can be largely decarbonized by 2030; and that achieves the greatest possible economic benefit and competitive advantage for Scotland, including opportunities for community ownership and community benefits.5. The draft EGPS is constructed around a number of relevant targets and read more..

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    504 The Scottish Government’s Electricity Generation Policy Statement Nuclear – The draft EGPS confirms that nuclear energy will be phased out in Scotland over time, with no new nuclear build taking place in Scotland. This does not preclude extending the operating life of Scotland’s existing nuclear stations to help maintain security of supply over the next decade while the transition to renewables and cleaner thermal generation takes place. Bioenergy – Confirmation that biomass should read more..

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    514.3 Executive Summarybe achieved whatever constitutional changes may occur over the next few years. Scotland is, and will remain, a net exporter of electricity owing to renewable deployment. For example, the UK targets to produce 15% of all energy and an estimated 30% of electricity from renewable sources by 2020 will require connection to Scotland’s vast energy resource and we will continue to work to connect Scotland to an ever more integrated UK and EU market. Indeed, the countries of the read more..

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    524 The Scottish Government’s Electricity Generation Policy StatementFigure 4.3 Scottish final energy consumption. Source: DECC, Total Final Energy Consumption at Sub-National Level, www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/statistics/energy_stats/regional/total_final/total_final.aspx.12. The key actions relating to energy efficiency include to: improve the energy efficiency of all our housing stock to meet the demands of the future; establish a single energy and resource efficiency service for Scottish read more..

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    534.3 Executive SummaryFigure 4.4 Installed capacity of renewable energy in Scotland. Source: DECC, Energy Trends, December 2011, www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/statistics/publications/trends/trends.aspx.15. We believe that Scotland has the capability and the opportunity to generate a level of electricity from renewables by 2020 that would be the equivalent of 100% of Scotland’s gross electricity consumption. We have set out our new target to reflect this ambition. Achieving the target will read more..

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    544 The Scottish Government’s Electricity Generation Policy StatementFigure 4.5 Renewable energy activity in Scottish waters. read more..

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    554.3 Executive Summaryprogressively fitted with CCS would satisfy security of supply concerns and, together with renewable energy, deliver large amounts of electricity exports. This generation portfolio would be consistent with our climate change targets and reporting under the net Scottish emissions account18. The introduction of the 300 MWe CCS requirement, the UK Government’s Carbon Price Floor, and its proposals for an Emissions Performance Standard mean that thermal plants will – read more..

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    564 The Scottish Government’s Electricity Generation Policy Statement From 9 November 2009, any application for a new coal plant in Scotland will need to demonstrate CCS on a minimum of 300 MW (net) of capacity from their first day of their operation. Further new builds from 2020 will be expected to have full CCS from their first day of operation. A “rolling review” of the technical and economic viability of CCS will take place by 2018, looking specifically at retro-fitting CCS to existing read more..

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    574.3 Executive Summaryoperating life of Scotland’s existing nuclear stations to help maintain security of supply over the next decade while the transition to renewables and cleaner thermal generation takes place.Thermal Generation – Bioenergy28. Estimates suggest that heat accounts for around 50% of the current total energy demand in Scotland. We have placed a high priority on achieving our target of 11% of heat demand to be sourced from renewables by 2020 (the current level of renewable read more..

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    584 The Scottish Government’s Electricity Generation Policy Statement Use of available heat in heat-only and CHP schemes achieves 80–90% energy efficiency for the former and 50–70% for the latter, compared with 30% in electricity-only schemes. Given the limited resource, we have to ensure that it is used as efficiently as possible. Concentrating biomass use in areas which are off gas-grid will deliver the highest carbon savings (given that in most cases it will be displacing oil or coal), read more..

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    594.3 Executive Summary33. However, the research also highlights that the main challenges to heat recovery are economic, and that there is no easy solution to make commercial investment attractive. Direct financial incentives from the public sector were shown to be an expensive and impractical route to support, whereas accelerating the connec-tion of heat loads offers a more cost-effective route to encourage commercial deployment.34. The report contains a number of recommendations aimed at read more..

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    604 The Scottish Government’s Electricity Generation Policy Statement potential savings in greenhouse gas emissions; and the potential for storage to provide “black start” capacity.38. We conducted an Energy Storage and Management Study [11] in 2010. It did not include a scenario which exactly matched our 100% renewable electricity target, although it did find that, in the event of renewable generation reaching 120% of demand, there could be a role for storage from 2020 onwards, even with read more..

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    614.3 Executive SummaryThe Regulatory Challenge44. We support electricity regulatory frameworks that accelerate renewable deploy-ment, improve grid access, and remove barriers to grid connection and use. To address the unacceptable waiting times for renewable projects waiting for a grid connection, the Scottish Government worked with the UK Government to support a “connect and manage” approach to give developers more reasonable connection dates ahead of reinforcement work to the transmission read more..

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    624 The Scottish Government’s Electricity Generation Policy Statementproject is an important milestone in understanding this work. It shows that such a network is technologically feasible and economically viable with a supportive regulatory framework, coordinated policy, and political will. It raises issues of EU relevance and which will require EU-wide solutions.51. ISLES is a good forensic assessment of the opportunities and challenges around an offshore grid and will help inform the work of read more..

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    634.3 Executive SummaryKey Points There are no technological barriers to the development of an ISLES network. There is sufficient onshore network capacity in the United Kingdom for the connection of ISLES on the scale and within the timeframe envisaged by 2020. Two zones are proposed for offshore development: Northern ISLES (2.8 GW resource is realistic) and Southern ISLES (3.4 GW is achievable). There are no significant environmental constraints that cannot be adequately mitigated. It presents read more..

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    644 The Scottish Government’s Electricity Generation Policy StatementFigure 4.7 Post-2020 North Sea grid.56. The Scottish Government has also been represented on the Adamowitsch Working Group and its follow-up body on North Sea grid connections. This is a unique forum for sharing information and learning about projects, develop-ments, and studies across member states, helping deepen collective knowledge of offshore development, and promoting Scotland’s potentially critical role in ensuring read more..

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    65References References 1 Scottish Government (2012) Electricity Generation Policy Statement, http://scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/EGPS2012/DraftEPGS2012 (last accessed 5 January 2013). 2 Scottish Government (2012) Energy in Scotland 2012 Statistical Compendium, http://scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/EGPS2012/2012StatisticalCompendium (last accessed 5 January 2013). 3 Scottish Government (2011) ISLES Executive Summary (Draft), read more..

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    67Transition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.5 Transition to Renewables as a Challenge for the Industry – the German Energiewende from an Industry PerspectiveCarsten Rolle, Dennis Rendschmidt5.1 IntroductionThe German government decided to change the German energy system to a more sustainable one. Based on a completely new energy concept read more..

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    685 Transition to Renewables as a Challenge for the IndustryFigure 5.1 Current status of German Energiewende from industry perspective [1].Evaluating the current status of the Energiewende on its way to a successful im-plementation is reasonable on five dimensions; based on the three objectives of energy policy (supply security, environmental sustainability and competitiveness) we added Public Acceptance (as it is a crucial support factor) and Innovation (as it is a main driver for the read more..

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    695.3 Industry view: opportunities and challengesdata availability is insufficient for a sound analysis, which is essential a precise implementation.5.3 Industry view: opportunities and challengesFor German industry players the Energiewende holds both many challenges but also enormous opportunities. Particularly additional future revenue potentials are counting for credit postings. German companies may well be able to benefit from building up knowhow today and generating profits from an read more..

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    705 Transition to Renewables as a Challenge for the IndustryFigure 5.3 Necessary investments into the German electricity system [2].Besides industrial effects the Energiewende also means a higher energy indepen-dence for Germany and less greenhouse gas emissions. Fuel imports will decrease by 2% per year and CO2 emissions will be reduced almost by half until 2030.Implementing the Energiewende also requires considerable investments in the German energy system. In order to achieve all targets a read more..

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    715.3 Industry view: opportunities and challengesgets achieved, but with a stable electricity consumption. Compared to scenario 1 we modeled a more excessive development of renewables and storage capacities. Generation capacities in scenario 4 are arranged to secure extensive CO2-reduction limiting the increase of cost to 1 €ct per kilowatt-hour compared to a continued fossil system. Therefore we assume less PV and wind offshore capacities but expanded usage of conventional generation read more..

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    725 Transition to Renewables as a Challenge for the Industryfor households than for commercial customers, as wholesale prices have a higher impact on commercial prices. Electricity is a crucial input factor for manufactur-ing – especially for energy-intense industries (e.g. metals, chemicals). Therefore prices for electricity are a major driver of competitiveness. German commercial electricity prices compared to other countries have significantly increased over the last decade (3.6% p.a.) – read more..

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    735.4 The way ahead5.4 The way aheadTaking into consideration both challenges and opportunities the Energiewende holds for German enterprises some next steps have to be taken in order to minimize risk and exploit chances. From an industry perspective, amongst others four crucial points have to be tackled in the near future to get the Energiewende on the next level of implementation:1. Foster and accelerate extension of electricity grid: In order to adjust the fluctuations of renewable energies read more..

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    745 Transition to Renewables as a Challenge for the Industrybe implemented in real terms. The realization of ambitious political objectives is cost-intensive. Therefore cost efficiency has to be a future criterion when setting these objectives and shaping the respective instruments. This means energy policy, climate policy and environmental policies have to be coordinated and evaluated regarding their cost related to climate protection. At the same time targets on the European level have to be read more..

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    75Transition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.6 The Decreasing Market Value of Variable Renewables: Integration Options and Deadlocks1)Lion Hirth and Falko Ueckerdt6.1 The Decreasing Market Value of Variable RenewablesElectricity generation from renewables has been growing rapidly in recent years, driven by technological progress, economies of read more..

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    766 The Decreasing Market Value of Variable Renewables: Integration Options and Deadlocks Figure 6.1 The system base price and the market value of wind power. The difference between these two can be decomposed into profile, balancing, and grid-related costs. The primary resource is bound to certain locations. Transmission constraints cause electricity to be a heterogeneous good across space. Hence the value of electricity depends on where it is generated. Since good wind sites are often located read more..

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    776.2 Mechanisms and QuantificationWe use the term “integration options” as an umbrella term that encompasses all measures that help to mitigate the value drop. Although the principle mechanisms that we discuss apply for all power systems, most examples are taken from the European context.6.2 Mechanisms and Quantif icationThis section discusses the economic mechanisms and the underlying technologi-cal constraints that cause the market value to decrease. We complement that with read more..

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    786 The Decreasing Market Value of Variable Renewables: Integration Options and DeadlocksFigure 6.3 The three inherent properties of VRE, the corresponding costs, and possibilities for quantification from model and market data. TSO = Transmission System Operator; ISO = Independent System Operator.6.2.1 Prof ile CostsWind and solar power have variable costs of close to zero. Power is produced when the wind is blowing and the sun is shining – independently of the power price. In times of high read more..

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    796.2 Mechanisms and QuantificationDuring windy and sunny hours the residual load curve is shifted to the left and the equilibrium price is reduced, which we call the “merit-order effect” (Figure 6.6). The more capacity is installed, the larger the price drop will be. This implies that the market value of VRE falls with higher penetration (Figure 6.7).4)4) In economic terms, the equilibrium price clears the market by equalizing demand and supply. This mechanism is a universal principle and read more..

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    806 The Decreasing Market Value of Variable Renewables: Integration Options and Deadlocks Figure 6.6 Merit-order effect during a windy hour: VRE in-feed reduces the equilibrium price (numbers are illustrative). This is the case in thermal5) power systems. CCGT = combined-cycle gas turbine; OCGT = open-cycle gas turbine; CHP = combined heat and power. Figure 6.7 The wind value factor. The positive seasonal correlation increases the value of wind at low penetration rate. The merit-order effect read more..

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    816.2 Mechanisms and Quantification Table 6.1 Utilization of the residual generation capacity (RES) with increasing share of VRE.ParameterVRE share (% of consumption)No RES10% RES20% RES30% RES40% RES50% RESPeak residual load (GWthermal)807473737271Residual generation (TWhresidual)489440391342293244Utilization of residual capacity [in FLH (full load hours)]70% (6100)68% (6000)61% (5300)54% (4700)47% (4100)39% (3500)Average utilization effect (€ MWhVRE–1)a01020243039a Assuming €80 read more..

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    826 The Decreasing Market Value of Variable Renewables: Integration Options and DeadlocksFigure 6.8 Wind value factors as reported in the literature. For a list of references, see [8].Figure 6.9 Wind value factors as estimated with the energy system model EMMA [7]. The benchmark runs are best-guess parameter assumptions. read more..

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    836.2 Mechanisms and Quantification6.2.2 Balancing CostsWind speeds and solar radiation are fundamentally stochastic processes, hence wind and solar predictability will always be limited. Realized VRE generation deviates from day-ahead forecasts. Balancing costs arise because balancing these forecast errors is costly. Those cost are caused by the capital costs of idle stand-by reserves, wear and tear due to cycling and ramping, and part-load efficiency losses.Grubb [10] estimated balancing costs read more..

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    846 The Decreasing Market Value of Variable Renewables: Integration Options and Deadlockslatter seeming to attract much more attention. Within profile costs, the utilization effect is more important than the flexibility effect.An important consequence of the decreasing market value is that it is unlikely that wind and solar power will become competitive if deployed on a large scale. However, there are a multitude of options that increase the market value of VRE.6.3 Integration OptionsThe read more..

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    856.3 Integration Options Table 6.2 A taxonomy of integration options.Prof ile costsBalancing costsGrid-related costsChallengeVariability: residual load becomes more unevenly distributed and more volatileUncertainty: forecast errors increase in absolute termsLocational specificity: geographical distance between generation and consumption increasesEconomic impact (cost driver)Reduced capital utilization (utilization effect) and more ramping and cycling of plants (flexibility effect)Reservation read more..

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    866 The Decreasing Market Value of Variable Renewables: Integration Options and DeadlocksFigure 6.10 The cost-optimal distribution of thermal capacity without VRE and at a VRE share of 50% [8].A wide range of options exist to increase the utilization of capital in thermal plants and the rest of the power system: electricity storage demand response market integration of different thermal power systems market integration of thermal and hydro power systems options at the electricity–heat read more..

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    876.3 Integration OptionsHowever, weather systems in Europe typically have a size of 1000–1500 km, such that transmission grids have to cover fairly long distances for effective smoothing. For example, model results [7] indicate that doubling the interconnector capacity between north-western European countries (not including Nordic) would increase the value of wind by less than €1 MWh–1 at a penetration rate of 30%. The impact on solar power is even less, since solar generation is better read more..

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    886 The Decreasing Market Value of Variable Renewables: Integration Options and DeadlocksFigure 6.11 Some integration options modeled in EMMA. The benchmark value is the same as in Figure 6.2. A flexible provision of ancillary services (AS) or district heating in addition to increasing interconnector (NTC) or storage capacity increases the market value. Not allowing the capital stock to adjust dramatically reduces the value.Some have argued that because of the decreasing VRE market value, the read more..

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    896.3 Integration Optionsa single price balancing settlement system with marginal pricing provides efficient incentives.Existing flexibility resources that can provide balancing services at low costs should be activated by opening the respective markets. Liquid intra-day markets with short gate-closure times (1 h and less) and short contract durations (15 min and less) allow VRE generators to use continuously improving weather forecasts. Intra-day markets could replace day-ahead auctions as the read more..

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    906 The Decreasing Market Value of Variable Renewables: Integration Options and Deadlocks6.4 ConclusionThis chapter has discussed the decreasing market value of wind and solar power as a barrier for the transition to renewable energy systems. VRE sources feature three distinct properties, variability, uncertainty, and locational specificity. These characteristics cause the market value of electricity from wind and solar power to decrease with higher penetration. Equivalently, one can say that read more..

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    91References Connected Solar Electric Technologies, a Review of Methods, NASA STI/Recon Technical Report N, vol. 82, p. 30737.10 Grubb, M. J. (1991) Value of variable sources on power systems, in Generation, Transmission and Distribution, IEE Pro-ceedings C, 1991, vol. 138, pp. 149–165.11 Hirst, E. and Hild, J. (2004) The value of wind energy as a function of wind capacity. Electr. J., 17 (6), 11–20.12 Lamont, A. D. (2008) Assessing the long-term system value of intermittent electric read more..

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    926 The Decreasing Market Value of Variable Renewables: Integration Options and Deadlocks31 Winkler, J. and Altmann, M. (2012) Market designs for a completely renewable power sector. Z. Energiewirtsch., 36 (2), 77–92.32 Vandezande, L., Meeus, L., Belmans, R., Saguan, M., and Glachant, J.-M. (2010) Well-functioning balancing markets: a prerequisite for wind power integration. Energy Policy, 38 (7), 3146–3154.33 Hirth, L. and Ziegenhagen, I. (2013) Control power and variable renewables: a read more..

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    93Transition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.7 Transition to a Fully Sustainable Global Energy SystemYvonne Y. Deng, Kornelis Blok, Kees van der Leun, and Carsten Petersdorff7.1 IntroductionThe last 200 years have witnessed an incredible increase in energy use worldwide. In recent decades, it has become clear that the way in which this energy read more..

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    947 Transition to a Fully Sustainable Global Energy System7.2 MethodologyEnergy demand is the product of the volume of the activity requiring the energy (e.g., travel or industrial produc-tion) and the energy intensity per unit of activity (e.g., energy used per volume of travel):EtA t I t (7.1)where E(t) is the total energy demand at a given time, A(t) is the energy-requiring activity at that time, and I(t) is the energy intensity of the activity at that time.This energy scenario forecasts read more..

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    957.2 Methodologyc. The resulting energy demand is summed up by carrier (electricity, fuel, heat) and calibrated against International Energy Agency (IEA) energy statistics at sector-carrier level.2. Future supply scenario:a. The potential for supply of energy is estimated by energy carrier.b. Demand and supply are balanced in each time period according to the following prioritization:i. Renewables from sources other than biomass (electricity and local heat) are used first, if available.ii. read more..

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    967 Transition to a Fully Sustainable Global Energy SystemWe have chosen to distinguish between energy demand in industry, buildings, and transport. These three sectors cover ~85% of total energy use and were studied in detail; they are congruent with the sectors in the IEA statistics, which form the basis of this work. The remaining sectors (e.g., agriculture, fishing) are included in this study, but were not examined separately.The definition of demand side subsectors as used in this scenario read more..

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    977.3 Results – Demand Side7.3 Results – Demand SideAn understanding of our energy system begins with a detailed look at the demand for energy: Where is energy used? In what form and with what efficiency? Which functions does this energy deliver? Can this function be delivered differently?A typical example to illustrate this approach is our energy use in buildings. A large fraction of our total energy demand, especially in cooler climates, comes from the residential built environment. The read more..

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    987 Transition to a Fully Sustainable Global Energy Systemend and advances in material efficiency at the producer’s end, for example, building cars with lighter frames. Note that production increasingly comes from recycling disused feedstock: stocks of energy-intensive materials have grown over the past decades. As large parts of the stock reach the end of their life, it is expected that recycling will increase as the availability of recoverable materials increases. This might result in a read more..

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    997.3 Results – Demand SideFigure 7.3 Evolution of energy intensity in industry (A sectors).B SectorsFor the B sectors, an annual efficiency improvement of 2% was assumed, which may be obtained through improved process optimization, more efficient energy supply, improved efficiency in motor-driven systems and lighting, and also sector-specific measures.7.3.1.3 Industry – Future Energy DemandFigure 7.4 shows how total industrial energy demand would develop, resulting from the evolution of read more..

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    1007 Transition to a Fully Sustainable Global Energy SystemFigure 7.4 Evolution of energy demand in industry by energy carrier.Figure 7.5 Evolution of indexed absolute activity levels in buildings. read more..

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    1017.3 Results – Demand Side2. Assumptions on typical, historical demolition rates are then used to divide the total area into floor area that exists today (pre-2005 stock) and floor area yet to be built (new stock).For the residential buildings sector, this results in a decrease of existing building stock by ~10% to 2050, and an increase in newly built floor area of ~110% of the existing stock. This means that more than half the building stock in 2050 will have been built after 2005 and the read more..

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    1027 Transition to a Fully Sustainable Global Energy SystemFigure 7.6 Evolution of energy intensity in buildings.2. In these building types, most of the heat demand is met by passive solar (radiation through windows) and internal gains (from people and appliances). Any residual heat demand is assumed to be met by renewable energy systems in the form of solar thermal installations and heat pumps [11]. This building type only requires electric energy [24].3. The near zero-energy concept is also read more..

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    1037.3 Results – Demand Sideuse is expected. These results are shown in Figure 7.7. Note that as in Figure 7.6, for heat pumps this figure does not show the heat provided, but the electricity required to drive the pump.7.3.3 Transport7.3.3.1 Transport – Future ActivityThis scenario uses an established BAU transport activity forecast for traffic volumes [5] (except shipping), with a marked increase in worldwide travel volumes, in ac-cordance with population and GDP projections. Shipping read more..

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    1047 Transition to a Fully Sustainable Global Energy System Table 7.3 Annual transport activity including modal shifts.ModeUnitsaBAU 2000BAU 2050Scenario 2050Passenger – PTWsbn pkm 2.5 6.2 8.4Passenger – car, citybn pkm 5.514.1 7.2Passenger – car, non-citybn pkm 9.921.413.6Passenger – bus + coachbn pkm 9.2 9.113.0Passenger – railbn pkm 2.0 6.016.2Passenger – airplanebn pkm 3.416.912.3Freight – truckbn tkm 7.927.118.7Freight – railbn tkm 6.518.827.3Freight – air read more..

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    1057.3 Results – Demand SideThe scenario postulates substantial modal shifts away from inefficient individual road and aviation modes and towards the more efficient rail and shared road modes (see Figure 7.8).7.3.3.2 Transport – Future IntensityThe following steps ensure that the scenario employs the most efficient transport modes, and preferably modes that are suitable for a high share of renewable energy:1. Move to efficient technologies and modes of employment, for example, trucks with read more..

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    1067 Transition to a Fully Sustainable Global Energy SystemTable 7.4 summarizes the most noteworthy fuel shift assumptions: A complete shift to plug-in hybrids and/or electric vehicles as the primary tech-nology choice for light-duty vehicles. Long-distance trucks undergoing large efficiency improvements due to improved material choice, engine technology, and aerodynamics (no substantial electrifi-cation due to the prohibitive size and weight of batteries required with current technology). Only read more..

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    1077.3 Results – Demand Side7.3.3.3 Transport – Future Energy DemandThe assumptions on activity evolution with modal shift and on energy intensity evolution with fuel shift lead to the overall energy demand evolution in the transport sector shown in Figure 7.10. Of the total energy saving in comparison with BAU in 2050, more than 80% is due to efficiency and electrification, the rest to modal shifts.Figure 7.10 Evolution of energy demand in transport by energy carrier.7.3.4 Demand Sector read more..

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    1087 Transition to a Fully Sustainable Global Energy System Table 7.5 Global energy demand in all sectors, split by energy carrier.Energy carrierEnergy demand (EJ a–1)200020102020203020402050Electricity 45.7 60.0 71.9 85.7103.5127.4Heat – high T 30.8 36.7 40.5 38.1 33.1 32.9Heat – low T 77.7 86.0 87.4 67.8 47.4 24.1Fuel – road/rail 69.2 80.9 86.3 66.4 39.3 26.5Fuel – shipping 8.2 9.4 9.7 8.6 7.3 7.2Fuel – aviation 8.8 12.3 15.6 16.3 15.6 read more..

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    1097.4 Results – Supply SideFigure 7.11 Global deployment potential (a) and realizable potential (b) of renewable energy sources (excluding bioenergy).7.4.1.1 WindThe scenario includes power generation from both onshore and offshore wind. The growth of onshore wind power has been remarkable in the last decade, with annual growth rates exceeding 25% in most years. Several offshore wind parks are already in operation worldwide and many more are currently in planning phases.For offshore wind read more..

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    1107 Transition to a Fully Sustainable Global Energy System7.4.1.3 SunThe largest realizable technical potential for renewable power and heat generation is from direct solar energy. This energy scenario includes four different sources of solar energy: solar power from photovoltaics (PV); concentrating solar power (CSP); concentrating solar high-temperature heat for industry (CSH); (solar thermal low-temperature heat for buildings – this is treated in Section 7.3.2).PV is a well-established read more..

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    1117.4 Results – Supply Side Bioenergy requires a more thorough analytical framework to analyze sustainabil-ity, as cultivation, processing, and use of biomass have a range of interconnected sustainability issues. Bioenergy encompasses energy supply for a multitude of energy carrier types using a multitude of different energy sources. Therefore, a detailed framework of different possible conversion routes is needed.For a full treatment of the bioenergy approach in this scenario, the reader is read more..

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    1127 Transition to a Fully Sustainable Global Energy SystemFigure 7.12 Global energy supply in the scenario, split by source. * Complementary fellings include the sustainable share of traditional biomass use.7.5 DiscussionThe energy scenario we have presented combines the most ambitious efficiency drive on the demand side with strong growth of renewable source options on the supply side to reach a fully sustainable global energy system by 2050. Both are important: the transition cannot be read more..

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    1137.5 Discussion storage, in the form of pumped hydro, centralized hydrogen storage, battery and heat storage; conversion of excess renewable electricity to hydrogen for use as a fuel in specific applications.7.5.2 The Need for PolicyThis energy scenario presents a radical departure from our current system of energy use. It is clear that current policies would not be able to deliver on this scenario. Requirements for additional policies include objectives for both public and private read more..

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    1147 Transition to a Fully Sustainable Global Energy SystemAnother important assumption is the postulated economic growth. We have applied medium growth rates; alternative rates could result in higher or lower overall energy demand growth.Whether a higher energy demand would result in a lower renewable energy share in 2050 depends on the availability of a suitable energy supply. We have already seen that for some energy carriers, e.g. supply-driven electricity, large contingencies exist by 2050, read more..

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    115References References 1 International Energy Agency (2009) Statistics and Balances. World Energy Balances, OECD and non-OECD country databases, www.iea.org/stats/index.asp. 2 World Wide Fund for Nature, Ecofys, Office for Metropolitan Architecture (2011) The Energy Report: 100% Renewable Energy by 2050, WWF International. Gland. 3 Deng, Y. Y., Blok, K., and van der Leun, K. (2012) Transition to a fully sustainable global energy system. Energy Strategy Rev., 1 (2), 109–121. 4 read more..

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    1167 Transition to a Fully Sustainable Global Energy System18 Wesselink, B. and Deng, Y. Y. (2009) Sectoral Emission Reduction Potentials and Economic Costs for Climate Change (SERPEC-CC), European Commission DG-RTD and DG-ENV, http://www.ecofys.com/en/publication/133 (last accessed 5 January 2013). 19 Schimschar, S., Blok, K., Boermans, T., and Hermelink, A. (2011) Germany’s path towards nearly zero-energy buildings – enabling the greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the building stock. read more..

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    117References Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Ch. 5, p. 348. 38 Global Wind Energy Council (2007) Global Wind Report 2007, GWEC, Brussels. 39 Ecofys (2008) Internal Assessment, Ecofys, Utrecht. 40 Hoogwijk, M. and Graus, W. (2008) Global Potential of Renewable Energy Sources: a Literature Assessment, Ecofys, Utrecht.41 Leutz, R., Ackermann, T., Suzuki, A., Akisawa, A., and Kashiwagi, T. (2001) Technical offshore wind energy potentials around the globe, presented at the European read more..

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    1187 Transition to a Fully Sustainable Global Energy System Appendix Global energy provided by source and year (final EJ a–1).Source200020102020203020402050Total electricity45.760.071.985.7103.5127.4Wind power: on-shore0.21.46.714.322.025.3Wind power: off-shore0.00.00.51.33.46.7Wave and tidal0.00.00.00.10.30.9Photovoltaic solar0.00.10.76.516.937.0Concentrated solar: read more..

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    1198 The Transition to Renewable Energy Systems – On the Way to a Comprehensive Transition ConceptUwe Schneidewind, Karoline Augenstein, and Hanna Scheck8.1 Why Is There a Need for Change? – The World in the Age of the AnthropoceneFor thousands of years, humanity has had to adapt to its natural surroundings. Human beings had to wrest space and opportunities from an often inhospitable Nature, in order to secure their well-being. Over the past 5000 years, this has time and again led to cases read more..

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    1208 The Transition to Renewable Energy Systems – On the Way to a Comprehensive Transition ConceptFigure 8.1 Planetary boundaries [3].Figure 8.1 provides an overview of central results of the study by Rockström et al. [3]. Two findings are of major importance:1. In more than one area, planetary boundaries have already been exceeded. Apart from climate change, this is the case with regard to the loss of biodiversity and with regard to the ecological impact of global nitrogen cycles, especially read more..

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    1218.2 A Transition to What?in addition to economic issues of distribution, and thus addressing questions of a globally fair prosperity [4, 5].Continuing along established development pathways (increasing prosperity at consistent land use-, resource, and carbon intensity) will not allow for such a transition. This is why the German Advisory Council on Global Change called for a “Great Transformation” in its Flagship Report 2011 [6].It is the aim of this chapter to help gain a better read more..

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    1228 The Transition to Renewable Energy Systems – On the Way to a Comprehensive Transition Concept8.3 Introducing the Concept of “Transformative Literacy”The term “literacy” describes the ability to read and write, and thus to understand and take part in different forms of communication. It also implies an ability to un-derstand and make use of cultural and symbolic elements that are often an implicit aspect of language and the way in which language is used. Thus, “literacy” refers read more..

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    1238.4 Four Dimensions of Societal Transition an institutional dimension; a cultural dimension.An understanding of these four dimensions, individually and in their interrelations, together amounts to a transformative literacy. It is important to note that even within the individual dimensions, different levels of understanding coexist. This can be shown in the context of the current economic debate. Ever louder calls for a “New Economics” (http://www.neweconomics.org/) illustrate that basic read more..

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    1248 The Transition to Renewable Energy Systems – On the Way to a Comprehensive Transition ConceptThese dimensions need to be addressed in a twofold way:1. As an interrelated set of structures within a socio-technical system: technological structures are embedded in economic structures, which in turn are influenced by institutional structures.2. As independent starting points for fostering processes of change: cultural change, for instance in individual lifestyles, can have a direct impact on read more..

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    1258.4 Four Dimensions of Societal TransitionFigure 8.2 The four dimensions of transitions.The four dimensions of a transition can in this way be understood as structures according to the conceptualization of Giddens. Infrastructures/technologies, capital, institutions, and cultural values and practices are structures on which concrete actions are based and to which behavioral patterns are related. Changes in these structures are important elements and driving forces of transition read more..

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    1268 The Transition to Renewable Energy Systems – On the Way to a Comprehensive Transition ConceptThe energy system is a typical example of a technology- and infrastructure-based system. It centers around infrastructures and technologies for energy production and distribution (e.g., power plants and energy grids) and energy consumption (e.g., industrial plants, heating installations, cars, and other means of transportation). Assuming a given future development of consumption, the question is read more..

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    1278.4 Four Dimensions of Societal Transition Finally, a major problem with regard to changes in infrastructures is that this is usually a very long-term undertaking. Substantial changes in infrastructures come at large costs for national economies and often give rise to protests by those who profit from the already existing infrastructures and technologies. An example of this is the strategic behavior of incumbent electric utility companies in the context of the German energy transition and read more..

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    1288 The Transition to Renewable Energy Systems – On the Way to a Comprehensive Transition Concepttransformation of the energy system has been wasted. This has spawned a heated debate about reforms of solar energy subsidies in Germany. These examples show that transformation processes such as the energy transition require a good under-standing of the economic dynamics involved.Based on an aggregated economic perspective, it can be shown that a transition to a completely renewables-based energy read more..

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    1298.4 Four Dimensions of Societal TransitionEconomic dynamics are nonetheless a central impetus for a “Great Transfor-mation.” Without utilizing the creative force of markets, achieving a wide-ranging transition is hardly realizable. At the same time, today’s market dynamics actually contribute to the stability and continuation of established unsustainable develop-ments. Therefore, one also needs to focus on the institutional framework conditions in which economic market dynamics are read more..

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    1308 The Transition to Renewable Energy Systems – On the Way to a Comprehensive Transition ConceptEspecially in the era after the Second World War, these questions were the central motivating forces for the development of institutions in Europe.However, in the process of the increasing differentiation and globalization of modern societies, it becomes obvious that by striving for these economic, social, and democratic goals, more and more unintended ecological, social, and economic side effects read more..

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    1318.4 Four Dimensions of Societal TransitionRegarding these issues, comprehensive approaches have been developed in the field of governance theory and policy analysis, and knowledge has been gained on effective forms of policy mixes. Still, many questions remain unanswered, especial-ly concerning the success conditions for sustainability policies, the need for their democratic legitimization, and ways of initiating “real-world-experiments” [30] that could enhance knowledge about improved read more..

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    1328 The Transition to Renewable Energy Systems – On the Way to a Comprehensive Transition Conceptsavings. The required level of energy savings will not be realized by implementing energy efficiency measures alone (for instance, also due to the occurrence of rebound effects). Achieving a sustainable level of energy consumption requires a reduction in energy use in absolute numbers, which – apart from increasing overall efficiency – depends on changes in consumption and use patterns, and read more..

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    1338.5 Techno-Economists, Institutionalists, and Culturalists1. The first dogma identified by Paech is the perspective on “green growth.” This is currently the dominant strand in the debate, according to which an absolute decoupling of economic growth and environmental impact is possible by way of technological efficiency increases. This dogma creates the vision of a green growth, that is, a technological revolution towards massive ecological efficiency increases, which provide a solution read more..

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    1348 The Transition to Renewable Energy Systems – On the Way to a Comprehensive Transition Concept3. Finally, “substantial change” refers to a dogma most critical with regard to the growth paradigm. It is argued that a sustainability transition is only possible when there is a comprehensive cultural change throughout society as a whole. Important elements of this dogma are concepts of “sufficiency,” “subsistence,” industrial deconstruction, and deglobalization. This implies a read more..

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    135References References 1 Crutzen, P. J. and Stoermer, E. F. (2000) The ‘Anthropocene.’ Global Change Newsl., 41 (1), 17–18. 2 Lenton, T. M., Held, H., Kriegler, E., Hall, J. W., Lucht, W., Rahmstorf, S., and Schellnhuber, H. J. (2008) Tipping elements in the Earth’s climate system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 105 (6), 1786–1793. 3 Rockström, J. et al. (2009) A safe operating space for humanity. Nature, 461, 472–475. 4 Wuppertal Institute (2006) Fair Future – Begrenzte read more..

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    1368 The Transition to Renewable Energy Systems – On the Way to a Comprehensive Transition Concept26 Kooiman, J. (2003) Governing as Governance, Sage Publications, London.27 Schneidewind, U., Feindt, P. H., Meister, H. P., Minsch, J., Schulz, T., and Tscheulin, J. (1997) Institutionelle Reformen für eine Politik der Nachhaltigkeit: vom Was zum Wie in der Nachhaltigkeitsdebatte. GAIA, 6 (3), 182–196.28 Minsch, J., Feindt, H. P., Meister, P., and Schneidewind, U. (1998) Institutionelle read more..

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    1379 Renewable Energy Future for the Developing WorldDieter Holm9.1 Introduction9.1.1 AimThis chapter presents the unique window of opportunity of establishing the use of Renewable Energies (REs) in the Developing World in a practical and cost-effective manner. The approach is based both on theoretical studies for the ISES White Paper Renewable Energy Future for the Developing World [1] and also – and this is important – on a lifetime’s experience as a Renewable Energy consultant in this read more..

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    1389 Renewable Energy Future for the Developing World9.2 Descriptions and Def initions of the Developing World9.2.1 The Developing WorldOne definition of the Developing World would be: “The rest of the world, except Australia, Canada, the European Union (EU), Israel, Japan, New Zealand, the Southern African Customs and Trade Union and the United States of America.” The International Monetary Fund [2] lists 157 nations, but forgot Cuba and North Korea. The Developing World consists of read more..

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    1399.2 Descriptions and Definitions of the Developing WorldFigure 9.1 Solar thermal capacity per capita (Wth/cap) [4]. China ranks tenth worldwide.Figure 9.2 Installed wind capacity per capita (W/cap) [5]. BRICS countries rank lower than twentieth.Many RE technologies have been proven for feasibility in the world markets, and since suitable policies have been tried and tested, the near-term risks of adoption are lower than those of procrastination. The laggards lack awareness and political will. read more..

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    1409 Renewable Energy Future for the Developing WorldThe tide is turning inexorably towards renewable energies. To the Developing Nations, this transition offers unique opportunities: Significant population and/or business growth occurs in the Developing World, but the infrastructure is underdeveloped. Instead of investing in the technologies of the past, Developing Nations can leapfrog to most modern renewable energy technologies (RETs). The use of cellular telephones illustrates how the old read more..

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    1419.3 Can Renewable Energies Deliver?broad-based population pyramid, and youth unemployment is therefore a great risk. The official unemployment rate varies between 4% for China to 24.8% for South Africa. Youth unemployment and the associated political risks are a common threat.9.3 Can Renewable Energies Deliver?Normally one differentiates between the technical and economic potential of REs. Technologies are not static and their economic competitiveness also is continually changing. RE read more..

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    1429 Renewable Energy Future for the Developing World9.4 Opportunities for the Developing WorldThe Developing World has at least four differentiating opportunities in the arena of energy. These are Poverty Alleviation through RE Jobs, a New Energy Infrastructure Model, the Great RE Potential in the Developing World, and the Underdeveloped Conventional Infrastructure.9.4.1 Poverty Alleviation through RE JobsReducing poverty and unemployment are key priorities in the Developing World. Renewable read more..

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    1439.4 Opportunities for the Developing WorldIt might be expected that more jobs associated with REs would make those energies more expensive than fossil energies. In fact, there is a great risk to socio political stability as a result of very high unemployment rates (more than 30%) in many parts of the Developing World. Especially the younger generation is restive because unachievable promises have been made to them. This leads to relatively low salaries, unless governments artificially read more..

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    1449 Renewable Energy Future for the Developing World… “the highest … in Nigeria where the utility is capturing only 25 percent of the revenues owed” [10]. By contrast, distributed renewable energy (co)generation driven by the private sector and cooperatives contributes towards sustainable development and the de-mocratisation of power, in both senses of the word.9.4.3 Great RE Potential of Developing WorldTwo thirds of the global hydropower potential is found in the Developing World. 95% read more..

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    1459.5 Development FrameworkTherefore there is less resistance to change and less opposition from vested interests. Without having contributed to the R&D investment in Renewable Energy Technol-ogies, the Developing World enjoys the unique opportunity to leapfrog to the most modern clean renewable technologies, thereby avoiding the need to go down the dirty fossil fuel path.9.5 Development Framework9.5.1 National Renewable Energies Within Global Guard RailsThe great energy transition requires read more..

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    1469 Renewable Energy Future for the Developing WorldMinimum Microeconomic DevelopmentTo meet the macroeconomic minimum per capita energy requirement (for energy services utilized indirectly), all countries should be able to develop a per capita GDP of at least about US$ 3000, in 1999 values.Keeping Risks Within a Normal RangeA sustainable energy system needs to build upon technologies whose operation remains within the “normal range” of environmental risk. Nuclear energy does not meet this read more..

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    1479.5 Development FrameworkPrevention of Atmospheric Air PollutionCritical levels of air pollution are not tolerable. As a preliminary quantitative guard rail, it could be determined that pollution levels should nowhere be higher than they are today in the EU, even though the situation there is not yet satisfactory for all types of pollutants. A final guard rail would need to be defined and implemented by national environmental standards and multilateral environmental agreements.A test run read more..

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    1489 Renewable Energy Future for the Developing World Promoting socio-economic development. Combining regulatory and private sector initiatives. Protecting natural life-supporting systems: Reduced global CO2 emissions by at least 30% from 1990 levels by 2050. For established industrialized nations, this entails a reduction of 80%, while developing and newly industrialized countries’ emissions should rise by no more than 30%. Improved energy productivity (GDP to energy input ratio) of initially read more..

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    1499.6 Policies Accelerating Renewable Energies in Developing Countries9.6.1.1 Feed-in TariffsWith the feed-in law, electricity grid operators have to accept all electricity generated by RE, and pay fixed tariffs. These are differentiated according to technology, size, and location. This prevents only the currently cheapest technology from being promoted. Finally, it also encourages equitable access to all, ranging from the poor single-parent household to the multi megawatt offshore wind farm read more..

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    1509 Renewable Energy Future for the Developing WorldInnovation, Domestic Industries, and Benef its AccruedTheoretically, feed-in systems could discourage innovation and competitiveness. In reality, once companies have achieved a certain level of income, they start to invest in R&D to enhance their competitive edge and increase profits. This proceeds at no cost to the government, that is, the taxpayer.Under quota systems, the surplus – if any – tends to accrue to the end-user, with the read more..

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    1519.6 Policies Accelerating Renewable Energies in Developing CountriesFinancial SecurityUnder the feed-in system, the long-term certainty resulting from guaranteed prices (typically 20 years) causes companies to invest in technology R&D, train staff, and maintain resources and services with a longer term perspective. This in turn makes it more attractive to financiers.By contrast, quota systems harbor political and procedural uncertainties. The stop-and-go RE policies of many countries are read more..

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    1529 Renewable Energy Future for the Developing World9.6.2.1 Tax relief Investment and production tax credits (PTCs) are designed to encourage investment in renewable energy technologies, and can cover either the total installed costs or the plant costs only. Reduced income is only of interest to high-income groups – hardly a problem in the Developing World. In the United States (1980s) and India (1990s), investment tax breaks helped to jump-start the wind industry, but also led to read more..

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    1539.6 Policies Accelerating Renewable Energies in Developing CountriesGovernments are large energy consumers through their energy-inefficient buildings, vehicles, transport systems, and infrastructure. They should lead by example.9.6.3 Industry Standards, Planning Permits, and Building CodesEnergy efficiency and REs are furthered by technology standards and certification, siting and permit standards, grid connection standards, and building regulations (codes).Technology standards foster fair read more..

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    1549 Renewable Energy Future for the Developing World9.6.6 Research, Development, and DemonstrationThe Developing World has a backlog in RE R&D. The most pressing are nontechno-logical aspects (sociological, cultural, political): perceptions of awareness, desirability, status, accessibility and affordability dominate over techno-economic aspects (efficiency, economy, innovation). Here adaptation of existing RETs to harsh climatic conditions and low/no maintenance are priorities. read more..

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    1559.7 Priorities – Where to Startstone. The following examples in South Africa illustrate the point. An international donor agency might decide that the provision of solar cookers to the rural poor is a good idea. The logic is that this would reduce over-harvesting of firewood and con-sequent desertification. It would free women and girls from the chore of collecting heavy loads of firewood over increasingly long distances, thereby enabling them to receive education. This would enhance birth read more..

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    1569 Renewable Energy Future for the Developing WorldBy choosing this priority, it allows the local industry to find its feet, overcome teething problems, and rapidly build service capabilities using easy and low-cost transport and communication channels. Prices drop much faster as a result of the learning curve. Thereby the new technologies become affordable to the poor. Sustainable jobs are created. Above all, RETs become associated with class, and attain a desirability status, especially if read more..

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    157References 1 Holm, D. (2005) Renewable Energy Future for the Developing World. ISES White Paper, ISES, Freiburg. 2 International Monetary Fund (2012) IMF Economics List. World Economic Outlook. IMF, Washington, DC, p. 179. 3 Transparency International (2011) Corruption Perceptions Index 2011, ISBN 978-3-943497-18-2, Transparency International, Berlin, www.transparency.org (last accessed 6 January 2013). 4 Weiss, W. and Mauthner, F. (2012) Solar Heat Worldwide: Markets and Contribution read more..

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    15910 An Innovative Concept for Large-Scale Concentrating Solar Thermal Power PlantsUlrich Hueck10.1 Considerations for Large-Scale DeploymentIn some countries, such as the United States and Spain, the deployment of con-centrating solar power (CSP) had temporarily turned into a booming power plant market. The installed and announced capacity of CSP plants was rapidly increasing worldwide. 1)After a time of initial subsidizing, significant cost reductions for electricity generated in CSP plants read more..

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    16010 An Innovative Concept for Large-Scale Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Plants10.1.1 Technologies to Produce Electricity from Solar RadiationSeveral different basic technologies can produce electricity from solar radiation, such as: concentrating solar power with steam turbines concentrating solar power with gas turbine configurations photovoltaic parabolic mirrors with Stirling engines solar updraft towers with wind turbines.This evaluation mainly refers to basic features of read more..

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    16110.1 Considerations for Large-Scale Deployment10.1.3 Review for Large-Scale DeploymentThis section provides a review of the basic differentiating features for the config-uration of solar power plants as outlined above. For each feature, the focus is on its main purpose and key stumbling blocks, considering large-scale deployment in deserts.The criteria for review are as follows: physical feasibility robust technical practicability capability for large-scale deployment in deserts efficiency read more..

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    16210 An Innovative Concept for Large-Scale Concentrating Solar Thermal Power PlantsIn CSP plants, the solar energy must therefore be stored during the day for operation at night. The thermal storage of heat in material and its retrieval are basically inexhaustible processes, although not trivial and by no means fully explored for large-scale deployment. However, efficient operation of CSP plants is in principle possible day and night with thermal heat storage in material.8)The storage of read more..

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    16310.1 Considerations for Large-Scale DeploymentAn optimized configuration for such bundling of solar heat is called “bundled concentration.” 9)Figure 10.1 depicts the basic design of point concentration, linear concentration, and bundled concentration.10.1.3.4 Shape of Mirrors for Concentration of Solar RadiationFlat mirrors, called heliostats, Fresnel-shaped configurations with flat mirrors, parabolic trough-shaped mirrors and parabolic mirrors can be used to concentrate solar power for read more..

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    16410 An Innovative Concept for Large-Scale Concentrating Solar Thermal Power PlantsFigure 10.2 Established configurations for concentrating solar thermal power plants.The parabolic trough shape is a purely geometric feature for concentrating solar power. Fast computing capabilities for exact focusing and repeated alignment cali-bration of unlimited numbers of flat mirrors are likely to supersede the geometric parabolic trough design, as electronics often simplify the design of mechanical read more..

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    16510.1 Considerations for Large-Scale Deploymentthat the reflected solar beams reach the central location and the mirrors can be easily reached for cleaning.In contrast, solar power plants with horizontal receiver tubes in large solar fields require flat areas of land. This constraint is due to the heat-transfer fluid that is pumped through the receiver tubes. With different temperatures throughout the field, caused, for example, by the misalignment of mirrors, missing heating at connecting read more..

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    16610 An Innovative Concept for Large-Scale Concentrating Solar Thermal Power PlantsTable 10.1 Working fluids and heat storage media for solar thermal power.Available mediaaWorking f luid for solar heatDriving of turbine/engineStorage of solar heatAirPossiblePossibleNot feasibleWater/steamPossiblePossibleNot feasibleThermal oilPossibleNot possiblePossibleMolten saltPossibleNot possibleMoved/fixedPhase-change materialNot possibleNot possibleFixedSolidsNot possibleNot possibleFixedba Media such read more..

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    16710.1 Considerations for Large-Scale DeploymentSome of the above options for solar heat storage are excluded by the following considerations: The heat storage capacity of thermal oil is comparably low. Auxiliary energy supply is required during long shutdowns to keep a molten salt in its liquid state. However, a reliable thermal storage medium should not depend on external energy supply to be available during long shutdowns in remote desert regions. Pumping a molten salt through heat read more..

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    16810 An Innovative Concept for Large-Scale Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Plants No particular auxiliary heating is required for the working fluid and storage media.13) After shutdown, all systems reach a stable state with minimum auxiliary energy supply. Plant start-up is very fast. Load changes allow for immediate redirection of steam to the thermal storage system. The same feedwater pump provides the pressure for driving the steam turbine and for charging or discharging the thermal read more..

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    16910.1 Considerations for Large-Scale DeploymentTheoretically, an optimized plant configuration does not have to be constrained by any of its subsystems in the development and deployment of cost-effective tech-nology for operating at increasingly high temperatures.10.1.3.10 Type of Cooling SystemCondensers with cooling water and air-cooled condensers are used for the operation of steam turbines. Cooling with water is more effective but water is rare in deserts. Dry cooling provides an read more..

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    17010 An Innovative Concept for Large-Scale Concentrating Solar Thermal Power PlantsStirling engines can be placed at the focal point of parabolic mirrors. Point con-centration of solar radiation then provides very high temperatures to run the Stirling cycle with air or gas. High efficiency is already possible but the size of each single unit is rather limited.Cost savings in operation and maintenance require simple technology for mass products, such as mirrors. Complex engines for power read more..

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    17110.2 Advanced Solar Boiler Concept for CSP Plants Working fluid for concentrating solar power: water/steam. Storage media for solar heat: phase-change material and solids at fixed locations. Direct steam generation: compact vertical arrangements of tubes at safe locations. Inlet temperature for power generation: increase not constrained in principle by any subsystem. Type of cooling system: water or air depending on the availability of cooling water. Size of solar power plant: reflection of read more..

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    17210 An Innovative Concept for Large-Scale Concentrating Solar Thermal Power PlantsThe following complementing features make this concept feasible: Receiver tubes in vertical arrangements convert the solar radiation to heat. An insulated structure surrounds the receiver tubes for heat loss reduction. High temperatures are handled at the bottom of tower; low temperatures prevail at the top. Waste heat from the tower can be recovered for the preheating of condensate and feedwater. Ambient air can read more..

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    17310.2 Advanced Solar Boiler Concept for CSP PlantsFigure 10.3 Temperature-entropy diagram for steam.20)Figure 10.4 Rankine cycle for steam turbine.21)20) Graphic retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rankine_cycle_with_reheat.jpg.21) Graphic retrieved from www.powerfromthesun.net/Book/chapter12/chapter12.html. read more..

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    17410 An Innovative Concept for Large-Scale Concentrating Solar Thermal Power PlantsThe feedwater pump P in Figure 10.4 provides the pressure increase between points 1 and 2. The preheating and evaporation of water and superheating of steam take place between points 2 and 3. A high-pressure turbine expands the steam from point 3 to point 4. Optional steam reheating takes place between points 4 and 5, which increases the plant efficiency. An intermediate- and/or low-pressure turbine expands the read more..

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    17510.2 Advanced Solar Boiler Concept for CSP PlantsFigure 10.5 is only a flow diagram, which does not anticipate the spatial positions of the different receiver segments for solar heat transfer. Optional steam reheating is excluded from the flow diagram for the sake of readability.10.2.2.4 Solar Steam Generation Inside DuctsThis section describes a robust design for direct solar steam generation with minimum thermal losses.Arrangements of receiver tubes as shown in Figure 10.6 provide the read more..

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    17610 An Innovative Concept for Large-Scale Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Plantsto minimize heat losses. Surfaces inside the duct are either equipped with mirrors or colored white. The inner surfaces will then reflect most of the emitted heat back to the receiver tubes.Insulating air cools the reflecting inner surface. With forced convection, this waste heat can be used for the preheating of condensate and/or feedwater.The solar radiation from Sun-tracking mirrors has to pass through the read more..

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    17710.2 Advanced Solar Boiler Concept for CSP PlantsAccidental steam leaks at receiver tubes will occur at encased locations. Plant personnel are therefore not at risk during such incidents.10.2.2.5 Arrangement of Heat-Transfer SectionsFigure 10.8 shows the arrangement of boiler segments for the different steps of solar steam generation as described in Section 10.2.2.2 and Section 10.2.2.3. High-tem-perature segments are situated at the bottom of the solar boiler and low-tempera-ture segments read more..

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    17810 An Innovative Concept for Large-Scale Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Plants10.2.2.7 Thermal Storage System for Night-Time OperationFor night-time operation, the advanced solar boiler is equipped with a thermal storage system, which consists of multiple heat storage tanks. Figure 10.9 depicts integration into the power plant’s water/steam cycle. For the sake of simplicity, pumps, valves, and optional reheating are not shown in the abridged system diagram.Figure 10.9 Integration of read more..

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    17910.3 Practical Implementation of Conceptsteam drum and is superheated in the concrete unit (…), while the remaining water is recirculated through the PCM storage. (…) During discharge, the flow direction is from bottom to top. (…)In charging mode, steam at a temperature slightly above saturation properties (…) is routed into the PCM module where it condenses. The flow direction during charging is from top to bottom so that the condensate is removed by gravity. A condensate drain read more..

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    18010 An Innovative Concept for Large-Scale Concentrating Solar Thermal Power PlantsThe process of technical implementation has to start with a feasibility study, review of design features, determination of the expected efficiency,31) plant size considerations, cost estimates, computerized simulations, scalable engineering layout, and detailed design. These are complex and challenging tasks.Subsequent practical prototyping is required. It should start on a small scale.32) Fast completion read more..

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    18110.3 Practical Implementation of Concept10.3.2 Financial Procedure for ImplementationTo date, the costs of electricity generated in solar thermal power plants have been higher than the direct costs of electricity from fossil-fueled or nuclear units. Subsidies and long-term venture capital are therefore required for further introduction of renewable solar power to the market.Remuneration for feed-in of electricity from renewables can stimulate national markets. However, application of this read more..

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    18210 An Innovative Concept for Large-Scale Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Plantsresources of numerous partners in industry, the public sector and science for testing and implementing with incremental steps an innovative solar thermal power plant design that appears suitable for cost-effective large-scale deployment in deserts.4)10.4 ConclusionThe described configuration of the advanced solar boiler comes close to the estab-lished and well-proven design of heat-recovery steam generators in read more..

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    18311 Status of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Development and Deployment : Hyundai’s Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Development as a Best Practice ExampleTae Won Lim11.1 IntroductionThe world energy consumption has dramatically increased owing to the steady increase in the global population, higher standards of living, and demands for enhanced industrial production and transportation for decades. Fossil fuel represents the highest proportion of world energy in the current energy market. As there is a read more..

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    18411 Status of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Development and Deploymentmanufacturers) owing to environmental problems and fossil fuel depletion from the 1990s. Many automobile OEMs have developed several different types of FCEVs since then, and not only have the technologies for FCEVs improved, but also cost reductions of FCEVs have been achieved.11.2.1 Fuel Cell Stack Durability and Driving Ranging of FCEVsThe US Department of Energy (DOE) carried out an FCEV demonstration program with several read more..

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    18511.3 History of HMC FCEV Developmentcell system that is comparable in size to a conventional IC engine. Downsizing of the fuel cell system makes it possible to manufacture FCEVs on a mass production line similarly to conventional vehicles.11.2.3 Cost of FCEVsThe cost of FCEVs is still high compared with conventional vehicles because of the high technical investment and limited production numbers. The costs of specific FCEV components such as the fuel cell stack and hydrogen storage system are read more..

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    18611 Status of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Development and DeploymentFigure 11.1 History of HMC FCEV development.Table 11.2 Specification of ix35 FCEV.ItemSpecif icationFuel cell power100 kWBattery, Li ion24 kWMotor systemAC inductionHydrogen tank700 barFuel efficiency0.95 kg H2 per 100 km (28 km l–1)Driving range594 km Acceleration (0 100 km h–1)12.5 sMaximum speed160 km h–1In addition, integration and modulation of the fuel cell system imparts more ef-ficiency to the FCEV production read more..

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    18711.3 History of HMC FCEV DevelopmentFigure 11.2 Overview and package layout of the ix35 FCEV.Figure 11.3 BOP system of the ix35 FCEV. read more..

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    18811 Status of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Development and Deployment11.4 Performance Testing of FCEVs11.4.1 Crashworthiness and Fire TestsThe public perception of the dangers and safety concerns about FCEVs is still widespread because FCEVs are mainly operated using hydrogen. To change public awareness of FCEVs, it is necessary to verify their safety convincingly. Therefore, HMC has performed a variety of crashworthiness tests and fire tests of the hydrogen storage tank system. Figure 11.4 read more..

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    18911.4 Performance Testing of FCEVsHMC also performed fire and explosion testing of the hydrogen storage tank of the ix35 FCEV, as shown in Figure 11.5. An artificial fire was set under the vehicle to check the safety of the hydrogen storage tank system. The conventional fuel tank of a corresponding gasoline engine vehicle exploded within 40 min, whereas the FCEV was protected by activating the pressure relief device in 22 min (type III hydrogen tank) or 13 min (type IV hydrogen tank). The read more..

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    19011 Status of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Development and Deployment11.4.3 Durability TestDurability is an important factor for the commercialization of FCEVs, and HMC has performed both laboratory-scale bench tests and real road vehicle tests. A clear understanding of the correlation between bench test results and vehicle test results is of paramount importance to estimate the durability of FCEVs efficiently. This could facilitate the validation of a proposed degradation mechanism and the read more..

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    19111.5 Cost Reduction of FCEVThe IR communication and precooling system of the hydrogen tank leads to a short hydrogen refueling time. As shown in Figure 11.8, the hydrogen refueling time of ix35 FCEV is ~3–4 min, which is competitive with the conventional IC engine vehicle.11.5 Cost Reduction of FCEVRecently, the cost of FCEVs has fallen to approximately one-fifth of the level in 2005, as shown in Figure 11.9. The cost reduction is mainly due to both fuel cell system Figure 11.8 IR filling read more..

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    19211 Status of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Development and Deploymentoptimization and the development of cost-effective components, including stamped metallic bipolar plates, advanced membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) and gas diffusion layer (GDL), injection-molded end plates, simplified BOP components, and so on. However, the cost of FCEVs is still too high for ordinary customers because of some technical challenges and the limited market size in the world. The cost of FCEV should therefore be read more..

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    19311.6 Demonstration and Deployment Activities of FCEVs in EuropeFigure 11.11 EU road tour in Cardiff, UK.HMC will have a small series production of ix35 FCEVs from the end of 2012 to 2015. During this period, HMC will produce 1000 units of ix35 FCEVs. The European market is a main market for the HMC ix35 FCEV. HMC will participate in an EU-funded demonstration and deployment program and EU tenders for FCEV deployments. HMC has been participating in an EU-funded demonstration and deployment read more..

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    19411 Status of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Development and Deploymenthas a plan to deploy ix35 FCEVs as official vehicles of the city council. These de-ployment activities lead to dissemination and opening up of the market for FCEVs in Europe. They also enhance public awareness of a hydrogen society in Europe. HMC will actively participate in all possible FCEV deployment activities in Europe.11.7 Roadmap of FCEV Commercialization and ConclusionsRecently, fleets of FCEVs from the major automotive read more..

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    19512 Hydrogen as an Enabler for Renewable EnergiesDetlef Stolten, Bernd Emonts, Thomas Grube, and Michael Weber12.1 IntroductionEnergy technology is currently undergoing a considerable transformation worldwide. The factors driving this change forward are climate change, supply security, in-dustrial competitiveness, and local emissions. Although these driving forces are recognized throughout the world, their priority varies from country to country. In the aftermath of the nuclear disaster in read more..

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    19612 Hydrogen as an Enabler for Renewable Energiesroom for completely new developments, yet improvements in size, performance, and cost of existing technologies will be paramount and require intense research. This is not to say that completely new second-generation technologies are out of range for implementation after 2050, but whatever is not ready for development by 2030 will be very unlikely to contribute to the above-mentioned goal of 2050. Wind turbines, solar plants, and fuel cell read more..

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    19712.3 Power Density as a Key Characteristic of Renewable Energies and Their Storage Mediaby passenger cars and 6% by heavy-duty trucks and rail, ship, and air transportation [3]. CO2 emissions in Germany have already been reduced by 26% between 1990 and 2009. However, in order to reduce emissions by at least 80%, large sectors must become CO2 neutral. Examples include the entire electricity sector and passenger car transportation. By implementing the concept proposed here, they can be read more..

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    19812 Hydrogen as an Enabler for Renewable Energiesenergy is suggested. The average annual power density represents a measure of the effort required to concentrate energy and convert it into electricity. Here, the active area of the technical device is taken as the reference point, for example, the cell area in the case of photovoltaics (PV). Whereas hydropower has a power density in the region of a few kilowatts per square meter, wind power has an average power density of ~150 W m–2 and PV read more..

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    19912.4 Fluctuation of Renewable Energy GenerationTable 12.3 Energy density of gasoline and ethanol compared with hydrogen and batteries.ProductPhysical storage densityTechnical storage densityMJ l–1MJ kg–1MJ l–1MJ kg–1Gasoline32 [7]43 [7]3035aEthanol21 [7]27 [7]1922aHydrogen (700 bar)51203 [8]6 [8]Li ion batteries5b1.5b1.00.36 [9]–0.5a Technical storage densities of gasoline and ethanol are estimated for a tank storage with a capacity of 60 l and a mass of 10 kg.b Theoretical storage read more..

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    20012 Hydrogen as an Enabler for Renewable EnergiesIn order to keep the investment for electrolyzers in check, a third regime of power curtailment is suggested. Since very high power is produced over only a short period in the year, the greatest savings and electrolyzer investment can be expected at a relatively low curtailment level. Therefore, the three regimes will be applied in the following scenario.12.5 Strategic Approach for the Energy ConceptThe facts compiled above provide some read more..

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    20112.6 Status of Electricity Generation and Potential for Expansion of Wind Turbines in GermanyFigure 12.3 Share of primary energies in the generation of 628 TWh of electricity in Germany in 2010.Figure 12.4 Distribution of installed wind turbines in Germany according to different power classes in 2010. Source: data from [11].The distribution of installed wind turbines in Germany is shown for 2010 in Figure 12.4. This results in a weighted average capacity of 1.23 MW per wind turbine1).The read more..

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    20212 Hydrogen as an Enabler for Renewable EnergiesTable 12.4 Predicted installed wind capacity in Germany.YearSource/prognosisTotal capacity (GW)Onshore (GW)Offshore (GW)2009[12] 26 26 0.062015[13] 48 3513[14] 36 2610Constant expansion (2 GW a–1) 382020[15] 38 2810[14] 48 2820[16] 47 3710Constant expansion (2 GW a–1) 482030[16] 62 3725Constant expansion (2 GW a–1) 68Potential[5] 80 4535[17]198+198No data[18]a 79–108+ 79–108No data2050Assumptions of the read more..

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    20312.7 Assumptions for the Renewable Scenario with a Constant Number of Wind Turbines The number of onshore wind turbines remains constant at the 2011 level, namely ~22 500. The average capacity per turbine is increased from 1.23 to 7.5 MW and the capacity utilization from almost 1400 to 2000 full-load hours2). The national mean for 3 MW turbines is already slightly higher than this last value [6]. Offshore wind energy is expanded to 70 GW [19] and full-load hours are assumed to be 4000 h read more..

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    20412 Hydrogen as an Enabler for Renewable Energiesnatural gas. If hydrogen is used for the methanation of CO2 beforehand, the efficiency decreases. When used as a fuel in fuel cell vehicles, hydrogen reduces the energy consumed (tank-to-wheel) by around 50% compared with vehicles run on gasoline (Figure 12.6). At the same time, the CO2 emissions that are avoided in relation to the lower heating value are 25% higher for the oil-based fuels than for natural gas, which means that the use of read more..

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    20512.8 ProcedureMethanation is currently being discussed as an energy storage option as it would allow existing technologies and methods of transport to be used. However, it should be noted that methanation would simply shift CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants to more flexible gas power plants and would not facilitate CO2 mitigation at the levels required. Furthermore, it would also involve considerable technical effort. It is therefore more attractive both ecologically and economically read more..

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    20612 Hydrogen as an Enabler for Renewable Energies1000 annual full-load hours are taken as the minimum. For gas power plants, current nominal load efficiency averaged over various manufacturers – 58.5% (combined cycle) and 36.5% (gas turbines) – is reduced by 15% due to dynamic operation. This means that power plants are generally assumed to operate at 85% of their nominal load efficiency. The share of each power plant is discussed in the following.Using the current status of existing read more..

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    20712.10 Fuel Cell Vehicles Taking account of the total reduction of 26.5% achieved between 1990 and 2009, 697 million tonnes of CO2 or 55% could therefore be saved compared with 1990 (Figure 12.8). Emissions would then amount to 567 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent. The emission targets for 2030 can therefore be met with the proposed measures. Further reductions are technologically possible but their feasibility and economic impact must be investigated first.12.10 Fuel Cell VehiclesAnnual read more..

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    20812 Hydrogen as an Enabler for Renewable EnergiesAlthough it is also conceivable that the mobility patterns of people will change in the future, if a system involves severe limitations it will not prevail in the long run. It is therefore in the interests of car manufacturers to produce fuel cell vehicles that are comparable to conventional vehicles. This includes the range, refueling time, dynamics, cold-start capability, and purchase price. The state of the art is exemplified in Table 12.5 by read more..

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    20912.11 Hydrogen Pipelines and StorageFigure 12.9 Hydrogen pipeline system for Germany [28].A pipeline system (see Figure 12.9) for nationwide supply in Germany would necessitate some 12 000 km in the transmission grid and 31 000–47 000 km in the distribution grid [28]. A clear separation is made as this is easier to implement technically and offers several advantages in terms of grid expansion [29]. It is assumed that 9800 existing gas stations will make the changeover to hydrogen or at read more..

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    21012 Hydrogen as an Enabler for Renewable Energies12.12 Cost EstimateImplementing a hydrogen infrastructure involves several components. The costs are detailed in Table 12.6. The biggest factor is producing hydrogen using electrol-ysis. Filling stations account for ~€20 billion and the generation of peak electricity ~€24 billion. Between €19 billion and €25 billion will be required for the grid. As a comparison, the German natural gas grid incurred investment costs of €37 billion read more..

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    21112.12 Cost EstimateTable 12.6 Components and costs for hydrogen supply.ComponentAssumptionsCost (€ billion)Water electrolyzers84 GW @ €500 kW–1 42Pipeline system43 000–59 000 km 19–25Dome storageSeasonal compensation60 day reserve 515Filling stations (9800)New stations: €2 million per filling stationRetrofitting: €1 million per filling station 20Peak electricity generation systems (gas turbines, combined cycle)Total 42 GW (both systems) 24Total cost of read more..

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    21212 Hydrogen as an Enabler for Renewable EnergiesTable 12.8 Economic comparison of different possible uses of hydrogen.Amount of hydrogenMethodAssumptionsEconomic impact5.4 million t a–1Direct feed-in into natural gas gridCosts: €0.086 kWh–1Avails: €0.04 kWh–1–€8.27 billionMethanation and natural gas gridCosts: €8.6 kWh–1/0.75 = €11.47 kWh–1Avails: €0.04 kWh–1–€13.4 billionUse in transportation sectorCosts: €8.6 kWh–1Benefit: 40 million passenger cars; 12 000 read more..

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    21312.14 Conclusiontimeline. Because of the major changes in the energy sector and the introduction of two new technologies, namely electrolysis and fuel cells, it is not likely that the timeline for the 55% scenario of 2030 could be kept. Hence the study is to be considered a building block for an 80% CO2 reduction scenario with a timeline of 2050.Important elements include the massive expansion of wind energy and the storage of excess energy in the form of hydrogen, which can then be read more..

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    21412 Hydrogen as an Enabler for Renewable Energies In the electricity sector, a reduction of 20% is achieved compared with 1990, and in the domestic heating sector 2.2%. Combined with the 26.5% already achieved in 2009, this results in a reduction of 55%. Investments are manageable. The expected costs for the complete hydrogen infrastructure, that is, including pipelines, electrolyzers, storage systems, and filling stations, are around €100 billion. Around €37 billion were spent read more..

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    215References 12 Neddermann, B. (2009) Status der Windenergienutzung in Deutschland – Stand 31.12.2009, DEWI GmbH, http://www.dewi.de/dewi/fileadmin/pdf/publications/Statistics%20Pressemitteilungen/31.12.09/Anhang_Folien_2009.pdf (last accessed 5 November 2010).13 EEG/KWK-G (2009) Information Platform for German Transmission System Operators, 2009: EEG Medium-Term Forecast: Developments from 2000 to 2015, read more..

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    21612 Hydrogen as an Enabler for Renewable EnergiesDemand Options, presented at the 12th Symposium on Energy Innovation, Graz, 15–17 March.29 Krieg, D. (2012) Konzept und Kosten eines Pipelinesystems zur Versorgung des deutschen Strassenverkehrs mit Wasserstoff, PhD thesis, RWTH Aachen University, Jülich.30 BDEW (2012) Energy Data – Gas Networks in Germany, Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft (German Association of Energy and Water Industries), Berlin.31 JEC – Joint Research read more..

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    21713 Pre-Investigation of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales for Electric Grid Load BalancingFernando Gutiérrez-Martín13.1 IntroductionCurrent energy systems are not sustainable owing to resource limitations, environ-mental impacts, and management aspects such as the low use of technologies or transporting electricity. Therefore, efficient utilization of existing infrastructures should first be considered to address the increasing power demands and external costs; for example, electric read more..

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    21813 Pre-Investigation of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales for Electric Grid Load Balancingpower output, providing reserve service, as well as avoiding plant curtailments or costly grid upgrading when electricity production is high.The need and potential for integrating energy storage–conversion in power systems with high wind penetration is widely recognized within electric utilities; electrolyzers, being both flexible loads and conversion devices, can increase the flexibility of the read more..

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    21913.2 Electrolytic Hydrogenoffer many paths that make the flow of internal (parasitic) currents easier. Most manufacturers have developed their electrolyzers from bipolar modules since they are considered more suitable than monopolar modules [8].Nevertheless, one of the greatest drawbacks to using hydrogen for electric grid load balancing is that electrolyzers, fuel cells, and engines using current technology have relatively low efficiencies, so the total system has low round-trip efficiency. read more..

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    22013 Pre-Investigation of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales for Electric Grid Load BalancingTo evaluate water electrolysis in this study, a concise model was selected to describe the current–voltage characteristics of an electrolytic cell by means of incorporat-ing thermodynamic, kinetic, and electrical resistance effects; these are expressed quantitatively with three main parameters: the thermodynamic parameter, which is the water dissociation potential, the kinetic parameter, which read more..

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    22113.2 Electrolytic Hydrogenelevated temperatures and low current densities [11, 12]; this phenomenon can be described by the following equation and is illustrated in Figure 13.1:F fJfJ2122 (13.2)Therefore, it should be noted that electrolyzers must be operated above a minimal intensity, in such a form that the current efficiency is practically not affected; this is especially important for AWEs that are designed to manage fluctuating input currents and can only operate down to about 10% of read more..

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    22213 Pre-Investigation of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales for Electric Grid Load BalancingFigure 13.2 Costs for advanced AWEs with different power sizes and current densities (a = 1.20 × 105, b = 0.80, c = 0.25).Balance-of-plant costs (BOP)– dominated by items such as transformers, rectifiers, and controllers – comprise a significant proportion of the total installed costs; they also include water purification, the hydrogen dryer, and a gas purifier if needed (the percentage of BOP read more..

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    22313.2 Electrolytic Hydrogengreater capacities; all the technologies evaluated for this study operate at tempera-tures below 90 °C, using only electric energy to drive the process.For electrolysis to be operated competitively for hydrogen production, it must be run in areas having low-priced electricity for the industrial sector, in addition to off-peak and renewable power; one additional approach to reduce electricity cost is the use of interruptible power. Sensitivity analysis indicates that read more..

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    22413 Pre-Investigation of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales for Electric Grid Load Balancing13.2.3 Simulation of Electrolytic Hydrogen ProductionWe have elaborated a worksheet with all the equations to model the electrolyzer performance and hydrogen production costs, as described above. The main inputs are the installed power, the utilization ratio and nominal current density, the pa-rameters for calculating the efficiency, and the factors related to the investment capital, the annual read more..

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    22513.2 Electrolytic HydrogenIn addition, we simulated the cost of hydrogen by an orthogonal second-order composite design with four parameters (Table 13.2): the regression coefficients show very significant effects of the utilization ratios and electricity prices, with relevant interactions of P/u, J0/u, and J0/CAE, whereas P/J0 are much less correlated and the relations are negligible for P/CAE or u/CAE.Figure 13.3 shows the production costs for AWEs with advanced operation and the economic read more..

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    22613 Pre-Investigation of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales for Electric Grid Load BalancingSumming up, high efficiency is beneficial, but economically optimized production is usually more important; the more the cell voltages are increased above E0, the higher are the current densities and in turn the production rates.In new advanced alkaline electrolyzers, the operational cell voltage has been reduced and the current density increased compared with the more conventional electrolyzers. read more..

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    22713.3 Operation of the Electrolyzers for Electric Grid Load BalancingThe integration of electrolysis plants would thus add significantly to the flexibility of the power systems. Increasing renewable energy capacities tend to give larger fluctuations in electricity prices and increase problems of power overflow when they cover the complete loads. A more flexible demand will mitigate these problems and give more stable prices; thus, the integration of electrolyzers (or other flexible load, read more..

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    22813 Pre-Investigation of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales for Electric Grid Load Balancingload, the efficiency is increased and the consumption for each Nm3 is reduced (this means that it is better to reduce the loads on all units instead of shutting down part of the electrolyzers). The discontinuous operation may also induce some additional degradation and higher maintenance of the electrolyzers [19].The cost of hydrogen production is calculated on the basis of the electricity prices read more..

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    22913.3 Operation of the Electrolyzers for Electric Grid Load Balancingneeds of infrastructures and the integration of non-manageable resources, such as solar and wind power [20, 21].After introducing the special generation rules in 1997, the contribution of renewable energies to the power capacity in Spain has risen considerably, leading the country to a prime position in the world, although it is necessary to go further according to the energy targets for 2020. At the same time, a large number read more..

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    23013 Pre-Investigation of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales for Electric Grid Load Balancing13.3.2 Integration of Hydrogen Technologies at Large ScalesIn this section, we analyze the management strategies for surplus grid power using electrolytic hydrogen, by means of two approaches: the hourly average curve repre-sentative of one year and the annual curves that represent the real power generation and demands during the year. Hence several production scenarios using base-load technologies read more..

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    23113.3 Operation of the Electrolyzers for Electric Grid Load BalancingScenario 1Scenario 2Scenario 3Electrolyzer installations179Electrolyzer installations112Electrolyzer installations83Utilization ratio, u0.42Utilization ratio, u0.52Utilization ratio, u0.78Production cost, CH (€ kg–1)4.08Production cost, CH (€ kg–1)3.87Production cost, CH (€ kg–1)3.51Peak capacity, Pc (MW)2335Peak capacity, Pc (MW)1002Peak capacity, Pc (MW)0Surplus, Qa (tH2 d–1)778Surplus, Qa (tH2 read more..

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    23213 Pre-Investigation of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales for Electric Grid Load BalancingFigure 13.5 Balances of electricity and hydrogen for the scenario 2 using electrolyzers and fuel cells.This analysis illustrates how variations of the generation scenarios serve the purpose of obtaining a balance of the efficiency, the economy, and the ease of op-erations; the capacity of electrolytic installations, the electricity consumption, and the fuel cells determine the costs of the system, read more..

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    23313.3 Operation of the Electrolyzers for Electric Grid Load BalancingFigure 13.6 (a) Power generation scenario and load curves with disaggregation of hours (Spain, 2009); (b) weekly balance of electricity and hydrogen using the electrolyzer and fuel-cell system; (c) cumulative energy balances, power capacities, and global economic results (annually). read more..

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    23413 Pre-Investigation of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales for Electric Grid Load Balancingpower inputs and the efficiency and dynamic range of electrolyzers (1146.9 kt a–1; u = 47%); (3) the deficits of electricity originated by the power imbalances and electrolyzer’s operation, which determine the peak generation with fuel cells or other reserve capacities (13.436 GW) and the hydrogen consumed in these devices (14.7%). Figure 13.6b displays the balances of electricity and hydrogen at read more..

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    23513.3 Operation of the Electrolyzers for Electric Grid Load BalancingTable 13.4 Values used in the scenarios and results obtained by simulation of the different factors.jZValues in the base scenario (Zj0)Range of values and sensitivity to the cost balance(Zj)M€ a–1 (–) M€ a–1 (+)SjbLoad demands and generation from REaYear: 2009Loads/RE: 251.4/77.3 TWhYear: 2010Year: 2011–927–654–2.1%28.0%Base load generation profilesAnnual, fixed: 26.5 GWh h–1, i.e. 75.0% of the generation read more..

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    23613 Pre-Investigation of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales for Electric Grid Load BalancingAnyhow, the simulations show the benefits that can be achieved by using low-priced power, and also their leveling effects on the electricity balances of the gen-erating plants.As summarized in Table 13.4, the most sensitive factors are the base loads, the thermodynamic potential for electrolysis, the Faraday and BOP efficiencies, the limiting power to electrolyzers and fuel cells, the costs of the read more..

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    23713.4 Conclusionables, and base power generation, the parameters related to the sizes, operation, and energy use of electrolyzers and fuel cells, the costs of the installations, and the prices of the energies. Hence a feasible economic result can be anticipated for the different scenarios provided that the electrolyzers are built by orders of magnitude from current capacities and they are utilized at optimal current densities within the dynamic ranges, being also dependent on the energy read more..

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    23813 Pre-Investigation of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales for Electric Grid Load Balancingon employment and social welfare, the geographical depicture of the scenarios to represent the regional deployment of the subsystems better, and so on.As a concluding remark, with a large fraction of renewable sources in the energy system, water electrolysis is unavoidable even though the technology is not perfect. Efficiencies, short-term costs and the advantages and drawbacks of the hydrogen read more..

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    239References hydrogen. SciTopics, 1 October, http://www.scitopics.com/Power_management_using_electrolytic_hydrogen.html (last accessed 27 June 2012). 5 Gutiérrez-Martín, F. and Guerrero-Hernández, I. (2012) Balancing the grid loads by large scale integration of hydrogen technologies: the case of the Spanish power system. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 37 (2), 1151–1161. 6 Kroposki, B., Levene, J., Harrison, K., Sen, P. K., and Novachek, F. (2006) Electrolysis: Information and Opportunities read more..

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    24013 Pre-Investigation of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales for Electric Grid Load Balancing24 Madri+d (2012) Una Pila Española Supera la Meta de Potencia Marcada por Estados Unidos, www.madrimasd.org/informacionidi/noticias/noticia.asp?id=53229 (last accessed 1 May 2012). read more..

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    241Part II Power ProductionTransition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. read more..

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    24314 Onshore Wind EnergyPo Wen Cheng14.1 IntroductionWind energy is regarded as the one of the most cost-effective renewable energy sources, if not the most cost-effective (excluding hydropower). The use of wind energy for electricity generation started in the nineteenth century with experimental turbines in Denmark and Scotland. The oil crisis in 1973, the energy crisis in 1979, and the incident at the US Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in 1979 renewed the interest of governments in read more..

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    24414 Onshore Wind Energywind capacity [2]. This is a direct consequence of the policy instruments that these countries have put in place to encourage the development of wind energy. By the end of 2010, the electricity generated by wind turbines amounted to 1.6% of total elec-tricity production worldwide (including electricity generated from fossil fuels) and 8.3% of the electricity production from renewable energy (including hydropower) [3].The wind energy sector has enjoyed steady and read more..

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    24514.2 Market Development TrendsEurope, the role of offshore wind energy will remain small for the next 5–10 years. The generation cost of offshore wind energy represents the greatest obstacle for the expansion of offshore wind energy, as the installation cost per installed kilowatt is two to three times higher than for onshore wind energy and the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) (i.e. cost per kilowatt hour of energy produced taking into account the overnight capital cost and also other read more..

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    24614 Onshore Wind Energyand India, which together represented 50% of the global market in 2011. The bot-tleneck for future growth will be the grid infrastructure for the transportation of the electricity generated by wind in remote areas to the areas of consumption. China still has a significant amount of installed wind capacity that has not been connected to the grid owing to the transmission bottleneck. For this reason, the current policy is moving away from large wind farms in remote areas read more..

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    24714.3 Technology Development Trends14.3.2 Power RatingThe wind turbine rating has been increasing continuously from a few hundred kilowatts to the currently highest power rating of 7.5 MW. One needs to be aware that power rating alone is not an indicator of how productive or efficient the wind turbine is and it does not say anything about the LCOE. In general for high wind speed sites, that is, sites with a mean wind speed above 9 m s–1 at hub height, a high power rating is usually preferred read more..

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    24814 Onshore Wind Energyspeed and therefore a higher sound power level. Since noise is an important criterion for the siting of onshore wind farms, two-blade wind turbines automatically carry this disadvantage. For offshore wind farms this may not be an issue and therefore it is likely that there will be a market for offshore wind turbines with a two-blades rotor if the technical challenges faced in the early development of two-blade wind turbines are solved. Another subjective aspect that read more..

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    24914.3 Technology Development TrendsThe future trend for blade materials is that glass fiber will remain the most popular and economically attractive option for the medium term. Manufacturers will carefully evaluate the merit of carbon fiber, and only in those cases where the stiffness becomes a critical issue and all the other design options have been exhausted will carbon fiber be considered. Carbon fiber will most likely be used only for highly loaded structural elements such as the spar read more..

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    25014 Onshore Wind EnergyIt can be observed that the rotor diameter has increased by more than 40% in 15 years whereas the generator size has hardly changed increased.However, the increase in the rotor diameter will be limited by other constraints, such as material limitation of glass fiber because a further increase in the rotor diameter may require the use of carbon fiber which can diminish the benefits of the higher energy capture. Other constraints such as transportation and logistics can read more..

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    25114.3 Technology Development Trendsit uses a single- or two-stage gearbox to produce 400–600 rpm. In this concept, the gearbox is lighter while the increase in the generator mass still makes the complete drive train mass less than that in the traditional gearbox-driven type. This concept generally uses a synchronous generator with Ps. A disadvantage of using a synchronous generator with PM is the material cost of the PM, which increased 10-fold between July 2009 and July 2011 [13]. The read more..

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    25214 Onshore Wind EnergyThis assumption is subject to dispute from manufacturers that have opted for geared offshore wind turbines, claiming that the complexity of the electrical system of the direct drive wind turbine does not necessarily offer higher system reliability as research into reliability has shown that electrical components are the most vulnerable part of the wind turbine in term of reliability [16].Figure 14.3 Advantages (+) and disadvantages (–) of the different drivetrain read more..

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    25314.3 Technology Development Trends Nevertheless, it is generally agreed that direct drive wind turbines that use PM generators will suffer in the short to medium term from the impact of high magnet prices (neodymium). Here it is worth mentioning that Enercon is one of the few exceptions that kept to its original concept of using electromagnets which was not impacted by the price rise of PMs, a strategic decision that proved to benefit from significant cost advantages. It is unlikely that the read more..

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    25414 Onshore Wind Energyprepared transition piece. This type of hybrid tower offers the advantage of a cost-efficient way to raise the hub height, and together with the increase in rotor diameter, this makes low wind speed sites onshore economically more attractive for the deployment of wind energy [18].A lattice tower is another way to raise the hub height of the wind turbine without a substantial mass increase. More importantly, the footprint of the tower base can be much larger than for the read more..

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    25514.3 Technology Development TrendsRecently, new control mechanisms have been introduced, notably the active rotor with aerodynamic control. The principle behind all the active rotors is the same, namely using electromechanical devices to influence the aerodynamic properties of the blade [19]. To be more precise, the lift and drag coefficients of the rotor are no longer fixed but can be shifted up and down by actuating these electromechan-ical devices. By adapting lift and drag forces, one can read more..

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    25614 Onshore Wind Energyto 40% less power compared with the first turbine [22]. There are several ways to increase the power of the wind turbine in the second row, for example, by reducing the thrust, and hence the power extraction of the first wind turbine, or by giving a slight yaw misalignment to the first wind turbine so that the wake is deflected. The main challenge in this field of research is that the wake behind the wind turbine is a highly complex and dynamic phenomenon. Without a read more..

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    25714.5 Regulatory Frameworkthe site during the planning stage to estimate the potential impact of the wind farm on the bird and bat population. In general, wind turbines should be sited away from the migration routes of migrating birds, and avoiding large population densities of raptors and raptor prey. The use of modern large wind turbines has shown that the bird impact probability decreases with increase in the size of the wind turbine, and slower rotational speeds and an increased distance read more..

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    25814 Onshore Wind Energyperspective as instruments to steer the energy production and consumption pattern to a desirable state that maximizes the benefits for the whole of society.There are many policy instruments that have been used for promoting wind energy production. The most successful are without doubt the feed-in tariff pioneered by Germany where the installation of wind power has surged since 1990.Feed-in tariff systems are characterized by a fixed guaranteed price paid to producers read more..

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    25914.6 Economics of Wind EnergyThe cost of wind energy has decreased significantly due to performance im-provements and equipment cost reductions. On the other hand, the cost of wind energy depends strongly on the site conditions, mainly the wind conditions, which will determine how much wind energy can be produced at the site. With the latest estimate from IEA Wind Task 26 [1], it is expected that the LCOE (levelized cost of energy) for wind onshore will be in the range $ 70–90 MWh–1, with read more..

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    26014 Onshore Wind Energyscenario with a no-cost long-term fuel contract. The fuel risk-adjusted approach is consistent with the pricing of financial products where the risks of different products are taken into account by applying adjusted discount rates.So far, only the electricity generation cost at the source (that is, at the wind farm) has been discussed. However, the cost of the electricity for the consumer needs to include also the other cost components, namely the need for balancing read more..

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    26114.7 The Future Scenario of Onshore Wind Powercommodate the offshore wind power, for example, is that many of the national grids are now controlled by several private operators as part of the market liberalization process. The cost of the grid upgrading is a significant burden on the local grid operator where the offshore wind power is being fed to the grid while the benefits of a grid upgrade can be felt system wide and not only by the specific grid operator. Therefore, grid upgrading is a read more..

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    26214 Onshore Wind Energyplant is producing power. Access to affordable capital has become more difficult since the financial crisis in 2008. This effect has been mitigated as many govern-ments have made additional capital available for infrastructure projects during the last few years and at the same time the level of financial incentives was maintained. However, with the lingering crisis, tepid recovery, and mounting government debts, the wind energy market is under pressure as financial read more..

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    263References DOE/GO-102011-3322, US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC.13 de Vries, E. (2012) The Evolution of Wind Turbine Drive Systems, http://www.windpowermonthly.com/news/rss/1129015/evolution-wind-turbine-drive-systems/(last accessed 11 November 2012).14 Quilter, J. (2012) After 10 Years GE Goes Back to DFIGs, http://www.windpowermonthly.com/go/worldwide/news/1153928/10-years-GE-goes-back-DFIGs/(last accessed 11 November 2012).15 read more..

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    26414 Onshore Wind Energy31 Awerbuch, S. (2003) Determining the real cost – why renewable power is more cost competitive than previously believed. Renew. Energy World, 6 (2), 53–61.32 NREL (2011) Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study, Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5500-47086, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO. read more..

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    26515 Offshore Wind PowerDavid Infield15.1 Introduction and Review of Offshore DeploymentOffshore wind is the latest, and possibly the most technically challenging, phase of wind power exploitation. The move from onshore to offshore is driven by a combination of technical and policy imperatives, not least the desire to avoid controversial planning applications for large wind farms onshore. There are clear technical attractions, including the generally stronger and more persistent wind speeds, read more..

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    26615 Offshore Wind PowerThe second Dutch offshore development, in 2008, is the Princess Amalia wind farm comprising 60 Vestas V80 2 MW turbines.The growth of European offshore wind capacity, which accounts for most of the capacity worldwide, is illustrated in Figure 15.2.Germany has more ambitious plans, currently centered around the Alpha Ventus site, also known as Borkum West. This is a highly challenging site in the North Figure 15.1 Vindeby – the world’s first offshore wind farm. read more..

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    26715.1 Introduction and Review of Offshore DeploymentSea, 45 km from the nearest land (the island of Borkum). The first phase of the development was officially opened in April 2010. It consists of 12 turbines, of which six are 5 MW Areva Multibrid (M5000) turbines and the other six 5M models from REpower. The turbines stand in 30 m of water and are not visible from land. The REpower turbines are installed on jacket foundations (OWEC Jacket Quattropods) and the Areva turbines are installed on read more..

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    26815 Offshore Wind PowerFigure 15.3 367.2 MW Walney offshore wind farm completed 2012. Copyright ecoGizmo.As already mentioned, the United Kingdom is the world leader in terms of installed offshore capacity with 1858 MW online in 2012 (see, e.g., Figure 15.3), and also has 2359 MW currently under construction, with more than 42 000 MW in the pipeline. Other European countries have significant capacity and are reviewed above.Asia is increasingly interested in offshore wind. South Korea, for read more..

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    26915.1 Introduction and Review of Offshore DeploymentIt is hoped that this situation may change with the re-election of President Obama and an apparent re-invigoration of American plans for sustainable energy.Although onshore wind is widely agreed to generate electricity on windy sites at costs comparable to conventional generation2) (and indeed is sometimes claimed to be cheaper), offshore wind at this stage of development is considerably more expensive. Figures vary with the details of the read more..

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    27015 Offshore Wind PowerTable 15.1 Offshore capital costs (real and also estimated).Development/estimateCapital cost(£/kW)O&M*(£/kW)O&M*(p/kWh)Life(years)Cost of capital(%)Load factor(%)Levelised cost(£/MWh)Future Offshore (DTI 2002)10001.220103551aEnergy Review (DTI 2006d)15004620103379a,cDanish Wind Industry (see footnotes)11000.7207.547033bHorns Rev (DK)131010.72207.545340aNysted (DK)119010.72207.537342aNorth Hoyle (UK)13504355201037460aScroby Sands read more..

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    27115.2 Wind Turbine Technology Developmentspotential for cost reduction, concluding that, “based on the evidence gathered … the CRTF concludes offshore wind can reach £100/MWh by 2020.”. To achieve this cost reduction, significant progress is required on a number of fronts, not least reduced operation and maintenance costs (O&M). This report conveniently sum-marizes the breakdown of total offshore wind costs and comments on them based on interviews with experts conducted by BVG read more..

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    27215 Offshore Wind PowerTable 15.3 Selected planned offshore prototypes showing wind technology evolution.ManufacturerModelDate of full-scale prototype testaRated power (MW)Generator typeGearbox stagesbArevaM500020045.0PM2Repower5M20045.0DFIG3BardBard 5.020085.0DFIG3Repower6M20096.2DFIG3BardBard 6.520116.5PM3SiemensSWT 6-12020116.0PM0SinovelSL 600020116.0DFIG3GE Energy4.1-13320114.1PM0Guodian UPUP-600020126.0DFIG3AlstomHaliade read more..

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    27315.3 Site Assessmentgenerators, and conventional drivetrains with nominally 1500 rpm generators (either induction or conventional wound-rotor synchronous machines, or hybrids with PM generators and low ratio gearboxes). It has been claimed by Romax, the drivetrain modelers and analysts, that the latter option is the most cost-effective for turbines over 7 MW, but in truth, until there is more operational experience, this is a hard judgment to make. Table 15.3 summarizes the characteristics of read more..

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    27415 Offshore Wind PowerAn improved understanding of the offshore meteorology is also required at the stage of site assessment. Wasp, as originally developed for onshore wind site appraisal, has been extended to try to compensate for offshore atmospheric stability, but despite this no offshore wind farm can be developed without measurements made on-site. A full-height offshore mast is expensive but necessary at this time. Research is under way, however, to explore measurements made from sea read more..

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    27515.4 Wind Farm Design and Connection to Shoreserious concerns as to how such HVDC networks would be protected in the event of cable faults. An example of a meshed HVDC network in the North Sea is shown in Figure 15.5 [4]. The ideas are not completely fanciful and sub-sea HVDC will be used increasingly in UK waters over the next few years, first to provide so-called HVDC bootstraps to the UK’s existing north to south AC transmission system to ease the flow of onshore wind power from Scotland read more..

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    27615 Offshore Wind PowerFigure 15.6 Different foundation technologies3) currently available. Source: taken from [3].15.5 Installation and Operations and MaintenanceBecause the cost of O&M is much more significant offshore than onshore, it is important to consider how this may be reduced. The O&M figure of 18% in Table 15.2 reflects current offshore wind farms; UK Round 3 sites, like Germany’s Alpha Ventus, are further from the land and also experience more challenging sea conditions, read more..

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    27715.5 Installation and Operations and Maintenanceshows how the expected delay time to repair caused by waiting for a suitable weather window depends critically on both the time taken to effect the repair and also the significant wave height that the repair vessel can cope with, H. This example was for Barrow, one of the Round 1 wind farms located near shore and subject only to modest seas. It is apparent, however, even for this benign site, how tens of wind turbine operational days can be lost read more..

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    27815 Offshore Wind Power15.6 Future Prospects and Research Needed to Deliver on TheseSince one vision of future offshore connection technology has already been presented, this last section will focus on the next generation of offshore turbines.Future offshore wind turbines may well depart from the onshore upwind Danish concept design (in which the turbine rotor is maintained upwind of the tower, usually by a yaw drive system and controller). They are just as likely to be downwind (with the read more..

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    27915.6 Future Prospects and Research Needed to Deliver on Thesewind energy applications, such as distance from people and transportation to sites not directly restricted by road or other land-based infrastructure limits. New turbine concepts, as reviewed above, may make an impact but this is very hard to judge. However,, as summarized in Table 15.2, it is most likely that the major reductions in cost will be achieved by improved installation techniques and maintenance strategies, together with read more..

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    28015 Offshore Wind Powercoast of Agucadoura, Portugal, that has the further distinction of the being the first to be installed without the use of a heavy lift vessel, highlighting a further advantage of this concept.The hidden challenge with such developments is the creation of a design process that is reliable. This in turn requires much improved aerodynamic models that can cope with both flexible rotors and large rotor displacements caused by both wind loads and the motion of the sea, even to read more..

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    281References References 1 European Wind Energy Association (2012) The European Offshore Wind Industry – Key Trends and Statistics, 1st half 2012, EWEA, Brussels.2 Wiser, R., Yang, Z., Hand, M., Hohmeyer, O., Infield, D., Jensen, P. H., Nikolaev, V., O’Malley, M., Sinden, G., and Zervos, A. (2011) Wind energy, in IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (eds O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, K. Seyboth, P. Matschoss, S. Kadner, T. Zwickel, P. read more..

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    28316 Towards Photovoltaic Technology on the Terawatt Scale: Status and ChallengesBernd Rech, Sebastian S. Schmidt, and Rutger Schlatmann16.1 IntroductionPhotovoltaics (PV) (direct conversion of solar radiation into electricity) has developed into a mature technology during the past few decades. The Sun delivers almost 10 000 times more energy per year to the Earth’s surface than the global population consumes during the same period. Considering this vast amount of energy, PV has almost read more..

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    28416 Towards Photovoltaic Technology on the Terawatt Scale: Status and ChallengesThe Section 16.2 briefly describes basic solar cell operation principles and discusses physical limits of energy conversion efficiency. The production sequence of today’s mainstream technologies will be given with a focus on the “classic” silicon wa-fer-based technology, which currently represents almost 85% of the world market. The Section 16.3 provides up-to-date information on the technical design and cost read more..

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    28516.2 Working Principles and Solar Cell FabricationKey parameters usually used to characterize solar cells and modules can be extracted from this curve (see Figure 16.1 caption). Standard Test Conditions (STC) are 1000 W m–2 solar irradiance and 25 °C PV cell or module temperature. The power output of a solar module derived under these conditions is the so-called “peak power” Wp already mentioned. To calculate the energy produced by 1 Wp of installed PV capacity, many more parameters read more..

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    28616 Towards Photovoltaic Technology on the Terawatt Scale: Status and Challenges16.2.1 Crystalline Si Wafer-Based Solar Cells – Today’s Workhorse TechnologyThe world-wide PV market is dominated by solar modules consisting of individual crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer -based solar cells. Even though more efficient or cheaper technologies (in cost per square meter) are known, the price–performance ratio of c-Si-based solar modules has proven itself to be highly competitive. c-Si PV read more..

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    28716.2 Working Principles and Solar Cell Fabricationthe aluminum and chemical (silicones) industries divide up the remaining world production roughly equally. Since the refining process is very energy intensive, production tends to be located in places where suitable quartz can be found and energy costs are low (China, United States, Norway, Brazil).To qualify as PV or electronic stock material, the metallurgical Si must be highly purified, reducing impurities to ppm (oxygen, carbon) or even read more..

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    28816 Towards Photovoltaic Technology on the Terawatt Scale: Status and ChallengesAll individual cells are tested and sorted for subsequent processing into solar modules. As all cells deliver about 0.5 V and a few ampères under illumination, usable electrical output for the solar module can be created by soldering the (40–60) individual cells into a series-connected string. To guarantee an outdoor lifetime of 20–30 years, such strings are mechanically, electrically, and chemically protected read more..

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    28916.2 Working Principles and Solar Cell FabricationFigure 16.4 Flow chart for thin-film PV module processing at PVcomB. Note that both thin-film technologies, CIGS [Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2] and TF Si, share substrate cleaning, transparent conductive oxide (TCO) processing, and laser scribing, whereas the semiconductor fabrication for thin-film Si and CIGS relies on dedicated processes. read more..

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    29016 Towards Photovoltaic Technology on the Terawatt Scale: Status and ChallengesHence the main technological steps in a thin-film solar cell production process are substrate cleaning, first electrode deposition, absorber and emitter deposition, second electrode deposition (each deposition is typically followed by a cell structuring step), and finally module encapsulation (Figure 16.2b). The processing principle for two different technologies is nicely demonstrated by the flow chart of the read more..

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    29116.3 Technological Design of PV SystemsThe energy generation costs of the PV system, that is, costs per kilowatt hour, are then given by the ratio of the total costs during the 20 years to the total amount of energy produced by the system.The expected performance was calculated using the software PV*SOL Expert 5.0 [11] (Table 16.2). According to the calculation, the 11.5 kWp system is expected to deliver 10 MWh of electricity. The resulting value of 869.2 kWh per installed kWp is Figure 16.5 read more..

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    29216 Towards Photovoltaic Technology on the Terawatt Scale: Status and Challengesabout 10% lower than achievable under optimum conditions owing to three almost equally contributing reasons:1. The inclination of the roof is 15° and slightly below optimal.2. Shading from neighboring buildings.3. Limiting output power to 70% of the peak power according to the German feed-in law [12] for systems not taking part in grid management.Whereas reasons 1 and 2 have to be typically considered for read more..

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    29316.3 Technological Design of PV Systemssilicon in such a way that they are appropriate for walkable overhead glassing con-struction (Figure 16.6) [13]. The entire glass roof has an area of 11 600 m2 with the 1728 PV modules covering an area of 9900 m2 and representing an installed nominal power of roughly 760 kWp. This PV installation provides at least two features in addition to the electricity generation: The glass-based modules are part of the roofing construction. They are an esthetic eye read more..

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    29416 Towards Photovoltaic Technology on the Terawatt Scale: Status and ChallengesFigure 16.7 Semi-transparent solar module. Courtesy of Masdar PV GmbH.Although long recognized as a PV market with an enormous growth potential, no systematic optimization approach for BIPV has been established. As a result, BIPV still remains a relatively small part of the PV market. There are two important reasons for this. Solar modules are completely independently produced items in more or less optimized read more..

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    29516.4 Cutting Edge Technology of Todaymodules, and can compete in the same markets. There are three potential advan-tages connected to using flexible substrates, which allow for a roll-to-roll production process of solar modules:1. Roll-to-roll processes can achieve lower production costs. Production equipment with the equivalent throughput can have a smaller footprint, since flexible sub-strates have significantly lower thermal mass, and heating and cooling can be achieved over very small read more..

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    29616 Towards Photovoltaic Technology on the Terawatt Scale: Status and Challenges16.4.1 Eff iciencies and CostsAlthough it is beyond the scope of this chapter and the ability of the authors to provide detailed insight into the exact cost structure and future cost perspectives of PV, we developed a very simplified cost model for the energy generation costs, EGC (costs per kWh), partly based on the 2012 residential system described in Section 16.3.1. The model nicely emphasizes the demands on read more..

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    29716.4 Cutting Edge Technology of TodayAdditional constraints may be given by the local conditions such as wind load, soiling, sand blasting, snow load, solar array orientation, or shading. In our simple model, the energy generation costs arising from the BoS cost are given by the intersection of the scenario curves with the y-axis. Even when assuming minimal costs for the module (MC), including glass substrates and junction box, solar cell efficiencies of 7.5% (such as historically delivered read more..

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    29816 Towards Photovoltaic Technology on the Terawatt Scale: Status and ChallengesIn both cases, high-quality Si wafers with excellent electronic properties serve as the base material. In the IBC concept, both contacts are on the back side of the solar cell. Hence it follows that no metallic grid structure is required on the front side of the solar cell. In the case of the hetero-junction concept, hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers form the emitter and back surface field. Contacting is read more..

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    29916.4 Cutting Edge Technology of TodayThe three thin-film solar cell absorber materials under large-scale industrial development (all in the gigawatts range) are based on CdTe, thin-film Si (mostly a-Si/µc-Si), and CIGS. All three technologies rely on vacuum processing for most of the crucial device processes.CdTe is a semiconductor material having an energy gap close to the optimum value for single-junction solar cells (about 1.44 eV). In addition, the phase diagram of CdTe allows for read more..

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    30016 Towards Photovoltaic Technology on the Terawatt Scale: Status and Challengesration of Cu, In, Ga, and Se from individual sources at temperatures above 500 °C, and the other using sequential processing routes. The steps used in sequential processing routes include, first, depositing the metal precursor layer stack (usually by sputtering, but alternatively by nonvacuum methods such as electroplating), optionally followed by the deposition of a layer of Se, and subsequently, thermally read more..

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    30116.5 R&D Challenges for PV Technologies Towards the Terawatt Scale16.5.1 Towards Higher Eff iciencies and Lower Solar Module CostsEnhanced conversion efficiencies have the highest impact on cost reduction. Con-sequently, each PV technology follows efficiency goals while trying to maintain or even reduce the production costs related to the module area. Figure 16.9 illustrates efficiency goals according to the SRA [27] for the three classes of solar modules commercialized today, and read more..

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    30216 Towards Photovoltaic Technology on the Terawatt Scale: Status and Challenges16.5.3 Thin-Film TechnologiesFor Si thin-film technologies, the amount of high-quality Si used is significantly lower and the advantages of integrated module manufacturing and large-area coating technologies provide unique advantages. However, today’s module efficiencies are in the range 7–10%. Hence it follows that the key issue for this technology is an enhancement of the conversion efficiency above 14 and read more..

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    30316.5 R&D Challenges for PV Technologies Towards the Terawatt ScaleWithin the next 10–20 years, module conversion efficiencies above 40% are feasible and, if the thermal energy is also used, even significantly higher system efficiencies are possible [30].16.5.5 Emerging Systems: Possible Game Changers and/or Valuable Add-OnsThe NREL chart of cell efficiencies [23] carefully monitors the development of solar cell conversion efficiencies for the different technology lines and is regularly read more..

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    30416 Towards Photovoltaic Technology on the Terawatt Scale: Status and Challenges16.5.7 Beyond Technologies and CostsWithin the energy supply system today, PV is still a relatively new contributor. In Germany, PV is already highly visible when traveling through the country. Moreover, PV has an impact on electricity generation, the employment sector, and also the socio-economic balance when considering the cost of electricity generation. Other countries such as Japan and China have started or read more..

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    305References during daytime or higher wind speeds during cloudy weather conditions favoring wind energy production. Finally, manifold socio-economic factors have to be considered for PV implementation within the future energy system.Solar energy is ready to make a substantial contribution to the global energy supply within the next few decades and bears the potential to become the major energy source of the future.Acknowledgments The authors thank Masdar PV for providing practical examples read more..

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    30616 Towards Photovoltaic Technology on the Terawatt Scale: Status and Challengessuppliers and manufacturers, in 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, pp. 527–532.15 Ringbeck, S. and Sutterlüti, J. (2012) BoS costs: status and optimization to reach industrial grid parity, in 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, pp. 2961–2975.16 Kinoshita, T. Fujishima, D., Yano, A., et al. (2011) The approaches for high efficiency HIT solar cells read more..

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    30717 Solar Thermal Power ProductionRobert Pitz-Paal, Reiner Buck, Peter Heller, Tobias Hirsch, and Wolf-Dieter Steinmann17.1 General Concept of the Technology17.1.1 IntroductionConcentrating solar thermal power (CSP) systems use high-temperature heat from concentrating solar collectors to generate power in a conventional power cycle instead of – or in addition to – burning fossil fuel. Only direct radiation can be concentrated in optical systems. In order to achieve significant read more..

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    30817 Solar Thermal Power Productioninterim period. Rapid technological innovation followed, leading to developments in CSP components, and the development and commercialization of new CSP technologies [3–8]. A significant initiative, cutting across technical, commercial and political fields, has been the Desertec concept [9, 10], in which it is proposed that the developed and developing world work together to harness the solar potential of the world’s deserts for mutual benefit.By mid-2011, read more..

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    30917.1 General Concept of the TechnologyFigure 17.2 Technologies for concentrating solar radiation. (a) Parabolic and linear Fresnel troughs; (b) central receiver system and parabolic dish. Source: Greenpeace – awaiting permission.According to the principles of thermodynamics, power cycles convert heat to me-chanical energy more efficiently the higher the temperature. However, the collector efficiency decreases with higher absorber temperature due to higher heat losses. Consequently, for any read more..

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    31017 Solar Thermal Power Productioninclusion of storage capacity always leads to higher investment and higher electricity prices, CSP systems with storage are potentially cheaper than CSP systems without storage. This becomes clear on comparing a solar power plant without storage of, for example, 100 MWel capacity that is operated for ~2000 equivalent full-load hours per year at a typical site to a system with half the capacity (50 MWel) but the same size solar field and a suitable thermal read more..

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    31117.1 General Concept of the TechnologyTable 17.1 Performance data for various CSP technologies.TypeCapacity (MWel)Concentration Peak system eff iciency (%)Annual system eff iciency (%)Thermal cycle eff iciency (%)Land use (m2 y MWh–1)Trough10–200 70–1002110–16 35–42 ST6–11Fresnel10–200 25–10020 9–1330–42 ST4–9Power tower10–200 300–100023 8–2330–45 ST8–20Dish-Stirling 0.01–0.41000–30002916–28 30–408–12ST = Steam Turbine.17.1.3 Environmental read more..

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    31217 Solar Thermal Power ProductionCSP plants are more material intensive than conventional fossil-fired plants. The main materials used are commonplace commodities such as steel, glass, and concrete whose recycling rates are high: typically over 95% is achievable for glass, steel, and other metals. Materials that cannot be recycled are mostly inert and can be used as filling materials (e.g., in road building) or can be land-filled safely. Few toxic substances are used in CSP plants: the read more..

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    31317.2 Technology Overviewemerging market initiated by the attractive feed-in tariff in Spain led to the devel-opment of individual variants by the different companies of the former consortium. A different structural approach was taken by SENER, but still maintained the basic LS3 concentrator geometry [20].Typically, these collectors are assembled from several interconnected concen-trator modules (SCEs), mounted on a series of aligned pylons. The center pylon is equipped with a hydraulic drive read more..

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    31417 Solar Thermal Power ProductionOptical QualityOptical quality is one of the key performance parameters of parabolic trough col-lectors. It is preferably determined by a field measurement after installation of the complete collector system. Thus, influences between different components such as structure, fixing elements, and mirrors can be accounted for. With measurement systems such as photogrammetry, deflectometry, photo/video scanning, and laser systems, the optical performance of the read more..

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    31517.2 Technology Overviewuse a steam cycle design similar to that of the SEGS VI plant [35]: a single reheat Rankine cycle with 100–105 bar and 377–383 °C live steam conditions. They are equipped with six preheating stages: three low-pressure preheaters, the deaerator, and two high-pressure preheaters.Design cycle efficiency of these plants is slightly above 38% when a wet cooling tower is used. Dry cooling with an air-cooled condenser leads to lower cycle effi-ciency since the turbine read more..

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    31617 Solar Thermal Power ProductionThe Kuraymat, Hassi R’Mel, and Ain Beni Mathar plants produce saturated steam in the solar steam generator, which is fed into the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) for superheating [39, 40]. The electricity generated from solar energy at the design point is less than 17% in all cases and the annual solar fractions of these plants are even lower since the solar field delivers less than the design heat input for a large portion of the year [41].Direct Steam read more..

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    31717.2 Technology Overviewabsorbed by the salt in the irradiated receiver tubes and be stored directly in large, flat-bottomed storage tanks. Solar field and power block are fully decoupled; such a system is beneficial for satisfying the demands of full dispatchable power plants.The current main candidates are nitrate salts. A mixture of sodium nitrate (60 wt%) and potassium (40 wt%) nitrate is used in the 5 MW-Archimede plant [51]. The upper allowed temperature is > 550 °C [52]; first read more..

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    31817 Solar Thermal Power Productionmain reason why peak optical efficiencies of linear Fresnel systems (~67%) are lower than those for comparable parabolic troughs (~78%).Whereas the impact of the nonideal optics is moderate under the design con-ditions, the optical performance decreases significantly for low Sun heights. Figure 17.5 shows the incident angle-dependent correction term for the optical efficiency for a typical parabolic trough and linear Fresnel collectors. The impact in the read more..

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    31917.2 Technology Overviewconstruction. Wind loads on the mirrors are very small since the facets with small aperture width are arranged in one horizontal plane near the ground. Since the optical concentrator movement of a linear Fresnel system is independent of the receiver tube, long rows with a straight receiver tube can easily be realized. In parabolic troughs, the single collectors have to be connected via flexible connections to allow individual tracking of the units. Especially for read more..

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    32017 Solar Thermal Power ProductionFresnel systems represent an interesting option for high-temperature/high-pressure applications. First test facilities demonstrated the feasibility to reach steam tem-peratures of ~500 °C [68]. In the near future, commercial systems with high steam parameters are expected to be realized. The benefits of the linear Fresnel system are put into perspective if the overall performance is taken into consideration, since the typical annual output measured in terms read more..

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    32117.2 Technology OverviewThe heliostat field consists of numerous flat or slightly curved reflectors (helio-stats) that are tracked in two dimensions in order to direct the reflected radiation towards the receiver on top of the tower. Current heliostat technology differs mainly in the area of the reflecting surface. The smallest heliostats are built from single glass mirrors with an area of 1.1 m2, each tracked independently [76]. The largest heliostats in commercial application have a total read more..

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    32217 Solar Thermal Power Productionstruction. The most relevant solar tower plants that are in operation are described briefly in the following sections.The plant PS10 [77] was the first commercial solar tower system and was com-missioned in 2007 by Abengoa Solar. The plant is located near Seville, Spain, and is rated at 11 MWel. The concentrated solar radiation heats a metallic tube receiver where saturated steam of 250 °C and 40 bar is generated to drive a turbine for power generation. A read more..

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    32317.2 Technology Overviewconsists of three independent solar tower units, each with its own power block. The receivers are used to generate superheated steam to drive a steam cycle for power production. In total, 170 000 heliostats will be installed, each of about 16 m2. Crescent Dunes (SolarReserve): this solar tower plant is under construction near Tonopah, NV, USA and has a power level of 110 MW [83]. Molten salt is used as HTF and storage medium. The storage is designed for about 4500 read more..

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    32417 Solar Thermal Power Production2012 [89]. Other projects involve the modification of commercial gas turbines to the specific requirements of solar–hybrid operation. New approaches are investigating the use of innovative supercritical CO2 cycles that show promising efficiencies with moderate receiver temperatures [90].Several new receiver concepts are proposed for maintaining high efficiencies at the envisaged higher receiver temperatures. Innovative receiver concepts aim at the reduction read more..

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    32517.2 Technology OverviewFigure 17.8 Scheme of a CSP plant with integrated thermal storage.The adaptation of the storage system to the characteristics of both the solar con-centrator and the power block is crucial. Owing to the large variety of concentrator types, working fluids, and thermodynamic cycles considered for application in CSP plants, different storage concepts have been developed to meet the specific combina-tion of requirements for a given configuration [95, 96]. Preferably, the read more..

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    32617 Solar Thermal Power ProductionSensible Heat StorageIn sensible heat storage, a single-phase medium (either liquid or solid) are used for heat storage. The capacity of the storage system depends on the mass of the storage medium, the specific heat capacity, and the temperature variation during the charging/discharging process. If nonpressurized, cost-effective HTFs are used in the solar absorbers, direct storage of the hot HTF is possible.Pressurized or expensive HTFs require the transfer read more..

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    32717.2 Technology OverviewTable 17.5 Solid and liquid materials for sensible heat storage.PCMMelting tempera-ture (°C)Density(kg m–3)Thermal conductivity(W mK–1)Heat of fusion(kJ kg–1)Volume specif ic latent heat(kWh m–3)KNO3–NaNO2–NaNO3 (eutectic) 14220000.56033KNO3–NaNO3 (eutectic)22220000.510055NaNO330619000.517596Chemical Energy StorageThe enthalpy change of reversible chemical reactions can also be used for energy storage [98, 99]. Compared with sensible heat storage and read more..

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    32817 Solar Thermal Power Productionof latent heat energy storage had been proven by a 700 kW module operated with steam at 100 bar [105], further research activities are aimed at the cost optimiza-tion of this approach, which uses integrated extended surface heat exchangers. For this concept, the size of the heat exchanger increases directly with the storage capacity. Innovative latent heat storage concepts try to decouple the size of the heat exchanger from the storage capacity by transporting read more..

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    32917.3 Cost Development and Perspectives [17]Table 17.6 Illustrative costs of generating technologies in 2010 [17] (currency conversion 2010 $/€ = 0.755).TechnologyLEC(€ kWhe–1)Capacity(MW)EPC cost(€ kWe–1)Cap factorFuel costs(€ kWhe–1)O&Mfix(€ kW–1 y–1)O&Mvar(€ kWhe–1)CSP: 100 MW no storage (Arizona)0.17910035420.280480Pulverized coal: 650 MW base-load0.06965023910.900.029270.3Pulverized coal: 650 MW mid-load0.0965023910.570.029270.3Gas combined cycle read more..

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    33017 Solar Thermal Power ProductionIt is not just the cost of CSP generation which determines its economic compet-itiveness, but also its value, which has three components: the value of the kilowatt hours of electrical energy generated by the plant, which will vary over time in a competitive electricity market, reflecting the availability and cost of electricity from other sources; the contribution that the CSP plant makes to ensuring that generating capacity is available to meet peak read more..

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    33117.3 Cost Development and Perspectives [17]17.3.2 Cost Reduction PotentialThree main drivers for cost reduction are scaling up, volume production, and tech-nology innovations. As an example, one of the first comprehensive studies of the potential for cost reduction of CSP was undertaken in the framework of the European ECOSTAR project [6]. The study proposed the potential relative reduction of the LEC of trough plants of up 60%. Half of this potential can be exploited by technical read more..

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    33217 Solar Thermal Power ProductionExpected cost reductions and plant efficiency improvements associated with tech-nology innovations were reported by Kearney [106].17.4 ConclusionIn solar thermal power systems, concentrating solar collectors provide high tem-perature to a power cycle of engine to generate mechanical energy that is than converted to electricity using a generator. It benefits from a mature power plant technology that has been optimized during almost a century using heat based on read more..

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    333References and Popel, O. (2005) Concentrating solar power plants – how to achieve competitiveness. VGB PowerTech, (8) 46–45. 7 Romero, M., Buck, R., and Pacheco, J. E. (2002) An update on solar central receiver systems, projects, and technologies. J. Sol. Energy Eng., 124 (2), 98–108. 8 Mancini, T., Heller, P., Butler, B., Osborn, B., Schiel, W., Goldberg, V., Buck, R., Diver, R., Andraka, C., and Moreno, J. (2003) Dish-Stirling systems: an overview of development and status. J. read more..

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    33417 Solar Thermal Power Production 25 Fernández, S. and Acuñas, A. (2012) New optimized solar collector SENERtrough-2, presented at the 18th International SolarPACES Symposium, 11–14 September, Marrakech. 26 Price, H., Lupfert, E., Kearney, D., Zarza, E., Cohen, G., Gee, R., and Mahoney, R. (2002) Advances in parabolic trough solar power technology. J. Sol. Energy Eng., 124 (2), 109–125. 27 Ulmer, S., Heinz, B., Pottler, K., and Lüpfert, E. (2009) Slope error measurements of read more..

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    335References Meyer-Grünefeldt, M., Hillebrand, S., and Schulte-Fischedick, J. (2011) Direct steam generation in parabolic troughs at 500 °C – first results of the REAL DISS project, presented at the 17th International SolarPACES Symposium, 20–23 September, Granada, Spain. 44 Feldhoff, J., Eickhoff, M., Karthikeyan, R., Krüger, J., León-Alonso, J., Meyer-Grünefeldt, M., Müller, M., and Valenzuela-Gutierrez, L. (2012) Concept comparison and test facility design for the analysis of read more..

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    33617 Solar Thermal Power Production 60 Häberle, A., Zahler, C., Lerchenmüller, H., Mertins, M., Wittwer, C., Trieb, F., and Dersch, J. (2002) The Solarmundo line focussing Fresnel collector. Optical and thermal performance and cost calculations, presented at the 11th International SolarPACES Symposium, 4–6 September, Zurich. 61 Mills, D. R. and Morrison, G. L. (2000) Compact linear Fresnel reflector solar thermal powerplants. Sol. Energy, 68 (3), 263–283. 62 Mills, D. R., Morrison, G., read more..

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    337References International SolarPACES Symposium, September 21–24, Perpignan, France. 77 Osuna, R., Fernández-Quero, V., and Sánchez, M. (2008) Plataforma solar Sanlúcar La Mayor: the largest European solar power site, presented at the 14th International SolarPACES Symposium, 4–7 March, Las Vegas, NV. 78 Arias, S. A. and Burgaleta, J.I (2011) A real CSP experience – GEMASOLAR, the first tower thermosolar commercial plant with molten salt storage, presented at the CSP Today read more..

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    33817 Solar Thermal Power Production 95 Gil, A., Medrano, M., Martorell, I., Lázaro, A., Dolado, P., Zalba, B., and Cabeza, L. F. (2010) State of the art on high temperature thermal energy storage for power generation. Part 1 – Concepts, materials and modellization. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 14 (1), 31–55. 96 Medrano, M., Gil, A., Martorell, I., Potau, X., and Cabeza, L. F. (2010) State of the art on high-temperature thermal energy storage for power generation. Part 2 – Case studies. read more..

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    33918 Geothermal PowerChristopher J. Bromley and Michael A. Mongillo18.1 IntroductionFuture deployment projections of geothermal energy resources have been published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in a “Roadmap” document [1]. In volcanic and plate boundary settings, high-temperature geothermal energy is often the least expensive renewable energy option, especially in terms of long-run marginal cost (LRMC). For example, in New Zealand, the LRMC for new geothermal projects is US$ read more..

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    34018 Geothermal PowerFigure 18.1 Electricity generation – LRMC for new New Zealand projects in lowest cost order. Assumes: 1.5% growth per annum (+7 TWh per 10 years); NZ$25 t–1 carbon tax; 8% discount rate. Geothermal predominates for ~20 years new base-load capacity. LRMC includes the costs of interest, make-up drilling, operations and maintenance. Source: www.med.govt.nz.Figure 18.2 New Zealand historical and projected electricity generation trends per quarter from 1974. Between 2006 and read more..

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    34118.2 Geothermal Power Technologyas Indonesia, China, and the Philippines) to reach their huge geothermal energy development potential [3]. The combined effect of this regional effort will be to displace significant global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel energy sources, in both electricity and heating and cooling markets [4].18.2 Geothermal Power TechnologyThe dominant types of geothermal power plant installed around the world today use technology adapted for three types of resources: (a) read more..

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    34218 Geothermal Power18.3 Global Geothermal Deployment: the IEA Roadmap and the IEA-GIAThe IEA has clearly identified the urgent need to accelerate the development of advanced energy technologies to deal with the global challenges of providing suffi-cient clean energy, mitigating climate change, and sustainable development [1]. In June 2008, the G8 countries acknowledged this challenge by requesting the IEA to develop a series of energy technology roadmaps. Roadmaps enable governments, read more..

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    34318.4 Relative Advantages of Geothermalattractive economics will drive accelerated deployment of conventional, high-tem-perature hydrothermal resources, but in limited locations (i.e., plate boundaries, hot spots). Development of deep-aquifer, medium-temperature hydrothermal resources will also expand owing to their wider distribution/availability and in-creasing interest in their use for heat and power. A longer term target, by 2050, is required to deploy resources requiring advanced read more..

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    34418 Geothermal Power Geothermal electric power plants have relatively high capacity factors (defined here as the actual, annual, net, generated power (in megawatt hours), divided by the combined name-plate generation capacity of the turbines (in megawatts), times 8760 h per year); the world-wide average for power generation is about 75% [7], but this is adversely affected by power dispatch issues and the availability status of aging turbines, whereas modern geothermal power plants exhibit read more..

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    34518.5 Geothermal Reserves and Deployment Potentialgrowth rates, while allowing for retirements of some older projects, enabling their temperature recovery through natural recharge. In Table 18.1, capacity factors (as defined above) increase with time as older plants are retired and grid connections mature, allowing new and more efficient power plants to operate in full base-load mode, closer to their design capacity factor.Because of the steady flow of heat to the Earth’s surface, geothermal read more..

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    34618 Geothermal Power18.6 Economics of Geothermal EnergyThe key driver to increased geothermal deployment is cost and risk reduction. Both of these factors are location specific. In some countries, incentives such as feed-in tariffs or subsidies are not needed because the economics already favor geothermal development as a renewable option. This is usually a consequence of previous indirect subsidies by the government in the form of advance exploration drilling and scientific research that read more..

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    34718.7 Sustainability and Environmental ManagementAdaptive management of geothermal production, by adjusting locations and rates of fluid extraction and injection, is also needed to optimize sustainable utilization of each system. This requires flexibility. Most geothermal developments that have been operating for more than 20 years have undergone changes in production–injection strategy in response to monitoring of effects on the resource. Planners and regulators need to accommodate this. read more..

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    34818 Geothermal Powerhigh extraction rates for short duration cycles. Balanced fluid/heat production that does not exceed the recharge (natural and induced) can be considered indefinitely sustainable. If extraction rates exceed the rate of recharge, reservoir depletion will occur, but following termination of production, geothermal resources will undergo asymptotic recovery towards their pre-production pressure and temperature states. Practical replenishment (~95% recovery) will occur on read more..

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    34918.7 Sustainability and Environmental ManagementFrance). Dynamic recovery factors determine the long-term response of the system to energy extraction; they change with time. Recovery is influenced by an enhanced recharge driven by the strong pressure and temperature gradients initially created by the fluid and heat extraction. Because of this dynamic recovery process, rotational utilization of geothermal resources is a viable long-term strategy, and an economic and sustainable alternative to read more..

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    35018 Geothermal Powerreservoir management involves countering the adverse effects of premature tem-perature decline with appropriate and flexible production and injection strategies. Such strategies need to be adjusted at times, in order to achieve the correct balance. Flexibility in locating and utilizing future injection wells, both inside and outside the hydrological edges of a geothermal system, is a key means of achieving a suc-cessful outcome. Optimized strategies of geothermal read more..

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    351Transition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.19 Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy IndustryDavid Krohn19.1 Development of the IndustryThe marine energy industry has continued to move towards commercial viability as an increasing number of devices move through the demonstration phase. There are read more..

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    35219 Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy Industryables Obligation (RO) will be enhanced to five Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROCs) per megawatt hour [3]. The ROC regime adds revenue to low-carbon projects by charging carbon-intensive generation a ROC (value ~£42) and transferring it to renewable or clean generation.This support has catalyzed a large amount of activity in the industry and enhanced the attraction of first array projects to a read more..

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    35319.2 The Benefits of Marine EnergyTable 19.1 Total cost saving per year from diversifying the United Kingdom’s energy mix by including higher proportions of marine energy. All data in £million. Source: [2].CostsWind : marine (%)100 : 075 : 2560 : 4040 : 60Reduced backup capacity0205201159Reduced costs of reserve capacity0108130137Reduced costs of fuel and CO2 emissions0211298337Reduction in extra renewable capacity required to replace spill0192236234Total savings0717865867 Affordability read more..

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    35419 Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy IndustryFigure 19.1 Variability of renewable generation technologies (over two illustrative days for 2030 mix). Based on observed patterns, 28–29 July 2006, scaled up to 2030 levels. The chart shows the generation that would be produced by the different renewable technologies (as a percentage of installed capacity) in the Pöyry Very High scenario over a 2 day period. Source: CCC analysis based on modeling read more..

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    35519.3 Expected Levels of Deploymentwave and tidal leases from The Crown Estate as a starting point, before developing a pipeline of projects that are in a position to gain grid connection and consent approval in the relevant time frame. These projects are noted as “viable projects” in Figure 19.2.It is noted that financing is the primary constraint to the development of the industry. The current government capital support stream will facilitate the develop-ment of a small number of read more..

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    35619 Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy IndustryFigure 19.3 The cost trajectory for tidal stream energy.Figure 19.4 The cost trajectory for wave energy. read more..

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    35719.4 Determining the Levelized Cost of Energy Trajectory19.4 Determining the Levelized Cost of Energy TrajectoryThe true levelized cost of energy (LCoE) of marine energy is yet to be confirmed on a large scale, owing to the lack of full-scale arrays. However, the submission of data in application for the MEAD and MRCF has crystallized the current position on LCOE and the trajectory up to 2020.While the timing of the end of the RO regime is not ideally timed for the marine energy industry, the read more..

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    35819 Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy IndustryFigure 19.5 Forecast cost reduction. Potential impact of innovation on levelized costs (medium global deployment). Point 1: “proof of value” point based on the time at which a critical mass of devices has been deployed and reached a potential subsidy level of approximately 2–3 ROCs (depending on electricity prices). Source: [5]. read more..

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    35919.4 Determining the Levelized Cost of Energy TrajectoryFigure 19.6 Target areas for cost reduction. Source: [4].We are mindful of the areas that will yield the greatest reductions and feel that the Carbon Trust’s Accelerating Marine Energy [4] highlights some of the key categories where costs can be saved (Figure 19.6).The leading developers are pursuing an aggressive cost reduction program to ensure that costs can fall to a level that will encourage investment and catalyze development. read more..

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    36019 Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy Industry Device access – Innovative deployment and recovery systems, offshore marine operations innovation, and scale all contribute to reduced costs. Offshore wind – Exploiting synergies in manufacturing, supply chain, grid, and O&M logistics. Higher capacity sites – Higher capacity sites become accessible with experience on more benign sites, thus improving output. Reducing cost of capital – read more..

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    36119.5 Technology Readiness19.5.1 Tidal Device Case Study 1AR1000Manufacturer Atlantis Resources Corp.Type of device Horizontal-axis turbineStatus Full-scale prototype, 2011Location Currently at NarecRating 1 MWDevice descriptionThe AR1000 is a three-bladed fixed-pitch horizontal-axis turbine with active yaw mechanism and a direct-drive permanent magnet generator with variable-speed drive. Power is exported via medium voltage (3.8 kV) cables to an onshore substation. Higher efficiency blades read more..

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    36219 Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy Industry19.5.2 Tidal Device Case Study 2HS1000Manufacturer Andritz Hydro HammerfestType of device Horizontal-axis turbineStatus Full-scale prototypeLocation Fall of Warness, EMEC, OrkneyRating 1 MWDevice descriptionHorizontal-axis, pitch-regulated, three-bladed turbine, installed in-line with the flow. A nacelle houses the gearbox, asynchronous generator, and control systems, and subsea cables export energy read more..

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    36319.5 Technology Readiness19.5.3 Tidal Device Case Study 3SeaGenManufacturer Marine Current TurbinesType of device Horizontal-axis turbineStatus Full-scale prototype, 2008Location Strangford LoughRating 1.2 MWDevice descriptionThe SeaGen device comprises twin horizontal-axis rotors 16 m in diameter, each driving a gearbox and generator. The generator output is rectified, inverted, and exported to the distribution grid (in the case of the Strangford Lough project) via a step-up transformer. read more..

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    36419 Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy Industry19.5.4 Tidal Device Case Study 4Deep GreenManufacturer MinestoType of device OtherStatus Scale prototype, 2011Location Tank testRating 0.5 MW (full-scale)Device descriptionThe wing is attached to the turbine and gearless-generator arrangement, with a rudder and servo system at the rear of the device. The device is tethered to the seabed in an arrangement that accommodates the power cables and read more..

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    36519.5 Technology Readiness19.5.5 Tidal Device Case Study 5Open-Centre TurbineManufacturer OpenHydroType of device Horizontal-axis turbineStatus Full-scale prototype, 2011Location Fall of Warness, EMEC, OrkneyRating 0.25 MW (UK device)Device descriptionThe Open-Centre tidal stream turbine is a seabed-mounted device that consists of a rotor, duct, stator, and generator. Water passes through the duct, utilizing the Venturi effect, to the slow-moving rotor with a hole to enable marine life to pass read more..

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    36619 Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy Industry19.5.6 Tidal Device Case Study 6Pulse-Stream 100Manufacturer Pulse TidalType of device Oscillating hydrofoilStatus Scale prototype, 2009Location River Humber estuaryRating 0.1 MWDevice descriptionThe Pulse-Stream 100 is an oscillating hydrofoil tidal stream device. It extracts power from tidal currents using horizontal blades that move up and down. This movement drives a gearbox and generator through read more..

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    36719.5 Technology Readiness19.5.7 Tidal Device Case Study 7DeltaStreamManufacturer Tidal Energy LtdType of device Horizontal-axis turbineStatus Full-scale prototype, 2012Location Ramsey SoundRating 1.2 MWDevice descriptionThe DeltaStream device is a 1.2 MW unit which sits on the seabed without the need for a positive anchoring system. It generates electricity from three separate horizontal-axis turbines mounted on a common frame. This avoids piling or sig-nificant seabed preparation.The use of read more..

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    36819 Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy Industry19.5.8 Tidal Device Case Study 8Deep-Gen IVManufacturer Tidal Generation LtdType of device Horizontal-axis turbineStatus Scale prototype, 2010Location Fall of Warness, EMEC, OrkneyRating 1 MWDevice descriptionDeep-Gen IV is a three-bladed upstream tidal turbine that extracts energy during both flood and ebb tides using an active yaw system. The nacelle is a buoyant design to allow towing to the site read more..

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    36919.5 Technology Readiness19.5.9 Tidal Device Case Study 9Voith HyTide 1000-13Manufacturer Voith HydroType of device Horizontal-axis turbineStatus Scale prototype, 2010Location Fall of Warness, EMEC, OrkneyRating 1 MWDevice descriptionThe Voith HyTide device is a seabed-mounted horizontal-axis tidal stream turbine. The three symmetrical blades capture energy from the tidal stream on the ebb and flood flow without pitch and yaw requirements. Electricity is generated using a direct-drive, read more..

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    37019 Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy Industry19.5.10 Tidal Device Case Study 10SR250Manufacturer Scotrenewables Tidal PowerType of device Horizontal-axis turbineStatus: Scale prototype, 2009Location Fall of Warness, EMEC, OrkneyRating 0.25 MW (full-scale 2 MW)Device descriptionThe Scotrenewables Tidal Turbine (SRTT) is a floating tidal stream turbine. The main structure of the SRTT is a cylindrical tube to which dual horizontal-axis rotors are read more..

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    37119.5 Technology Readiness19.5.11 Wave Device Case Study 1Oyster 800Manufacturer Aquamarine PowerType of device Oscillating wave surge converterStatus Full-scale prototype, 2011Location Billia Croo, EMEC, OrkneyRating 0.8 MWDevice descriptionOyster is a nearshore wave-powered pump which pushes high-pressure water to drive an onshore hydroelectric turbine. The mechanical offshore device is connected to the seabed in ~10 m water depth, typically within 1 km from the shore facility. The pump is a read more..

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    37219 Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy Industry19.5.12 Wave Device Case Study 2WaveRollerManufacturer AW-EnergyType of device Oscillating wave surge converterStatus Scale prototype, 2012Location PortugalRating 0.8 MW (per flap)Device descriptionThe WaveRoller device is a flap anchored to the seabed at its base. The back and forth movement of the wave surge moves the flap, transferring the kinetic energy to piston pumps, which feed into an onshore read more..

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    37319.5 Technology Readiness19.5.13 Wave Device Case Study 3AWS-IIIManufacturer AWS Ocean Energy (AWS)Type of device OtherStatus Scale prototype, 2010Location Billia Croo, EMEC, Orkney (2014)Rating 2.5 MWDevice descriptionThe AWS-III consists of a number of interconnected flexible wave energy absorber cells mounted on a common floating structure. The flexible membrane absorbers convert wave energy to compress air within each cell as a wave is incident on the cell. The compressed air is used to read more..

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    37419 Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy Industry19.5.14 Wave Device Case Study 4BOLT 2Manufacturer Fred. Olsen RenewablesType of device Point absorberStatus Scale prototype, 2009Location Cornwall, UKRating 0.25 MWDevice descriptionThe BOLT 2 device is a near-shore, moored, floating point absorber. The unit is manufactured in composites and steel. Each unit may be autonomous or remotely operated.StatusFred. Olsen has tested a scale device in read more..

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    37519.5 Technology Readiness19.5.15 Wave Device Case Study 5PowerBuoyManufacturer Ocean Power Technologies (OPT)Type of device Point absorberStatus Scale prototype, 2011Location Invergordon, ScotlandRating 0.15 MWDevice descriptionThe PowerBuoy is constructed as two main hull elements, the spar and the float. The spar is designed to remain as stationary as possible whereas the float responds actively and dynamically to wave forces. The difference in motion between the two hulls is captured as read more..

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    37619 Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy Industry19.5.16 Wave Device Case Study 6P2 PelamisManufacturer Pelamis Wave PowerType of device AttenuatorStatus Full-scale commercial, 2010Location Billia Croo, EMEC, OrkneyRating 0.75 MWDevice descriptionThe P2 Pelamis is a semi-submerged, floating device that faces in the direction of the waves. Five tube sections are joined by universal joints that allow flexing in two directions with identical, read more..

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    37719.5 Technology Readiness19.5.17 Wave Device Case Study 7LimpetManufacturer Voith Hydro WavegenType of device Oscillating water columnStatus Full-scale, 2000Location IslayRating 0.5 MWDevice descriptionThe Limpet device is a shore-mounted oscillating water column that has been tuned to capture energy from annual average wave intensities of between 15 and 25 kW m–1. It comprises an air chamber with an opening below the water. The wave action moves the water level up and down the air chamber, read more..

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    37819 Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy Industry19.5.18 Wave Device Case Study 8Wave DragonManufacturer Wave DragonType of device OvertoppingStatus Scale prototype, 2003Location DenmarkRating 1.5 MWDevice descriptionThe Wave Dragon is a floating overtopping wave energy converter with wave-reflect-ing wings. Waves are channeled up an adjustable ramp to a reservoir, creating a head differential. Water is then passed through a number of low-head read more..

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    379References ConclusionReferences1 RenewableUK (2010) Wave and Tidal Channelling the Energy – Oct 2010, http://www.renewableuk.com/en/publications/index.cfm/Wave-and-Tidal-Channelling-the-Energy (last accessed 2 February 2013).2 Redpoint Energy (2009) The Benefits of Marine Technologies Within a Diversified Renewables Mix. A Report for the British Wind Energy Association by Redpoint Energy Limited, Redpoint Energy, London.3 Department of Energy and Climate Change (2011) Consultation on read more..

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    381Transition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.20 HydropowerÅnund Killingtveit20.1 Introduction – Basic PrinciplesHydropower is generated by converting potential energy in water, as it moves from a higher to a lower elevation, into mechanical and electrical energy. The theoretical output of electrical power depends on three main factors, read more..

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    38220 HydropowerIn addition to kilowatt hours (kWh), some other commonly used units of electrical energy are megawatt hours (MWh), gigawatt hours (GWh) and terawatt hours (TWh):MWhkWh (Wh)GWhMWh (Wh)TWhGWh (Wh)6912110001011000101100010The power output P (Eq. 20.2) in a power plant is limited to Pmax (nameplate capacity) at the maximum flow capacity Qmax. If the inflow becomes larger than this, water will be lost (spilling) unless there is a reservoir for storage. In most cases, a hydropower read more..

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    38320.1 Introduction – Basic Principles20.1.2 Computing Hydropower PotentialThe potential assessment process is different from those used for other renewables (wind, solar, etc.), which usually begin with a theoretical potential that is then reduced by applying constraints to give a technical potential and further reduced to an economic potential [2].In order to compute the potential for hydropower in an area (catchment, region, country, etc.), the usual procedure is to identify feasible sites read more..

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    38420 HydropowerFigure 20.1 Hydrological variability in hydropower system on short, medium, and long range. (a) Flow in a small river during 7 days (Ingdalselva, Norway); (b) annual flow with typical seasonal pattern (Austbygdåi, Norway); (c) annual flow during a 70 year period (Rhine at Rheinfelden). read more..

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    38520.2 Hydropower Resources/Potential Compared with Existing System20.2 Hydropower Resources/Potential Compared with Existing System20.2.1 Def inition of PotentialAn interesting discussion and several different definitions of potential can be found in [2]. The global annual potential in exajoules per year is given for five different definitions of potential in Table 20.1. Other sources [1, 4] give a global technical hydropower potential of 52.47 EJ per year or 14 576 TWh per year. This is the read more..

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    38620 HydropowerTable 20.2 Regional hydropower technical potential [1].RegionTechnical potential, annual generation (TWh per year)Generation in 2009 (TWh per year)Undeveloped potential (%)North America 1659 62861Latin America 2856 73274Europe 1021 54247Africa 1174 9892Asia 7681151480Australasia/Oceania 185 3780World14576355175Table 20.3 Hydropower potential for 9 countries in Europe + Turkey [4].CountryaTechnically feasible potential (TWh per year)Economically feasible potential read more..

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    38720.2 Hydropower Resources/Potential Compared with Existing System20.2.3 Barriers – Limiting FactorsThe technically feasible potential includes many projects that are not yet econom-ically feasible. This may change in the future, either because of increasing energy price or because of technological innovations that may bring the cost down. Both could make such projects economically feasible in the future.However, even economically feasible projects may not be developed owing to other read more..

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    38820 Hydropowerin southern Africa, in Australia, and in central and western America. Regions with increasing water resources and increasing hydropower generation can be found in northern Europe, in most of Russia, in East Asia, in East Africa, in Canada, and in parts of South America.20.3 Technological DesignHydropower plants can broadly be classified into three main types: ROR, storage hy-dropower and pumped storage plants. A fourth type, called in-stream or hydrokinetic, is under development read more..

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    38920.4 Cutting Edge Technologyduring the low-flow season (winter, dry season). The reservoir gives higher flexibility and allows the hydropower plant to adapt better to the demand profile, both in the short term (hours, days) and seasonally. Construction of a reservoir requires a dam and inundation of land area upstream of the dam. An alternative, widely used in Scandinavia, is to use an existing natural lake and create the reservoir by lowering the lake (lake tapping). Location of the power read more..

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    39020 Hydropowerof the water. Improved or new optimization methods and software will also need to be developed for better coordination with other renewables, where hydropower could have a key role in the balancing and grid stabilization as the percentage of highly variable generation in wind and solar plants is increasing.A few interesting areas where new technology is under development can be mentioned. This selection is mostly based on the chapter “Prospects for technol-ogy improvement and read more..

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    39120.4 Cutting Edge Technology20.4.2 Utilizing Low or Very Low HeadMost existing hydropower projects were developed in times of lower energy prices, where projects with low (< 15 m) and very low (< 5 m) head were not feasible. Most such low-head projects were also excluded from hydropower potential mapping in many countries, for the same reason. Therefore, existing data on hydropower potential for low-head sites are probably not complete. As an example [1], in Canada a market potential of read more..

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    39220 HydropowerTunneling technology has evolved from traditional drill and blast technology to full-face tunnel boring machines (TBMs), increasing the speed of tunneling and lowering costs. Still, there is a need for technology development, for example, for micro-tunnels that can be used to replace pipes and penstocks for small hydropower plants (< 1 m diameter), avoiding completely overground work and disturbances to Nature. Such technology is under development in Norway, utilizing read more..

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    39320.4 Cutting Edge TechnologyFigure 20.4 Development of general layout for high-head hydropower plants in Norway [7, vol. 14].Figure 20.5 The Ulla-Førre power complex in Norway [7, vol. 1]. read more..

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    39420 Hydropower20.5 Future OutlookHydropower is already very competitive, and the only renewable technology that can compete with thermal power plants in terms of cost. In the future, there are two trends that could lead to either increasing or decreasing cost compared with other technologies: improvements in technology will probably bring costs down further, but increasing environmental concerns and restrictions could lead to increasing costs. Also, since the best project sites have already read more..

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    39520.5 Future OutlookLCOE is defined as the constant unit cost (per kilowatt hour) of a payment stream that has the same present value as the total cost of building and operating a gener-ating plant over its lifetime. It can be computed as the total cost of the project over its lifetime divided by the total energy output over the same period.For hydropower, construction costs are by far the most important component in the cost calculation. It is common to combine planning and construction costs read more..

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    39620 HydropowerIt also illustrates that the combination of low discount rate and long lifetime lowers the LCOE to nearly one-third compared with high discount rate and short lifetime.20.5.2 Future Energy Cost from HydropowerMany studies have tried to make estimates of future energy costs from hydropower. Most of these studies were reviewed and summarized in [1]. Since hydropower projects are very site specific, the investment costs could vary considerably from site to site, from < $ 500 to read more..

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    39720.5 Future OutlookThere have been some observations of high GHG emissions from some tropical reservoirs, raising doubts about the real GHG emission for hydropower [1, Ch. 5.6], but it is still not clear if this represents a net emission or only a GHG emission that would occur anyway, for example, from a wetland. For most hydropower plants, it is safe to assume that they will contribute to reducing GHG emissions by between 500 and 1000 g of CO2 per kWh produced, probably closest to the high read more..

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    39820 Hydropower20.6 Systems Analysis20.6.1 Integration into Broader Energy SystemsHydropower can be successfully integrated into the power grid or operate as stand-alone plants. ROR hydropower depends on river flow, and has limited ability to follow demand, although some plants have a limited reservoir (pond) that can be used to adjust generation to fit daily load profiles. Storage hydro offers much greater flexi-bility and can offer significant flexibility for system operation. Hydropower read more..

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    39920.7 Sustainability Issues20.7.1 Environmental ImpactsLike other types of energy generation technologies, hydropower may have negative environmental and social impacts. Hydropower projects often have impacts on the flow regime in rivers and water levels regimes in reservoirs, and may therefore have negative consequences for ecosystems and threaten biodiversity. ROR projects usually change the flow regime only marginally, whereas storage hydro projects typically lead to larger changes in the read more..

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    40020 Hydropowerof the measurement specification guidance being applied to a representative set of reservoirs worldwide.20.7.4 Energy Payback RatioThe EPR is defined as the ratio of total energy produced during a system’s normal lifespan to the energy required to build, maintain, and fuel it. A high ratio indicates good environmental performance. If, for example, a system has an EPR between 1 and 1.5, it consumes nearly as much energy as it generates, so it should never be developed. read more..

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    401References References 1 IPPC (2012) Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation: Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 2 GEA (2012) Global Energy Assessment – Towards a Sustainable Future, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg. 3 WCD (2000) Dams and Development: a New Framework for Decision-Making, World Commission on Dams. 4 IJHD read more..

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    40321 The Future Role of Fossil Power Plants – Design and ImplementationErland Christensen and Franz Bauer21.1 IntroductionThe rapid growth of renewables-based power generation technologies raises questions about the future role of fossil power plants. In Europe and worldwide, fossil power plants will continue to play a major role in the coming decades, ensuring a stable and affordable supply of electricity.In countries that have opted for a more rapid revolution of the electricity supply read more..

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    40421 The Future Role of Fossil Power Plants – Design and ImplementationFigure 21.1 Expected development of the European electricity production and production portfolio 2008 to 2030. Source: VGB.Figure 21.2 Renewable energy sources production 2010 and outlook for 2020. Source: VGB. read more..

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    40521.2 Political Targets/Regulatory Frameworkare well known. However, but even when meeting the above ambitious targets, European Union (EU) electricity consumption is still expected to grow over the coming decades, reaching about 4100 billion kWh in 2035.In 2010, 661 TWh or about 19.4% of the total European power production of about 3400 TWh was produced by renewables with hydro power, wind, and biomass being the dominant sources. For 2020, renewables are expected to produce almost 1200 TWh or read more..

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    40621 The Future Role of Fossil Power Plants – Design and ImplementationTwo main conclusions can be drawn from Figure 21.3: The residual load (which has to be covered by nuclear and fossil generation capacities) after hydro must run industrial plants and combined heat and power, solar PV, and onshore/offshore wind are expected to be reduced significantly. The gradients of load change for the residual load changes significantly. It can reach 20 000 MW h–1 for Germany alone compared with about read more..

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    40721.4 System Requirements and Technical Challenges for the Conventional FleetThe fast-growing share of renewables driven by subsidies, supported “must-run” CHP production, wind, and solar PV are changing the market drastically: A large share of production/consumption is not traded on the electricity market any longer, which leads to reduced liquidity. Renewables have their main production period in winter (wind) or in the daytime (solar PV), that is, at times when electricity prices have read more..

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    40821 The Future Role of Fossil Power Plants – Design and ImplementationThe European transmission system covers continental Europe, including links to the United Kingdom, Ukraine, and Turkey, corresponding to the former UCTE network. The topology of the European high-voltage transmission system in con-nection with the RES support scheme reveals that flexibility is required in order to ensure the necessary balancing control for the grid.In this context, functioning of the grid and its control read more..

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    40921.4 System Requirements and Technical Challenges for the Conventional FleetFigure 21.5 Aging fleet and flexibility potential of modern power plants. pp = power plant; BoA = Brown coal power plants with optimized operational parameters.Source: RWE.However, there are challenges: As will be shown later, the existing conventional fleet in some countries is highly endangered by the future lower volume of generation and prices. However, we can neither as a society nor as individual plant owners read more..

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    41021 The Future Role of Fossil Power Plants – Design and ImplementationAs the share of renewables rises, we need a support system that encourages renewables to participate in delivering system services and also load following. Technically, renewables could deliver some of the services needed.Delivering the gradients involves technical challenges for existing and new plants: Delivering the requested load ramp on time without: – over- or undershooting the requested load – causing read more..

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    41121.4 System Requirements and Technical Challenges for the Conventional FleetFigure 21.6 System services required for grid control. Source: University of Rostock.ENTSO-E = European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity.21.4.2.1 Primary Reserve/ControlWhen the frequency deviates from 50 Hz, activation of the primary reserve ensures that the balance between production and consumption is restored and frequency is stabilized close to but deviating from 50 Hz.Primary reserve is read more..

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    41221 The Future Role of Fossil Power Plants – Design and Implementation21.4.2.4 “Short-Circuit Effect,” Reactive Reserves, and Voltage Regulation, Inertia of the SystemThe response time required for intervention, that is, to balance load or stabilize frequency, is decisive for the controllability of the grid. The higher share of RES-based power in the grid reduces the response time due to reduced inertia of the system normally provided by the heavy rotating masses of steam turbines and read more..

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    41321.4 System Requirements and Technical Challenges for the Conventional Fleetwind arises. Since existing hydro storage capacity is built and operated to fulfill other needs (arbitration on the power market or to deliver system services for the TSO), it would be pure coincidence if the storage functions were to be available at that particular time when needed.With a rising share of wind and solar PV in the system, we will see significant load gradients that will have to be coped with by the read more..

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    41421 The Future Role of Fossil Power Plants – Design and ImplementationHowever, there is still significant potential for replacing fossil-fired individual heating and district heating without electricity production with CHP-based district heating, which in many countries can also make a great contribution to the reduction of CO2 emissions.It is possible to integrate solar (thermal) and wind (via electric heating of water) power into district heating systems, but for the years to come the read more..

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    41521.4 System Requirements and Technical Challenges for the Conventional Fleet – from, e.g., rubber plantations in Africa that will otherwise be burnt in the field due to the need to renew plantations – from, e.g., North America where trees in vast areas have been destroyed by insect attack.Co-firing of biomass also leads to technical challenges, as shown in Figure 21.9.Figure 21.8 Hard coal and different biomasses: key characteristics. Source: Vattenfall and VGB.Figure 21.9 Critical areas read more..

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    41621 The Future Role of Fossil Power Plants – Design and ImplementationCo-combustion of biomass and pulverized coal involves the following critical issues and challenges:1. Fuel storage Health (CO, fungi), spontaneous combustion2. Milling Mechanical problems, fire, explosion3. Furnace Slagging and corrosion (CO corrosion)4. Superheater Fouling, high-temperature corrosion (mainly by KCl)5. Economizer CaSO4 deposits6. High-dust de-NOx Poisoning of catalyst (K, P, As, Ca)7. Air heater Blockage, read more..

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    41721.5 Technical Challenges for GenerationFigure 21.10 European power plant projects since 2007. Source: VGB. read more..

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    41821 The Future Role of Fossil Power Plants – Design and Implementation21.6 Economic ChallengesAs outlined earlier, the existing power plant portfolio is to be renewed, and more flexible power plants and plants working as “backup” for intermittent production are needed. Many plants are being planned, but in 2011–12 alone a total of 31 000 MW of projects have been abandoned for the lack of a business case.VGB and EURELECTRIC are currently updating the report Levelised Cost of read more..

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    41921.6 Economic ChallengesThe future development of CAPEX figures depends – beyond other factors – on technical progress. The manufacturing, physical/chemical, or market effects determine the technical progress. It is evident that the CAPEX figures are the pre-requisite for the OPEX figures. Therefore, the learning curve parameters affecting the cost components of any system able to produce electricity are the following: physical effects chemical effects simplification of the system process read more..

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    42021 The Future Role of Fossil Power Plants – Design and ImplementationTable 21.1 Basic assumptions for levelized cost of electricity as shown in Figure 21.11. Electricity generating costs, EURELECTRIC/VGB; status 6 December 2011.Conventional Fossil FuelsNuclearHydroType Gas opencycleGas CCGTHard coal 600Lignite 600Hard coal 700aLignite 700aHC 700 + CCSaHC 600 + Biocof iringNuclear EPR1600aPumped storagebLifetime years25253535353535304060Oper. read more..

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    42121.7 Future Generation Portfolio – RES Versus Residual PowerFigure 21.11 Levelized cost of electricity for a European power plant. The assumptions for the calculations are shown in Table 21.1. Source: EURELECTRIC/VGB.This development could, if neglected, lead to tremendous problems for the entire transition away from the current fossil-based society and needs to be addressed appropriately.21.7 Future Generation Portfolio – RES Versus Residual PowerSeen from a European and worldwide read more..

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    42221 The Future Role of Fossil Power Plants – Design and ImplementationExperts estimate that fossil fuels will continue to cover most of the extra demand. Fossil fuels will still account for about 70% of electricity generated worldwide in 2035. About half of the electricity generated in the EU will come from fossil fuels by that time.Renewable energy sources will play a growing role in the global primary energy consumption structure. Likewise, nuclear power will – despite the political read more..

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    423Part III Gas ProductionTransition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. read more..

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    42522 Status on Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Water ElectrolysisJürgen Mergel, Marcelo Carmo, and David Fritz22.1 IntroductionEnergy technology is currently undergoing a major transformation worldwide. The generally accepted factors driving this transition are climate change, supply security, industrial competitiveness, and local emissions. With its 2010 energy concept, the German Federal Government has set course for an environmentally friendly, reliable, and affordable energy read more..

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    42622 Status on Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Water ElectrolysisFigure 22.1 Hydrogen as storage medium for renewable energy.22.2 Physical and Chemical FundamentalsThe production of hydrogen and oxygen from water by water electrolysis is a well-established technological process worldwide, dating back more than 100 years. However, at present only about 4% of hydrogen requirements worldwide are covered by electrolysis [2]. This is due to the higher cost of generating electrolytic hydrogen read more..

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    42722.2 Physical and Chemical FundamentalsrevrevkJ mol.VCmolGVnF112371232 96485 (22.3)where n is the number of electrons and F is the Faraday constant for 1 mol of hydrogen produced. However, this assumes that the fraction for T SR is integrated in the electrolysis process in the form of heat. revV is therefore also termed the lower heating value (LHV), which corresponds to an energy content for gaseous hydrogen of 3.0 kWh Nm–3. If the thermal energy is introduced in the form of electrical read more..

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    42822 Status on Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Water ElectrolysisFigure 22.3 Specific energy consumption of water electrolysis as a function of temperature. Reproduced from [3] with permission from FVEE ForschungsVerbund Erneuerbare Energien.In alkaline electrolysis the water is usually fed in on the cathode side and in PEM electrolysis on the anode side. In the case of high-temperature electrolysis, the required steam is supplied at the cathode. Figure 22.3 shows the reaction enthalpy read more..

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    42922.2 Physical and Chemical FundamentalsTable 22.1 summarizes the values for HR and GR with the respective voltages for thV and revV at different temperatures.The cell voltages achievable in practice for water electrolyzers are, however, much higher than the theoretical reversible cell voltage. This is due, first, to the overpo-tentials at the electrodes which are caused by irreversible processes at the electrodes and are therefore also known as activation overpotentials. Second, the read more..

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    43022 Status on Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Water ElectrolysisHHHVelHHVHHV of the H produced=electric power requiredVP22 (22.6)If the hydrogen produced in the electrolyzer is used energetically in a subsequent application, for example by conversion into electrical energy in a fuel cell, only the lower heating value of the hydrogen is used. It is then more appropriate to relate the electrolyzer efficiency to the reversible voltage rev.VV123 or to the lower heating value (LHV) of read more..

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    43122.3 Water Electrolysis Technologiesproduces hydrogen at 740 Nm3 h–1, which corresponds to an electrical output of ~3.6 MW. The cell stack consists of up to 560 cells with a diameter of 1.60 m and, depending on the number of cells, can be up to 10 m in length. In contrast to the Lurgi electrolyzer, the Bamag electrolyzer operated at atmospheric pressure (Figure 22.5b) uses rectangular electrodes with an active area of ~3 m2 and usually has 100 cells with a capacity of ~330 Nm3 h–1 of read more..

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    43222 Status on Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysisrange from 0.2 to 0.4 A cm–2 [5]. The cost of alkaline electrolyzers in the megawatt class is in the region of ~€ 1000 kW–1 [5, 12]. These are electrolyzers operating at atmospheric pressure or pressurized electrolyzers operated at 30 bar. Lifetimes of up to 90 000 h were specified for the stack, that is, typically alkaline electrolyzers need to be completely overhauled every 7–12 years, replacing the electrodes read more..

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    43322.3 Water Electrolysis Technologies22.3.2 PEM ElectrolysisPEM electrolysis with proton-conducting membranes (see Figure 22.2b) has been under development for just 20 years, and in that time only a few commercial products have become available (< 65 Nm3 h–1) for industrial niche applications (e.g., for the local production of high-purity hydrogen for semiconductor manufacturing, electric generator cooling, and the glass industry). In contrast to alkaline water electrolysis, PEM uses read more..

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    43422 Status on Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysiscorrodes by forming RuO4 in acidic electrolytes, leaching out of the catalyst layer [17, 18]. Durability is also related to the chemical and mechanical properties of the catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) in PEM electrolysis. The method of preparing the catalyst ink/paste and the method of coating the catalyst on the Nafion membrane directly affect the performance and durability of the CCM. The catalyst layer on the membrane read more..

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    43522.3 Water Electrolysis Technologieslong-term stabilities of only < 20 000 h are given for the lifetime of PEM electrol-ysis stacks. Nevertheless, Proton OnSite recently achieved a lifetime of more than 50 000 h for stacks as used, for example, in PEM electrolyzers of the HOGEN C series (Figure 22.8) [22].As can be seen from Table 22.3, in comparison with alkaline electrolysis, PEM electrolysis permits a much larger partial load range, which is particularly beneficial for operation with read more..

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    43622 Status on Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Water ElectrolysisTable 22.4 Comparison of alkaline and PEM water electrolysis.Alkaline water electrolysisPEM electrolysisAdvantages Well-established technology No noble metal catalysts High long-term stability Relatively low costs Modules up to 760 Nm3 h–1 (3.4 MW)Advantages Higher power density Higher efficiency Simple system configuration Good partial load toleration Ability to accommodate extreme overloads (determining system size) read more..

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    43722.3 Water Electrolysis Technologiesdemand can be fed in by high-temperature heat, Qmax, thus reducing the input of electrical energy min. HOT ELLY used an electrolyte-supported tubular concept with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the electrolyte for the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). Voltages of less than 1.07 V with current densities of 0.3 A cm–2 were obtained in endurance tests on single cells. Reversible operation with H2–H2O and CO–CO2 was also demonstrated for the read more..

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    43822 Status on Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysisanode sidecathode sideHO COHCOO 2222 (22.8)it represents an interesting alternative for synthesis gas in order to produce synthetic fuels according to the Fischer–Tropsch process [29]. In addition to the two purely electrochemical reactions (reduction of steam and CO2), during co-electrolysis the reversible water-gas shift reaction (WGS) also proceeds:CO H OCOH222 (22.9)In contrast to the electrolysis reactions, the read more..

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    43922.4 Need for Further Research and Developmentcessfully demonstrated up to a power range of ~350 kW in various projects where alkaline electrolyzers were directly coupled to photovoltaic (PV) systems [10, 11, 31]. A special problem is the partial load behavior, in particular in alkaline electrolyzers, due to increasing gas contamination. As already mentioned in Section 22.3.1, the lower partial load range of alkaline electrolyzers is only 20–40% of nominal load because contaminating gases, read more..

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    44022 Status on Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysishave to be installed (see Figure 22.12b). With respect to the costs, however, this requires the catalyst loading to be reduced by a factor of 10 while maintaining the same efficiency for PEM electrolysis.If water electrolysis technology is to be widely and sustainably used on the mass market for the storage of renewable energies after 2020, further steps must be taken to solve outstanding technical issues, such as read more..

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    44122.4 Need for Further Research and DevelopmentFigure 22.13 (a) Hydrogenics 10 bar electrolyze for 60 Nm3 h–1 hydrogen. Source: Hydrogenics. (b) An NEL Hydrogen pressurized electrolyzer with a stack capacity of 60 Nm3 h–1 hydrogen. Source: NEL Hydrogen AS.22.4.1.1 Electrocatalysts for Alkaline Water ElectrolysisElectrocatalysts for alkaline electrolysis have attracted considerable attention since the first developments [36]. It is a well-developed technology even at the commer-cial level read more..

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    44222 Status on Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysis22.4.2 PEM ElectrolysisIn the long term, PEM electrolysis may become of greater significance owing to its advantages compared with alkaline electrolysis (Table 22.4). However, the electrodes and cell area must be scaled up to more than 1000 cm2 in order to obtain systems for larger applications (> 1 MW). The still considerable investment costs (> € 2000 kW–1 [5]) for PEM electrolyzers must be drastically cut. As read more..

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    44322.4 Need for Further Research and Developmentmade. MoS2 [69], WO3 [70], and glyoximes [71] are among other options. These catalysts can be supported or formed on different nanostructures and compositions. Unfortunately, these materials still present significantly lower current densities. The redox potentials must be shifted to higher values compared with conventional platinum cathodes.22.4.2.2 Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER)As previously discussed, iridium (IrO2) is read more..

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    44422 Status on Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysiswhen operating at higher current densities where the internal ohmic resistance and mass transport become the dominating sources of irreversibility. It is the combination of the factors ohmic resistance, mass transport, and cost that create a difficult set of targets for R&D of the current collectors and separator plates for a PEM electrolyzer given the long list of additional constraints. The high cost of the current read more..

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    44522.4 Need for Further Research and Developmentcorrosive acidic environment, thus requiring a coating to maintain a reasonable lifespan. The addition of a coating typically increases the ohmic resistance and in many cases minor imperfections in the coatings can expose the base metal and thus fail to prevent corrosion and only delay its onset. Coatings can greatly improve the life of the components, but creating and applying a coating that meets the demands of this environment is not an easy read more..

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    44622 Status on Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysis22.5 Production Costs for HydrogenThe costs of producing hydrogen depend on the energy or electricity costs, the plant size (decentralized or centralized electrolysis), and the associated investment costs for electrolysis, plant utilization, and electrical efficiency of the electrolysis. According to a 2009 study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), for decentralized and centralized electrolyzers electricity read more..

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    447References tion, the use of hydrogen for transportation purposes in high-efficiency fuel-cell powertrains promises the greatest savings in CO2. However, if water electrolysis is to be widely and sustainably used on the mass market for hydrogen production from surplus power generated from renewable sources from 2020 onwards, further research is necessary on materials, such as alternative catalysts and membranes, and further steps are necessary to solve open technical issues. These include read more..

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    44822 Status on Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysisat the 19th WHEC – World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2012, Toronto.17 Lewerenz, H. J., Stucki, S., and Kotz, R. (1983) Oxygen evolution and corrosion – XPS investigation on Ru and RuO2 electrodes. Surf. Sci., 126 (1–3), 463–468.18 Kotz, R., Lewerenz, H. J., and Stucki, S. (1983) XPS studies of oxygen evolution on Ru and RuO2 anodes. J. Electrochem. Soc., 130 (4), 825–829.19 Stucki, S. et al. (1998) PEM water read more..

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    449References 38 Balej, J. et al. (1992) Preparation and properties of Raney-nickel electrodes on Ni–Zn base for H2 and O2 evolution from alkaline solutions. 2. Leaching (activation) of the Ni–Zn electrodeposits in concentrated KOH solutions and H2 and O2 overvoltage on activated Ni–Zn raney electrodes. J. Appl. Electrochem., 22 (8), 711–716.39 Divisek, J., Mergel, J., and Schmitz, H. (1990) Advanced water electrolysis and catalyst stability under discontinuous operation. Int. J. read more..

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    45022 Status on Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysis59 Phuruangrat, A. et al. (2010) Synthesis of hexagonal WO3 nanowires by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and their electrocatalytic activities for hydrogen evolution reaction. J. Mater. Chem., 20 (9), 1683–1690.60 Merga, G. et al. (2010) “Naked” gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, catalytic hydrogen evolution, and SERS. J. Phys. Chem. C, 114 (35), 14811–14818.61 Li, Y., Hasin, P. and Wu, Y. read more..

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    451Transition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.23 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane ReformingChristos Agrafiotis, Henrik von Storch, Martin Roeb, and Christian Sattler23.1 IntroductionHydrogen (H2) has a long tradition as an energy carrier and as an important feedstock in the chemical industry and refineries. Hydrogen can be produced read more..

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    45223 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane Reforminga subject of primary technological interest. There are basically three pathways for producing hydrogen with the aid of solar energy [4]: electrochemical, photochem-ical, and thermochemical. The last approach is based on the use of concentrated solar radiation as the energy source for performing high-temperature reactions that produce hydrogen from the transformation of various fossil and nonfossil fuels via different routes such as read more..

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    45323.2 Hydrogen Production Via Reforming of Methane Feedstocksbe converted to electricity at significantly higher efficiencies in large combined gas turbine cycle plants (at 45–50% thermal efficiency) rather than just using it in the less efficient steam turbine (ST) cycle (at 30–35% thermal efficiency [18, 19].In the so-called “closed-loop” systems, a high-quality hydrocarbon feedstock such as methane is converted to syngas via solar reforming; the syngas is then stored or transported read more..

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    45423 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane ReformingoKCO H OHCOkJ molH122229841 (23.3)The overall reaction of steam reforming followed by the WGS is given byoKCHH OHCOkJ molH1422229824165 (23.4)As can be seen from reactions 23.1 and 23.2, the H2/CO ratio in the product differs significantly: 3 and 1, respectively. Therefore, in order to provide a high hydrogen yield, steam reforming followed by the WGS reaction is most suitable, as an H2/CO ratio of up to 4 can be achieved. However, the read more..

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    45523.2 Hydrogen Production Via Reforming of Methane Feedstocks23.2.2 Current Industrial StatusThe commercial feedstock of choice for syngas production is natural gas and the most widely used process is steam reforming, as discussed briefly earlier. Steam reforming is usually conducted inside tubes packed with nickel catalyst. Schematics of the operation of typical industrial reformers are shown in Figure 23.2 [29]. The outer diameter of the tubes ranges typically from 100 to 150 mm and the read more..

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    45623 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane ReformingFrom intrinsic kinetics, it can be shown that a space velocity of 104 h–1 leads to close-to-equilibrium composition in the product gas [1–3].The steam reforming process as practiced today faces a number of constraints. First, thermodynamics demands high exit temperatures to achieve high conversions of methane. In contrast, the catalysts are potentially active even at temperatures below 400 °C. Consequently, there have been efforts read more..

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    45723.3 Solar-Aided ReformingThe common characteristic of the indirectly irradiated receivers (IIRs) is that the heat transfer to the working fluid does not take place on the surface which is exposed to incoming solar radiation. Instead, there is an intermediate opaque wall, which is heated by the irradiated sunlight on one side and transfers the heat to a working fluid on the other side [32]. The simplest examples of such receivers are conventional tubular receivers that consist of absorbing read more..

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    45823 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane Reformingshown schematically in Figure 23.4b, middle. Finally, another version of indirectly heated receivers is the so-called heat pipe receivers where concentrated sunlight is employed for the evaporation of a liquid substance (e.g., liquid sodium), which in turn condenses on the tubes containing the heat-transfer fluid, liberating the heat of vaporization, which in this case is transferred isothermally to the heat-transfer fluid through the read more..

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    45923.3 Solar-Aided ReformingHowever, the most direct and therefore potentially the most efficient method would involve direct heating of the heat-transfer fluid by the concentrated beam, thus eliminating the wall as the light absorber and heat conductor. Directly irradi-ated receivers (DIRs) make use of fluid streams or solid particles directly exposed to the concentrated solar radiation. A key element of all DIRs is the absorber: the component that absorbs concentrated sunlight and transports read more..

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    46023 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane ReformingIn a direct analogy with “conventional” catalytic applications, it becomes obvious that all three structured porous volumetric solar absorber modules shown in Figure 23.4c can be coated with proper functional materials capable of perform-ing/catalyzing a variety of high-temperature chemical reactions – among them reforming – and thus be “transformed” and adapted to operate as solar chemical receiver/reactors where chemical read more..

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    46123.3 Solar-Aided Reforminga concentrated solar beam [49–51]. The technical characteristics and results were summarized and compared by Kirillov [52].A significant amount of work has been conducted over the last 20 years on the development and scale-up of the technology of solar reforming of methane and other hydrocarbons at DLR, the WIS, and Sandia National Laboratory, in several cases within joint projects. Relevant research on solar reforming concepts is currently being performed all over read more..

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    46223 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane ReformingFigure 23.5 WIS’s beam-down reformer technology: (a) beam down facility at WIS’s solar tower at Rehovot, Israel; (b) schematic of operating principle; (c) schematic of reformers’ cascade; (d) detailed schematic of construction on the ground [29, 57]. read more..

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    46323.3 Solar-Aided ReformingIn Australia, the solar reforming of methane is particularly attractive in view of the country’s enormous areas of favorable insolation and its very large reserves of natural gas and coal bed methane that are co-located in many regions. Work in Australia on solar methane reforming has been conducted by CSIRO since the early 1990s, aimed at catalyst and reactor development for conducting the CO2-reforming reaction for application on both open- and closed-loop solar read more..

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    46423 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane ReformingFigure 23.6 CSIRO’s reformer technology development: (a) the single-coil solar reformer and its operating principle; (b) the double-coil reformer and its operating principle; (c) the single-tower, 500 kW, heliostat field at the Newcastle site, Australia; (d) the reformer on the tower during solar operation [17]. read more..

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    46523.3 Solar-Aided ReformingFigure 23.7 SANDIA-WIS sodium reflux heat pipe solar receiver/reformer, built and tested at WIS’s solar furnace (1983–1984) for the CO2 reforming of methane: (a) schematic diagram of the reactor; (b) heating concept principle; (c) details of a single reactor tube; (d) photograph of the receiver without the front panel; (e) the receiver installed in the facility at WIS’s solar tower [62]. read more..

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    46623 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane ReformingHeat-Transfer Fluid: Sodium VaporIn this concept, liquid sodium contained in an evacuated chamber evaporates under the effect of concentrated sunlight impinging on one surface of the containment. The sodium vapor condenses on the reactor tubes in the chamber and liberates the heat of vaporization. Passive techniques (channels, wicks, gravity, etc.) return the liquid sodium to the absorber. Advantages claimed are the excellent read more..

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    46723.3 Solar-Aided Reformingthe outer absorber tube is filled with the composition of a phase-change material (carbonate) and a ceramic material (MgO) to increase the composition’s thermal conductivity. Two different-sized reactor tubes were constructed and tested for dry reforming of methane during the cooling or heat-discharge mode of the reactor tube using an electric furnace, successfully sustaining a methane conversion above 90% with a feed gas mixture of CH4–CO2 (1 : 3) at a residence read more..

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    46823 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane ReformingA schematic and a photograph of the reactor are shown in Figure 23.8a [11]. The reactor was composed of three concentric vertical tubes: an innermost tube made of porous graphite, a central tube made of solid graphite, and an outer tube made of quartz. The sunlight through the quartz tube heated the center solid graphite tube, which then radiated to the porous graphite tube. Argon was fed into the annular region between the two graphite read more..

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    46923.3 Solar-Aided Reformingreforming reaction [51]. Owing to failure issues, the sapphire window was later replaced with a fused-silica bell-jar reactor that was tested in the same facility in the configuration shown in Figure 23.9 [50]. The catalysts were two samples (12 and 25 cm thick) of cordierite honeycomb with 4 mm square holes and 0.5 mm wall thickness, first coated with a high surface area alumina wash-coat, followed by deposition of Rh. When a temperature of ~800 °C was reached on read more..

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    47023 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane ReformingFigure 23.10 (a) Sketch of structure of CAESAR multi-layer foam absorber; (b) schematic of receiver/reactor operation; (c) photograph of first CAESAR receiver; (d) actual reactor on parabolic dish test facility [74]. read more..

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    47123.3 Solar-Aided ReformingFigure 23.11 The SCR and SOLASYS ceramic foam-based directly irradiated (DIVVRR) solar steam methane reformer: (a) sketch and operating principle; (b) assembled dome of the solar receiver, (c), (d) reactor photographs of the SCR; (e) SOLASYS reactor installation on top of the solar tower of the WIS; (f) close-up photograph of the reformer installed on top of the tower; (g) reformer in operation [17]. read more..

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    47223 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane ReformingThese ceramic foam-based solar reactors were pursued further within the Project SOLASYS (partners DLR, WIS, and Ormat Pty Ltd, an Israeli company with expertise in gas turbines and related technologies), where the technical feasibility of solar reforming with liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as feedstock and combustion of the product gases (syngas mixture) in a gas turbine to generate electricity at the 300 kWe scale was successfully read more..

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    47323.3 Solar-Aided Reforminghigher temperatures, thus allowing a broad range of feed compositions – biogas, landfill gas, and contaminated natural gas (CH4 with a high content of CO2) – to be processed and avoiding carbon deposition in the reformer/reactor. An advanced solar reformer was developed, tested, and validated under real solar conditions at the WIS (Figure 23.12b). A test campaign was carried out, demonstrating the feasibility of the SOLREF technology. Relevant publications claim read more..

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    47423 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane ReformingFigure 23.13 The metallic foam-based 5 kWth absorber/reactor at Inha University, Korea, used for CO2 reforming of methane on the solar dish system (INHA-DISH1) [54].Structured Reactors Based on FinsWIS researchers have designed a reformer based on the directly irradiated annular pressurized receiver (DIAPR) [41] and the “porcupine” concept, for operation at high temperatures and pressures. A schematic of the reformer design and read more..

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    47523.3 Solar-Aided ReformingFigure 23.14 WIS “porcupine” directly irradiated solar reformer: (a) schematic of the reformer design and operating principle; (b) three-dimensional representation of the reactor geometry; (c) actual absorber sections made of alumina base, before (bottom) and after (top) inserting alumina tubes coated with the catalyst into it; (d), (e) actual 30 kW reformer as built [85]. read more..

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    47623 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane ReformingNon-Structured Reactors Based on Solid ParticlesDry methane reforming with CO2 in a directly irradiated particle receiver seeded with carbon black particles with a C/CO2 molar ratio of ~0.5 : 100 and with CO2/CH4 inlet ratios varying from 1 : 1 to 1 : 6 was carried out at WIS [86]. The receiver uses a moving radiation absorber, that is, particles entrained in the reforming gas mixture that have two functions: to absorb the solar read more..

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    47723.4 Current Development Status and Future ProspectsWith respect to the CSP technology to be employed, solar dish collectors focus the solar energy (typically 10–400 kWth) to a receiver mounted at the focus of the dish. Even though the first solar-coupling step of many of the reforming studies described has been the testing of reactors positioned at the focal point of a solar dish receiver, the fact that the receiver/reactor therefore has to move with the dish as the latter tracks the Sun read more..

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    47823 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane ReformingASTERIX project might be more attractive for large-scale implementation and demonstration of the technology.Another set of issues relates to the choice of steam or CO2 for reforming. There are advantages and disadvantages for each option, with a clear choice only for certain open-cycle applications. For example, if methanol is the desired end-product, the amount of steam or CO2 used would give an optimal CO/H2 ratio in the syngas. If H2 read more..

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    479References study of two possible process configurations. J. Solar Energy Eng., 128 (1), 16–23.10 von Zedtwitz, P. et al. (2006) Hydrogen production via the solar thermal decarbonization of fossil fuels. Solar Energy, 80 (10), 1333–1337.11 Dahl, J. K., et al. (2004) Solar-thermal dissociation of methane in a fluid-wall aerosol flow reactor. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 29 (7), 725–736.12 Abanades, S. and Flamant, G. (2005) Production of hydrogen by thermal methane splitting in a read more..

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    48023 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane Reforming33 Richardson, J., Paripatyadar, S., and Shen, J. (1988) Dynamics of a sodium heat pipe reforming reactor. AIChE J., 34 (5), 743–752.34 Olalde, G. and Peube, J. (1982) Etude expérimentale d’un récepteur solaire en nid d’abeilles pour le chauffage solaire des gaz à haute température. Rev. Phys. Appl., 17 (9), 563–568.35 Fend, T., et al. (2004) Porous materials as open volumetric solar receivers: experimental determination of read more..

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    481References 57 Segal, A. and Epstein, M. (2003) Solar ground reformer. Solar Energy, 75 (6), 479–490.58 McNaughton, R. (2012) Solar steam reforming using a closed cycle gaseous heat transfer loop, presented at the 18th International SolarPACES Symposium, 11–14 September, Marrakech.59 McNaughton, R. and Stein, W. (2009) Improving efficiency of power generation from solar thermal natural gas reforming. presented at the 15th International SolarPACES Symposium, 15–18 September, Berlin.60 read more..

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    48223 Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane Reformingcatalytically-activated metallic foam absorber. J. Solar Energy Eng., 126, 808.80 Gokon, N., et al. (2010) Ni/MgO–Al2O3 and Ni–Mg–O catalyzed SiC foam absorbers for high temperature solar reforming of methane. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 35 (14), 7441–7453.81 Lee, J., et al. (2011) Solar CO2-reforming of methane using a double layer absorber, presented at the 17th International SolarPACES Symposium, 20–23 September, Granada.82 read more..

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    483Part IV BiomassTransition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. read more..

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    48524 Biomass – Aspects of Global Resources and Political OpportunitiesGustav Melin24.1 Our Perceptions: Are They Misleading Us?We are influenced by the perceptions we gain in life. One perception that we have been fed with over the decades through TV and newspapers is that when we see or read reports of countries and people suffering from famine, we tend to believe that we are not able to produce enough food throughout the globe. We have also heard about the global population explosion ever read more..

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    48624 Biomass – Aspects of Global Resources and Political OpportunitiesLet us consider a resource such as gold: the amount of it is limited, but we do not consume gold. It can appear in minerals, maybe not found and enriched. It can be in jewelry and become lost or placed in a bank safe. The demand for and use of gold depend on the interest of people to invest in it and own it. If people find gold attractive, they will buy it if the price is affordable. If we had a surplus of gold, it would read more..

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    48724.3 Global Food Production and Prices24.3 Global Food Production and PricesSince biomass volumes are not really limited but are rather a function of demand and supply, a major global discussion concerns how the demand for biomass for energy influences food prices, and if poor people find it difficult to afford food. The United Nations (UN) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) have for many years applied the strategy of trying to keep prices down to enable poor people to buy food. read more..

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    48824 Biomass – Aspects of Global Resources and Political OpportunitiesFigure 24.2 Graph of world grain (cereal) production from 1960 to 2010 measured in million hectares cultivated and million tons harvested. World grain production has had stable growth and met world demand. Since production per hectare increased, less arable land has been needed, resulting in a potential to produce even more food or energy. Source: the graph is according to Wikimedia and ultimately from the US Department of read more..

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    48924.3 Global Food Production and Pricesto see the same development in Africa. The production of cereal in Africa was still at 1.4 t ha–1 a–1 in 2010. This is despite the fact that the growth potential per hectare in Africa under optimal conditions is much higher than the production potential per hectare in Europe.When we discuss the potential of biomass production per hectare, it is important to remember that yields of 4000 or 6000 kg ha–1 of wheat, which represent bad or half good wheat read more..

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    49024 Biomass – Aspects of Global Resources and Political Opportunitiesused, one would also harvest the straw which, is usually the same weight as grain per hectare. Since biomass for energy is only the number of tonnes produced per hectare, crops other than cereals will be preferred. Most of the available arable land is in the southern hemisphere and here other crops such as sugarcane and eucalyptus are more interesting. The current world average production of sugarcane is 71 t ha–1 on 23.8 read more..

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    49124.4 Global Arable Land PotentialIn recent years, it has become obvious that not only rainfed cropland can be made available for sustainable biomass food and bioenergy production. If biomass prices were to become stable over a longer period, investment in irrigation from desalted seawater could also become profitable utilizing renewable technology. In such a scenario, additional land will be available in current desert areas.Having in mind that the world population is forecast by UNFPA to read more..

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    49224 Biomass – Aspects of Global Resources and Political OpportunitiesFigure 24.7 Global forest growth assimilates carbon corresponding to three times carbon emissions from deforestation. This shows that global forests are increasing today.24.4.2 Forest Supply – the Major Part of Sweden’s Energy SupplyThe Swedish forest situation can be used as a typical example [9, 10]. The annual forest growth in Sweden is 120 million m3 and the annual harvest for timber and pulp production is 75% of read more..

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    49324.5 Lower Biomass Potential If No Biomass Demand24.5 Lower Biomass Potential If No Biomass DemandThe biomass potential mainly concerns production capacity, but biomass potential itself is not any more interesting than the global grain production discussed earlier. Why produce more grain than there is demand from the market? We can under-stand from the price curve for wheat in the United States that there has never been such a demand for grain that prices can increase more than in the short read more..

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    49424 Biomass – Aspects of Global Resources and Political Opportunitiesmarket and hence a lack of possibility of investing in forest plantations for such a global market becomes clear on studying the global trade streams of fuel wood in Figure 24.8.The global forest industry is more than 90% dependent on locally sourced raw material. Obviously it will be possible to produce wood and forest material for energy or other purposes also in areas far from current forest industry plants. The key is read more..

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    49524.8 Political Measures, Legislation, Steering Instruments, and Incentivesfew health issues. Since there is always a lack of resources in a society, politicians need to find the best way to make people take decisions that give the best benefit per unit cost. The instruments that politicians have in their tool box are legislation, fees, and taxes.24.8 Political Measures, Legislation, Steering Instruments, and IncentivesThe most damaging actions to a society are prohibited by legislation. In read more..

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    49624 Biomass – Aspects of Global Resources and Political Opportunitiesof which a major part is bioenergy, and there is now the possibility that together with wind, solar, hydro, geothermal and other types of renewable energy a society can be created giving a good life totally supplied by renewables.24.8.2 Less Political DamageOver the years, there have been several political proposals and decisions intended to produce good things but ending up damaging the development of renewable energy. read more..

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    497References References 1 UNFPA, United Nations Population Fund (2011), Globala Befolkningstrender, http://europe.unfpa.org/webdav/site/europe/shared/images/homepage/UNFPA%20Dact%20sheet%20SE%20web.pdf (last accessed 30 January 2013) 2 Olmstead, A. L. and Rhode, P. W. (2006) Wheat, spring wheat, and winter wheat – acreage, production, price, and stocks: 1866–1999, in Historical Statistics of the United States, Earliest Times to the Present: Millennial Edition, (eds S. B. Carter, S. S. read more..

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    49925 Flexible Power Generation from Biomass – an Opportunity for a Renewable Sources-Based Energy System?Daniela Thrän, Marcus Eichhorn, Alexander Krautz, Subhashree Das, and Nora Szarka25.1 IntroductionIncreasing the use of renewable energy sources (RES) is part of the collective objec-tives of international climate policies, and also the national goals of energy security and technical innovation in many countries. Supported by strong instruments for market introduction, renewables are read more..

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    50025 Flexible Power Generation from BiomassA growing share of wind power and photovoltaics (PV) within the energy system has possible side effects stemming from their intermittent character, thereby causing concerns for the system operators [9–15]. On the one hand there could be periods of low or no wind combined with strong cloud cover leading to a low feed-in into the net and a high residual load, while on the other hand a clear day with exceptionally high wind speeds can generate read more..

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    50125.2 Challenges of Power Generation from Renewables in GermanyFigure 25.1 Development of renewable energy electricity generation between 1990 and 2011 in Germany [17]. read more..

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    50225 Flexible Power Generation from Biomassfrom renewable energy that is mainly supported by the EEG [18]. Figure 25.1 gives an overview of the increase in electricity generation from different renewable sources. The high share of renewable electricity is barely manageable by ramping up or down large fossil fuel base load power plants or cut-off of wind turbines.At the federal level, Germany created the National Renewable Energy Action Plan (nREAP), which has targeted the production of 35% of read more..

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    50325.2 Challenges of Power Generation from Renewables in Germanyof delivery, the Balance Responsible Party has the possibility to buy or sell electricity on the intra-day market or OTC.The TSOs in Germany have the responsibility to manage the security of the elec-tricity system in real time, by ensuring system services (Figure 25.2). One service is the use of control power for stabilizing a permanent frequency (50 Hz) in the electricity grid. Control power is always necessary if there are net read more..

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    50425 Flexible Power Generation from BiomassFigure 25.3 Net load and wind power generation for the area of the 50Hertz TSO: (a) hourly distribution of net load and wind power feed-in and (b) hourly distribution of net load and wind power for the feed-in scenario. Source: adapted from [27]. read more..

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    50525.2 Challenges of Power Generation from Renewables in GermanyFigure 25.3a shows the hourly distribution of net load and wind power feed-in for the area of the 50Hertz TSO, and illustrates the relationship between net load and wind power generation observed in January 2011. On the very left side, a situation occurs where wind power exceeds the demand, but all other days show residual loads of different magnitudes. The total contribution of wind power to the total net load for January 2011 is read more..

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    50625 Flexible Power Generation from BiomassRenewable sources also have the potential for flexible power production, espe-cially biomass which is biochemically stored solar energy and therefore available if needed, independent of, for example, weather condition.With regard to the increasing capacities for power generation from renewable energy sources, the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) [16] contains incentives for market integration and flexible electricity generation from January read more..

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    50725.3 Power Generation from BiomassPower generation from biomass has been established under the German EEG for 15 years. Figure 25.4 gives an overview of the installed capacities up to 2011, which generated 29 TWh of power, combined with 23 TWh of heat in 2011 [30]. There has been a rapid increase in the number of installations for the provision and conversion of biogas during the last 3 years.25.3 Power Generation from BiomassPower generation from biomass can be realized with different read more..

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    50825 Flexible Power Generation from BiomassKaltschmitt [34] provides a comprehensive overview of the major technological pathways for biomass conversion, as shown in Figure 25.6. A general problem is the low bulk density (40–200 kg m–3) [35, 36] and inhomogeneous structure, which often make handling, transportation, and storage of biomass difficult [37]. In order to overcome these problems, different types of densification and homogenization technologies such as bailing, briquetting, read more..

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    50925.3 Power Generation from BiomassFigure 25.5 Overall energy efficiency against different technologies. Source: adapted from [31]. read more..

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    51025 Flexible Power Generation from BiomassFigure 25.6 Pathways of technologies for biomass feedstock conversion. Source: adapted from [34].The ability to store biomass and derived energy carriers is an almost unique advantage compared with other fluctuating renewable sources. The different conver-sion pathways can contribute to flexible power generation, depending principally on the fuel, on technology parameters (e.g., partial load efficiency), and on the available options for storability. read more..

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    51125.5 Demand-Driven Electricity Commission from Liquid BiofuelsTo make existing energy technologies using solid biomass more flexible, the entire pathway from solid biomass to the final products – usually heat and power – should be examined. Solid biofuels have advantageous storage characteristics due to very low energy losses and comparably high energy density, depending principally on the water content. Due to the storage, they can be made available for a flexible gen-eration when there read more..

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    51225 Flexible Power Generation from BiomassApplication of fast pyrolysis maximizes the liquid product yield from solid biomass (65–75 wt%) and both heat and electricity can be generated in power generation systems (PGSs) using technologies such as diesel engines, gas turbines, and co-firing. The main advantages of fast pyrolysis liquids are very low cost, possibility of decoupling solid biofuel handling from utilization, ease of storage and transportation, high energy density, and feasibility read more..

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    51325.6 Demand-Driven Electricity Commission from Gaseous BiofuelsBiogas (mainly CH4 + CO2) is produced by the anaerobic digestion of organic material in biodigesters/biogas plants and SNG is a second-generation fuel produced by the gasification/catalytic methanation of lignocellulosic biomass [42, 52, 53]. Biogas is primarily used in Germany for electricity production through CHP) installations. The most commonly utilized pathway is direct feed-in of electricity from biogas plants into the read more..

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    51425 Flexible Power Generation from BiomassFigure 25.7 Flexible electricity generation of a biogas plant by double installed CHP and gas storage tank capacities compared with a standard plant. read more..

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    51525.7 Potential for Flexible power Generation – Challenges and Opportunitiesby using an admixture of industrial organic waste and manure was also reported in Denmark [57]. Szarka et al. [42] evaluated the pilot-scale experimental results from the German Biomass Research Center (DBFZ) of using a combination of maize and sugar beet silage as substrates with different proportions and amounts. The aim of the experiment was to adjust the biogas production rate to the expected electricity price read more..

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    51625 Flexible Power Generation from Biomassto low availability of power from PV and wind installations or vice versa. Second, it is important to recognize the role of storage of intermediates because of high power generation from fluctuating renewable resources. Temporal attributes of storage options, that is, storage for hours/days/months, also needs to be considered. Power from biomass can contribute to the flexibilization for the short-term demand provided that there is well-adapted read more..

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    51725.7 Potential for Flexible power Generation – Challenges and OpportunitiesFigure 25.8 Gross power production in Germany 2011 (own compilation; data source [65]).Hence the challenge is to develop highly efficient and well-integrated systems. This means: System optimization: Currently the general options for flexible power production from biomass have been described and the different compounds are available. The question of which kind of market can be supported best remains unan-swered. This read more..

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    51825 Flexible Power Generation from BiomassTo conclude, a clearer role of power from biomass in the energy policy can foster the introduction of flexible power in the short term and may additionally support the technical development of biomass provision and conversion.References 1 Frankl, P. (2012) Renewables – policy and market design challenges, presented at the IEA Bioenergy Conference, 13–15 November 2012, Vienna. 2 Umweltbundesamt (UBA) (2012) Managing Biomass Sustainability – read more..

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    519References 17 Stromeinspeisungsgesetz (1991) Electricity Feed-in Law, http://www.dev.de/php/deutsch/gesetze/700_stromeinspeisegesetz.php (last accessed December 2012).18 Bundesministerium für Umwelt und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU) (2012) Erneuer-bare Energien in Zahlen. Nationale und Internationale Entwicklung, BMU, Berlin.19 Umweltbundesamt (UBA) (2010) Energieziel 2050: 100% Strom aus erneuerbaren Quellen, Umweltbundesamt Dessau-Rosslau, read more..

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    52025 Flexible Power Generation from Biomass33 Ortwein, A., Szarka N., and Büchner, D. (2012) Technical and systems assess-ment of innovative flexible micro-CHP concepts for solid biofuels, in Proceedings of the 20th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Milan, pp. 1350–1353.34 Kaltschmitt, M. (2011) Biomass for energy in Germany: status, perspectives and lessons learned. J. Sustain. Energy Environ., Special Issue, 1–10.35 Adapa, P., Tabil, L., and Schoenau, G. (2009) Compaction read more..

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    521References 56 Schievano, A., D’Imporzano, G., and Adani, F. (2009) Substituting energy crops with organic wastes and agro-industrial residues for biogas production. J. Environ. Manage., 90, 2537–2541.57 Mæng, H., Lund, H., and Hvelplund, F. (1999) Biogas plants in Denmark: technological and economic developments. Appl. Energy, 64, 195–206.58 Haeseldonckx, D., Peeters, L., Helsen, L., and D’haeseleer, W. (2007) The impact of thermal storage on the operational behaviour of read more..

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    52326 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and PerspectivesFranziska Müller-Langer, Arne Gröngröft, Stefan Majer, Sinéad O’Keeffe, and Marco Klemm26.1 IntroductionThe global demand for energy, especially transport fuels, will continue to increase significantly in the future, from a current demand of 93 EJ a–1 (2009) to an estimated 116 EJ a–1 by 2050 [1]. In addition to other options for meeting the increasing demand, such as improved efficiency, traffic reduction and relocation, read more..

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    52426 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and Perspectivestechnical raw material potential in 2050 [4]. It is expected that by 2050 the majority of biofuels will still be used for road transport, followed by aviation and shipping.Against this background, this chapter deals with a selection of biofuel options, which are briefly characterized with regard to their production technologies and analyzed regarding certain technical, economic, and environmental aspects. The focus is on the most read more..

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    52526.2 Characteristics of Biofuel Technologiesnational discussion and as so-called drop-in fuels (i.e., fuels that can be applied like their established fossil counterpart) they can use the existing infrastructure, distribution, and final use in different transport modes). Other biofuel options are also briefly mentioned.So-called conventional biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) are currently available on the global market in considerable amounts, and well established technologies are applied read more..

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    52626 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and PerspectivesTable 26.1 Technical characteristics of selected biofuel options [7–9].Biofuel optionTypical raw materialsMain typical conversion steps Typical by-productsaState of developmentbInstalled capacity/production worldwide/focus region (all 2011)cR&D demandBiodieselVegetable and animal oils and fats (e.g., rape, soya, palm, jatropha, grease, algae oils)Vegetable oil production (mechanical or solvent extraction), refining, read more..

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    52726.2 Characteristics of Biofuel TechnologiesBiofuel optionTypical raw materialsMain typical conversion steps Typical by-productsaState of developmentbInstalled capacity/production worldwide/focus region (all 2011)cR&D demandBiomethane/biogasSugar and starch, organic residues (e.g., biowaste, manure, stillage)Silaging, hydrolysis (optional), anaerobic digestion, gas treatment and upgradingDigestate, electricityCommercial, TRL 9~0.5 Mt a–1 (EU)/unknown/EU, DE differentLignocelluloses as read more..

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    52826 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and PerspectivesIn spite of the large differences between the different concepts, it should also be pointed out that none of the concepts can be referred to as a “proven technology,” which can be bought “off-the-shelf.” Some of these concepts show promising maturity, justifying the development of a first industrial demonstration project, together with (industrial) monitoring. For all future-generation biofuels, scale-up strategies require read more..

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    52926.2 Characteristics of Biofuel TechnologiesBiodiesel can be applied as blended and straight fuel. However, there are some challenges in using biodiesel in modern motor concepts fulfilling high emission standards (e.g., EURO 6).26.2.2 HVO and HEFAHydroprocessing can be applied to fats and oils from plants or animal origin, in order to produce hydrotreated esters and fatty acids (HEFA), which are another biofuel option. When plant oils are used, the product is often referred to as hydrotreated read more..

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    53026 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and Perspectivesprocessed to alcohol. These are first ground and mixed with water to form a mash, and through the addition of amylases, the links between the glucose monomers can be cleaved. Both sugar and starch processing are commercialized, widely used, and well-understood processes [21, 22].Alternative feedstock includes lignocellulosic materials in which the cellulose and – potentially – the hemicellulose fraction can be used. This read more..

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    53126.2 Characteristics of Biofuel TechnologiesDespite a long history of development and a broad complexity of system con-figurations, no market breakthrough has been realized so far for the provision of synthetic fuels via biomass gasification [31].In terms of biomass pretreatment for gasification, mechanical–thermal biomass treatments are already well established (e.g., chipping and drying of solid biofuels). Processes to generate intermediate products, which are easier to transport and use read more..

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    53226 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and Perspectives26.2.5 BiomethaneFor the production of the gaseous multi-fuel biomethane as a blend with or substitute for natural gas, two pathways are possible, as follows [40].26.2.5.1 Upgraded Biochemically Produced BiogasRegarding the biochemical conversion path, usually wet biomass or biomass with a low dry matter content is converted anaerobically to biogas (containing ~55 vol.% CH4) in a digester. Subsequently, the raw biomethane (biogas) read more..

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    53326.2 Characteristics of Biofuel TechnologiesTable 26.2 Status of the development of other innovative biofuel technologies expressed as technology readiness level (TRL) [10].Biofuel production technologyTRLBTLMethanolDimethyl ether96BiohydrogenThermochemicallyBiochemically53Sugar to hydrocarbons4Biobutanol5–9Algae-based biofuels426.2.6.1 BTL Fuels Such as Methanol and Dimethyl EtherMethanol and dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis has a similar process chain to that described above for synthetic read more..

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    53426 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and Perspectives26.2.6.4 BiobutanolThe fermentation of sugars to butanol is meant to result in a fuel with superior characteristics to ethanol [51, 52]. Four structural isomers can be distinguished for butanol; of these, 1-butanol production by ABE (acetone–butanol–ethanol) fermen-tation was the second largest biotechnological process ever run, (exceeded in volume only by ethanol fermentation). The peak of fermentative butanol production was in read more..

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    53526.3 System Analysis on Technical AspectsFigure 26.3 Expected and present biofuel capacities per plant.26.3.2 Overall Eff iciencies of Biofuel Production PlantsBiomass and the land utilized to produce it are limited resources, hence biomass needs to be converted into products efficiently and in a manner that is sustainable. Therefore, for a selection of biofuel options (here biodiesel, HVO/HEFA, bioethanol, BTL, and biomethane), different studies and publications were screened regarding read more..

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    53626 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and PerspectivesFigure 26.4 System balance for the overall energetic efficiency.Figure 26.5 Overall energetic efficiency of selected biofuel options. Source: DBFZ, based on [58–64].main product (MP, biofuel), by-products (BP), raw material (RM, biomass free plant gate), and auxiliaries (Aux, including energy sources), Pne the net production (surplus) electricity, Qne the net production (surplus) process heat (heating value), Pext the demand read more..

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    53726.4 System Analysis on Environmental AspectsFigure 26.5 shows a comparison of minimum and maximum overall energetic efficiencies for the selected conversion technologies, the considered biofuels, and the raw materials used. The discussed system balance and also mass and energy streams (Figure 26.4) were taken into account in a comprehensive manner, based on published and our own data. The given range of efficiency is dependent on different plant designs. Accordingly, there is no general read more..

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    53826 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and Perspectives[58] to 36% (EU RED, 2009/28/EC) and 66% [75] to 33% [76] when rapeseed is used as feedstock. HVO/HEFA, as outlined above, is a promising biofuel for the aviation sector; it was also found to have similar variations in GHG emission reductions, ranging between 65% (EU RED, 2009/28/EC) to 43% [76] when the process is based on palm oil and 64% [77] to 47% [58] for rapeseed-based processes. Even though it is difficult to compare results read more..

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    53926.4 System Analysis on Environmental AspectsHowever, the calculation of emissions from iLUC is associated with a high level of uncertainty [78]. Furthermore, the models and assumptions used to quantify emissions from iLUC are still under development and are still heavily debated.In addition to emissions from LUC, N-fertilizer application is one the major sources of GHGs in the production of biomass and can have serious implications for the GHG balances of biofuel production systems However, read more..

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    54026 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and Perspectivesinput the reduction can be up to 50% [83]. Similarly, Smeets et al. studied several reference land uses for bioenergy (crops) production to assess N2O emissions on the overall GHG balance [86]. In comparison with gasoline, bioethanol produced from sugar beet resulted in a GHG change from –58% to 17% and from sugar cane –103% to –62%. Bioethanol from corn resulted in a GHG change from –38% to 11% and from wheat –107% to read more..

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    54126.4 System Analysis on Environmental AspectsTable 26.4 Overview of drivers of GHG in biofuel conversion systems, relevant aspects, and associated uncertainties in accounting for these drivers within the LCA method.Conversion systemDrivers of GHG emissionsRelevant aspectsUncertainties related to driversBiodiesel, HVO/HEFA, bioethanol, BTL, biomethaneEnergy consumption during conversionUpstream emissions from fossil and renewable energy chainscUncertainties related to the emission factors for read more..

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    54226 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and PerspectivesBiofuel systems are often intrinsically linked to intense agricultural production systems. Therefore, it is important to recognize that the issues for agriculture are comparable to those for the biofuel industry and the focus should not only be on climate change mitigation, but should also include other impacts relevant for agri-culture, such as eutrophication and acidification.Like agricultural and food production chains, biofuel read more..

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    54326.5 System Analysis on Economic Aspectsis towards increasing TCI values in comparison with conventional fuels, also due to often more complex technologies and plant designs.Considering the effects of economy of scale, specific TCI values decrease with increasing plant size. However, in the engineering and construction industries, there is a continuous cost increase, which cannot be reflected at all. The price develop-ment of chemical plants and machinery also relates to biofuel production read more..

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    54426 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and Perspectivespartial models due to periodic accounting. In order to calculate biofuel production costs effectively, different cost parameters under regional frame conditions and appropriate time horizons have to be taken into account: (i) capital expenditures (CAPEX; including TCI, equity and leverage, interest rates, lifetime, maintenance), (ii) variable operational expenditures (OPEX; raw material, auxiliaries, residues, annual full load), read more..

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    54526.6 Conclusion and Outlook26.6 Conclusion and OutlookThis chapter is intended to provide an overview of biofuel options that are relevant for current and future transport options and thus can meet freight and person mobility requirements. According to international expert discussions summarized in the IEA roadmap scenarios for biofuels until 2050, the chapter concentrates on options such as biodiesel, HVO/HEFA, bioethanol, BTL and biomethane. Additionally, other options were considered read more..

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    54626 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and Perspectivescan lead to adjustments to the process design itself. The further development of this process is reflected in the current development of biorefineries.26.6.3 Economic AspectsHigh total capital investment associated with large plant capacities increase the risk of investment. Thus, for economic viability, the key criteria include ideal locations with appropriate infrastructure, a secure market for the product, and guaranteed read more..

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    547References 1 IEA (2011) World Energy Outlook 2011, International Energy Agency, Paris. 2 Zarrilli, S. and Burnett, J. (2008) Making Certification Work for Sustainable Development: the Case of Biofuels, United Nations, New York. 3 Timilsina, G. R. and Ashish, S. (2010) Biofuel: Markets, Targets and Impacts, Policy Research Working Paper Series 5513, World Bank, Washington, DC 4 Thrän, D., Bunzel, K., Seyfert, U., Zeller, V., Buchhorn, M., Müller, K., Matzdorf, B., Gaasch, N., read more..

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    54826 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and PerspectivesUnit, School of Environment and Development, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield. 23 Brethauer, S. and Wyman, C. E. (2010) Review: continuous hydrolysis and fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production. Bioresource Technol., 101, 4862–4874. 24 Hendriks, A. T. W. M. and Zeeman, G. (2009) Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresource Technol., 100, 10–18. 25 Mosier, N., Wyman, C., Dale, read more..

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    549References National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO. 42 Baghdjian, V. (2010) The promise of biomethanol. European Petrochemical Outlook, 26 I Horizon, Autumn 2010, http://www.biomcn.eu/images/stories/downloads/101001_Platts_Horizon_-_The_promise_of_bio-methanol.pdf. 43 Van Bennekom, J. G., Vos, J., Venderbosch, R. H., Torres, M. A. P., Kirilov, V. A., Heeres, H. J., Knez, Z., Bork, M., and Penninger, J. M. L. (2009) Supermethanol: reforming of crude glycerine in read more..

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    55026 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and Perspectives 61 Müller-Langer, F., Junold, M., Schröder, G., Thrän, D., and Vogel, A. (2007) Analyse und Evaluierung von Anlagen und Techniken zur Produktion von Biokraftstoffen, Institut für Energetik und Umwelt, Leipzig. 62 Nikander, S. (2008) Greenhouse gas and energy intensity of product chain: case transport biofuel, MSc thesis, Helsinki University of Technology. 63 Rettenmaier, N., Reinhardt, G., Gärtner, S., and Von Falkenstein, read more..

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    551References Zukunftsfähige Bioenergie und nachhaltige Landnutzung,” revidierte Endfassung, Öko Institut, Freiburg. 80 Hennig, C. and Gawor, M. (2012) Bioenergy production and use: com-parative analysis of the economic and environmental effects. Energy Convers. Manage., 63, 130–137. 81 Searchinger, T., Heimlich, R., Houghton, R. A., Dong, F., Elobeid, A., Fabiosa, J., Tokgoz, S., Hayes, D., and Yu, T.-H. (2008) Use of U. S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through read more..

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    55226 Options for Biofuel Production – Status and Perspectivesa life cycle basis. Int. J. Life Cycle Assess., 15, 907–915. 99 Liebetrau, J., Clemens, J., Cuhls, C., Hafermann, C., Friehe, J., Weiland, P., and Daniel-Gromke, J. (2010) Methane emissions from biogas-producing facilities within the agricultural sector. Eng. Life. Sci., 10, 595–599.100 Majer, S., Gawor, M., Thrän, D., Bunzel, K., and Daniel-Gromke, J. (2011) Optimierung der marktnahen Förderung von Biogas/Biomethan unter read more..

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    553References 120 Zinoviev, S., Müller-Langer, F., Das, P., Bertero, N., Fornasiero, P., Kaltschmitt, M., Centi, G., and Miertus, S. (2010) Next-generation biofuels: survey of emerging technologies and sustainability issues. ChemSusChem, 3, 1106–1133.121 VCI (2008) Chemiewirtschaft in Zahlen 2008, Verband der Chemischen Industrie, Frankfurt am Main.122 Chemie Technik (2012) Chemie Technik Exklusiv: Preisindex für Chemieanlagen, http://www.chemietechnik.de/texte/anzeigen/118055 (last read more..

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    555Part V StorageTransition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. read more..

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    55727 Energy Storage Technologies – Characteristics, Comparison, and SynergiesAndreas Hauer, Josh Quinnell, and Eberhard Lävemann27.1 IntroductionThe goal of energy storage is to match the energy supply with the energy demand when they are displaced in space or time. Energy is stored and later delivered where or when it is needed. Energy storage enables otherwise wasted energy streams to be used, energy efficiency to be improved, and fluctuating renewable energy inputs to be managed. Each of read more..

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    55827 Energy Storage Technologies – Characteristics, Comparison, and Synergiesenergy transformation and, thus, allow increased energy consumption for constant primary energy production.The integration of storage with renewable energy systems allows the continu-ous availability of intermittent and unpredictable energy resources. Renewable electricity from wind turbines and solar photovoltaics (PV) can be stored in large central storages such as pumped hydro plants (PHES), compressed air energy read more..

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    55927.2 Energy Storage Technologies Power: The power defines how fast the energy stored in the system can be dis-charged (and charged). An intrinsic property of power is the power density, the power per unit mass or volume. Efficiency: The efficiency is the ratio between the energy provided to the user and the energy needed to charge the storage system. It accounts for the energy loss during the storage period and the charging/discharging operations. In complex storage systems, multiple energy read more..

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    56027 Energy Storage Technologies – Characteristics, Comparison, and Synergiesand also for the utilization of surplus energy. PHES systems are in general large (hundreds to thousands of megawatts) and are used as central storage devices coupled to the power generation and the high-voltage grid. From the economics point of view, PHES is the benchmark for electricity storage today, but costs are very site specific and placement is largely dictated by geology [6]. Compressed air energy storage read more..

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    56127.2 Energy Storage TechnologiesOther technologies with shorter storage periods are better suited for power quality measures.27.2.3 Storage of Thermal EnergyThermal energy (heat and cold) can be stored as sensible heat in heat storage media, as latent heat associated with phase change of materials, or as thermochemical energy associated with chemical reactions (i.e., thermochemical storage) at operating temperatures from –40 to above 400 °C. Sensible thermal energy storage uses the heat read more..

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    56227 Energy Storage Technologies – Characteristics, Comparison, and Synergies Latent thermal energy storage uses the liquid-to-solid phase change of a material in addition to the temperature change (sensible) to store thermal energy. The materials used are called phase change materials (PCM). PCM storage systems are able to reach high storage densities at small temperature changes due to the large phase change enthalpy. For example, sodium acetate trihydrate has an energy density of 120 kWh read more..

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    56327.2 Energy Storage TechnologiesFigure 27.2 Thermal energy storage technologies and their storage capacity versus temperature [4].In Figure 27.2, the energy storage capacity is plotted as a function of the temperature range for the three thermal energy storage technologies [4]. The trend across all thermal storage mechanisms is that higher operating temperatures are required for larger energy storage densities. The dotted green line shows the theoretical storage capacity for the sensible read more..

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    56427 Energy Storage Technologies – Characteristics, Comparison, and Synergies27.2.4 Energy Storage by Chemical ConversionThe conversion of thermal or electrical energy into an energy-rich carrier fuel is another potential mechanism for energy storage. The attributes of chemical fuels distinguish them from the other types of energy storage discussed previously. The advantages of chemical fuels are very high energy and power density, indefinite storage period, and compatibility with existing read more..

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    56527.2 Energy Storage Technologiesstorage (CCS) process or from renewable biogas plants. The fuel is stored in the gas network and combines the electricity grid and the gas infrastructure into an intelligent and bidirectional energy system. While the German electricity grid today has a storage capacity of about 0.04 TWh, which corresponds to a storage period of 1 h, the storage capacity of the present gas network is in the region of 200 TWh, which could provide energy for months and provide an read more..

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    56627 Energy Storage Technologies – Characteristics, Comparison, and SynergiesTable 27.1 Technical and economic parameters for various energy storage technologies [5–7, 12, 13].Storage technologyStorage mechanismPower (MW)Capacity (MWh)Storage periodDensityEfficiency (%)Lifetime (No. of cycles)CostkWh t–1kWh m–3$ kW–1$ kWh–1$ kWh–1 deliveredLithium ion (Li Ion)Electro-chemical< 1.7< read more..

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    56727.3 The Role of Energy StorageAlthough the remaining storage forms can provide electricity, they are generally differentiated by scale, both in size and storage period. Mechanical energy storage systems such as PHES and CAES are really only effective for large centralized storage and are highly dependent on local geology. However, they offer the largest power and capacity of all storage mechanisms with power outputs ranging between 2 MW and 2.5 GW and storage capacities ranging between 2 MWh read more..

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    56827 Energy Storage Technologies – Characteristics, Comparison, and Synergieslong periods, energy can be recovered at high efficiency, and they provide extremely high energy and power densities (energy or power per unit mass or volume). For example, coal and oil have energy densities in the range 6.70–12.8 kWh kg–1. The major drawback of fossil fuels is that there is a limited supply because charging timescales are many times longer than the present rate of discharge. Compared with fossil read more..

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    56927.3 The Role of Energy Storagedemand in a district system. In this case, the energy storage can couple energy grids (electrical and thermal) operating at very different timescales.Figure 27.4b shows a variation in energy supply such as that expected from renewable energy sources such as wind, PV, solar-thermal, or waste heat streams. In this case, energy storage provides constant base load to meet the constant power demand. Energy storage helps to integrate renewable energies into the read more..

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    57027 Energy Storage Technologies – Characteristics, Comparison, and Synergiesdifferent types of energy storage to accommodate variations in supply and demand and maintain a stable and predictable energy system.27.3.2 Distributed Energy Storage Systems and Energy ConversionCurrent discussions on energy storage are focused on large, centralized energy storage technologies such as PHES and CAES, and the conversion of surplus energy into renewable fuels. The potential of distributed energy read more..

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    57127.3 The Role of Energy Storageand technologies into a DES network will yield a more stable and robust energy system. A major advantage compared with centralized storage is that DES can be implemented incrementally, requiring initially less investment capital than large central storages. One of the main drawbacks of this concept is the communication between the distribution network and the individual DES (e.g., by “smart grids”) forming the storage. These communication and coordination read more..

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    57227 Energy Storage Technologies – Characteristics, Comparison, and SynergiesComparing both storage cases, it is clear that the performance depends strongly on the application. For heating and domestic hot water, the thermal storage system is much more efficient. Nearly seven times the energy is available for heating compared with electricity from methane. However, the main limitation is that thermal energy is strictly limited in application, whereas electricity or fuel may be used in read more..

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    57327.4 Economic Evaluation of Energy Storage Systemslower, PVANF = 0.07–0.08. One might also suggest a class of user that can tolerate extremely long recovery periods (20+ years) because the energy investment is pursued for political or ecological reasons. In these cases, annuity factors are PVANF < 0.06.The maximum acceptable storage cost is simply the product of the number of storage cycles during the payback period and the cost of energy divided by the annuity factor. This storage cost read more..

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    57427 Energy Storage Technologies – Characteristics, Comparison, and SynergiesFor very low annuity factors (0.04–0.06) and high costs of energy ($ 0.16–0.21 kWh–1), politically motivated users can accept storage costs that are three times higher than in the building sector and 30 times higher than for industrial users. The large vari-ations in maximum acceptable storage costs based on these simple factors suggest that the specific storage application imposes an upper limit on storage read more..

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    57527.5 ConclusionThe capital costs for the production infrastructure may be as low as $ 0.01 kWh–1 [16], although storage costs must also be considered. Therefore, regardless of the storage period, there may be a significant opportunity for economical hydrogen production if excess electricity from renewables (energy which would otherwise be wasted) is used for production.This top-down analysis reveals some often overlooked points in the discussion of energy storage economics. First, there read more..

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    57627 Energy Storage Technologies – Characteristics, Comparison, and Synergieslead acid batteries and potentially other emerging battery technologies are econom-ically viable for applications with longer acceptable payback periods and medium storage periods (1–10 days). For transportation and other demanding applications, fuels such as hydrogen or methane are so technically superior and versatile that the comparably low efficiency and higher costs become acceptable. Traditional comparisons read more..

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    577References 16 Levene, J. I., Mann, M. K., Margolis, R., and Milbrandt, A. (2007) An analysis of hydrogen production from renewable electricity sources. Solar Energy, 81 (6), 773–780.17 O’Donnell, L. and Maine, E. (2012) Techno-Economic analysis of hydrogen production using FBMR technology. Presented at PICMET ’12: Technology Management for Emerging Technolo-gies, San Jose, CA 28 July–1 August. read more..

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    57928 Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles and Energy Storage SystemsSeung Mo Oh, Sa Heum Kim, Youngjoon Shin, Dongmin Im, and Jun Ho Song28.1 IntroductionRecently, the ever-increasing world energy consumption, coupled with the issue in global warming, has brought increasing awareness of the need for cleaner, more fuel-efficient electric vehicles (EVs) and energy storage systems (ESSs) that can store the electricity generated by renewable sources. EVs have already come into the market. The read more..

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    58028 Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles and Energy Storage SystemsFigure 28.1 Mega-trend of applications for secondary batteries.Figure 28.2 Evolution of secondary batteries. read more..

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    58128.2 R&D Status of Secondary Batteries28.2 R&D Status of Secondary BatteriesSecondary (rechargeable) battery technology has progressively developed from lead–acid, nickel–cadmium and nickel–metal hydride to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), as shown in Figure 28.2. Secondary batteries working in aqueous electrolytes such as lead–acid, nickel–cadmium, and nickel–metal hydride batteries give limited output voltages owing to the electrochemical instability of water. LIBs are now read more..

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    58228 Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles and Energy Storage SystemsThree different shapes of LIBs have been commercially developed: cylindrical, prismatic, and pouch type. For cylindrical cells, a jelly roll comprising a negative electrode plate, separator film, and positive electrode plate is inserted into a cylin-drical metal case. Rectangular-shaped metal cases are used for prismatic cells. The electrodes/separator assembly is wrapped by a pouch in the pouch-type cell, which is a thin read more..

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    58328.2 R&D Status of Secondary BatteriesThe capacity is also limited because the solubility of redox couples in water is limited. Efforts are now being made to explore new redox couples having a higher potential difference and high solubility in nonaqueous solvents.28.2.3 Sodium–Sulfur BatteriesSince Ford reported the working principle of the sodium–sulfur battery in the 1970s (Figure 28.4), several companies have tried to develop this high-temperature cell for EV application. Owing to read more..

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    58428 Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles and Energy Storage SystemsFigure 28.4 Working principle of the sodium–sulfur battery.28.2.4 Lithium–Sulfur BatteriesLithium–sulfur batteries have gained recognition as the next-generation battery system, largely on the basis of their high energy density, non-toxicity, and potential cost advantages stemming from the natural abundance of sulfur resources. Extensive R&D efforts are being made all over the world.Lithium–sulfur batteries are read more..

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    58528.2 R&D Status of Secondary Batterieswith the current collector, resulting in a loss of active materials. Moreover, Li metal is passivated by the deposited polysulfides, leading to an increase in polarization for the electrochemical deposition/dissolution of Li. Protection of the Li metal surface could be a way to improve the electrochemical performance, and it was recently reported [10] that the additives in electrolytes such as LiNO3 are effective in protecting Li metal by forming a read more..

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    58628 Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles and Energy Storage SystemsHowever, as the water consumption in the oxygen reduction reaction is so signifi-cant, an excessive amount of water has to be loaded to keep the discharge products such as lithium hydroxide dissolved, limiting the energy density of the cells [12]. Accordingly, the majority of research activities are focused on nonaqueous electrolyte systems, in spite of the slower kinetics due to the insolubility and low electronic read more..

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    58728.3 Secondary Batteries for Electric Vehiclesmetals have a better catalytic activity than the others, the cost is an important issue since a very large amount of catalyst will be required in an EV. Mn-based oxides seem to be advantageous in terms of cost, but Mn dissolution has to be suppressed [16]. Perovskite-structured oxides are also being widely studied, as their catalytic activity in aqueous electrolytes is well proven, but not in nonaqueous electrolytes [17]. Nitrogen-doped carbon read more..

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    58828 Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles and Energy Storage SystemsFigure 28.6 Types of EVs.Table 28.2 Components of electric vehicles and their functions.SystemComponentFunctionElectrical energyDrive systemMotorTransmissionDriving (by motor or by motor with engine)Electrical energyConversion systemInverterConverterChargerEnergy supply to the motorEnergy storage to the batteriesElectrical energyStorage systemBatteriesSupercapacitorsEnergy storage and supplyThe energy storage system for EVs read more..

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    58928.3 Secondary Batteries for Electric Vehicles1. Energy density. Since restrictions on space and weight are stringent for EVs, the battery systems should have a higher energy density (more than 10 times higher) than that of the current secondary batteries. In this regard, LIBs with superior energy density to the others are one of the most promising energy storage devices for EVs and have driven the third boom in the development of EVs. The specific energy or energy density (Wh kg–1, Wh read more..

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    59028 Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles and Energy Storage SystemsTable 28.3 Performance characteristics of secondary batteries.PropertyFor electric vehiclesFor stationary energy storageLIBLi–SLi–airLIBRedoxNa–STheoretical energy density (Wh kg–1)400–600~2500~3500400–60080–100700–800Efficiency (%)> 9080–9070–85> 9075–8585–90Practical energy density (Wh kg–1)~300 (electrode)~500 (electrode)~1000 (electrode)~250 (electrode)– (electrode)~500 (electrode)~160 read more..

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    59128.4 Secondary Batteries For Energy Storage Systems1. Load leveling: Storage of extra energy in the ESS when the load level is low, and release from the ESS when the load level is high and the energy of the main source is insufficient.2. Peak shaving: Reducing the maximum load level of a grid and securing extra energy supply when energy consumption is high.3. Emergency power supply: Protecting expensive manufacturing facilities and super-computers against any sudden blackout accidents.4. read more..

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    59228 Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles and Energy Storage SystemsFigure 28.8 A prototype house-use ESS developed by LG Chem.28.4.2 Redox-Flow Batteries for ESSSince NASA in the United States started a project on Fe–Cr-based redox-flow batteries in 1970s, many efforts have been made to develop redox-flow batteries for ESS. Lately, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been targeting $ 200–2.00 kW–1, 5 kW vanadium redox-flow battery that is connected to solar power of several read more..

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    59328.4 Secondary Batteries For Energy Storage SystemsFigure 28.9 The Zn–Ce redox-flow battery developed by Plurion.28.4.3 Sodium–Sulfur Batteries for ESSIn the 1980s, Yuasa in Japan developed a 300 Ah sodium–sulfur cell for ESS. FACC (Ford Aerospace and Communications Corporation) and GE (General Electric) developed 150, 450, and 1250 Wh sodium–sulfur batteries for load leveling. TEPCO and NGK Insulators developed large-scale sodium–sulfur cell batteries for ESS. In 2003, AEP (America read more..

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    59428 Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles and Energy Storage SystemsInsulators. In 2008, a sodium–sulfur battery was employed for stabilizing 34 MW wind power. NGK Insulators, which is one of the leading companies in the field of sodium–sulfur batteries, has a capability to produce 65 MW batteries for ESS at its Komaki factory, where the production of alumina using a kiln furnace, welding by robots, and assembly of the modules are available (Figure 28.10). A 400 Wh sodium–sulfur unit read more..

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    595References Acknowledgments S. M. Oh thanks to Professor Kyu T. Lee (UNIST) and Professor Yoon S. Jung (UNIST) for their assistance with preparation of the manuscript.References 1 IEA (2009) Technology Roadmap, Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (EV/PHEV), International Energy Agency, Paris. 2 Ponce de Leon, C., Frias-Ferrer, A, Gonzalez-Garcia, J., Szanto, D. A., and Walsh, F. C. (2006) Redox flow cells for energy conversion. J. Power Sources, 160, 716. 3 State of California read more..

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    59628 Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles and Energy Storage Systems17 Jung, K.-N., Lee, J.-I., Im, W. B., Yoon, S., Shin, K.-H., and Lee, J.-W. (2012) Promoting Li2O2 oxidation by an La1.7Ca0.3Ni0.75Cu0.25O4 layered perovskite in lithium–oxygen batteries. Chem. Commun., 48, 9406–9408.18 McCloskey, B. D., Scheffler, R., Speidel, A., Bethune, D. S., Shelby, R. M., and Luntz, A. C. (2011) On the efficacy of electrocatalysis in non-aqueous Li–O2 batteries. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 133, read more..

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    59729 Pumped Storage HydropowerAtle Harby, Julian Sauterleute, Magnus Korpås, Ånund Killingtveit, Eivind Solvang, and Torbjørn Nielsen29.1 IntroductionHydropower with reservoirs is the only form of renewable energy storage that is well developed and in wide commercial use today. Storing potential energy in water in a reservoir behind a hydropower plant is used for storing energy at multiple time horizons, ranging from hours to several years. Reservoirs for hydropower are very often read more..

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    59829 Pumped Storage Hydropowerof the network frequency and voltage level [1]. New commercial and technical interest in PSH has been rising in recent years with political targets on the development of renewable energy sources [2], expected increasing demand for electricity, growing interconnected markets across Europe [3], security of supply, and upgrading of existing plants being the main driving forces [1].29.1.2 Deployment of Pumped Storage HydropowerAs of today, the world-wide installed PSH read more..

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    59929.2 Pumped Storage TechnologyFigure 29.2 Installed PSH capacity in Europe.The first PSH plants were built in the Alpine regions of Switzerland, Italy, and Austria [1, 6] and in Germany [5]. Most of the plants were constructed in the period between 1960 and 1990, the time when large capacities of conventional power plants were integrated into the energy system.29.2 Pumped Storage TechnologyPSH are characterized by long lifetime expectancy, typically between 50 and 100 years, a round-trip read more..

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    60029 Pumped Storage Hydropowerfrequency and voltage. The frequency alters because the demand for electric power varies. If there is a surplus of generated power, the frequency will increase, and with a lack of generated power, the frequency will decrease. The voltage varies according to the ratio of active and reactive power. The generator must be able to produce exactly the same ratio. Voltage regulation is achieved by adjusting the magnetic field of the generator. In order to regulate, one read more..

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    60129.2 Pumped Storage TechnologyBy using the wicket gate for regulating power, the machine can be attached to the grid, when stable operation at synchronous speed of rotation is achieved. Starting up a pump is more complicated, and a synchronous machine cannot be connected immediately to the grid because of a tremendous torque. The traditional method to start a pump is then some sort of back-to-back start, that is, using a turbine electrically or mechanically connected to the pump shaft. By read more..

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    60229 Pumped Storage Hydropowerin late summer and a minimum at the end of winter. It also shows that the sum of all reservoirs always has some free capacity, especially during autumn (fall) and winter. Single reservoirs may have limited capacity, but overall there is always available storage capacity. This capacity may be used by increasing the capacity in existing power plants and by installing PSH connected to these reservoirs (see the case-study in Section 29.5).29.2.2 Future Pumped Storage read more..

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    60329.3 Environmental Impacts of Pumped Storage Hydropowermodification of natural stream flow regimes, disruption of the river continuum, and change of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Flooding may involve resettlement of people, loss of biodiversity, and increased greenhouse gas emissions from the new reservoirs. Modified stream flow regimes downstream of dams affect aquatic eco-systems by hydro-morphological changes, alterations in water temperature patterns, habitat changes, disruption of read more..

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    60429 Pumped Storage Hydropowerwhich may affect fish population dynamics [17]. Furthermore, pumping water from a downstream system may increase the nutrient level in upstream reservoirs and change the population dynamics of plankton communities and also, in some cases, increase the fish production [20]. Another significant factor is the possibility of transferring alien species from a downstream reservoir to an upstream reservoir and catchment or to a neighboring catchment if the upstream read more..

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    60529.5 Case Study: Large-Scale Energy Storage and Balancing from Norwegian Hydropower29.5 Case Study: Large-Scale Energy Storage and Balancing from Norwegian HydropowerIn countries with few natural lakes and no available existing reservoirs for PSH, artificial reservoirs are built to serve the PSH. Some countries have large reservoirs and/or lakes used for traditional hydropower production today, and it might be possible to increase the PSH capacity by using existing reservoirs. A case study read more..

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    60629 Pumped Storage HydropowerThis section presents the potential and limits of balancing power operation by use of existing reservoirs in Norway and points to upcoming environmental challenges related to future reservoir operation.The case studies do not include topics related to grid connections, costs, business model, regulatory framework, or societal acceptance in details, and these topics were briefly reported by Solvang et al. [21].29.5.1 Demand for Energy Storage and Balancing PowerThe read more..

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    60729.5 Case Study: Large-Scale Energy Storage and Balancing from Norwegian HydropowerFigure 29.5 Simulated wind power production (MW) in the North Sea area, January–March 2001.29.5.2 Technical PotentialTable 29.1 shows results from a preliminary study [21] relating to increasing the power output of existing hydroelectric reservoir plants in southern Norway subject to the constraints of current regulations relating to maximum and minimum regulated water levels (HRWL and LRWL). The main read more..

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    60829 Pumped Storage Hydropowerinto the stranding of salmon in rivers, the water level should not fall by more than 13 cm h–1 [23]. Although this is not directly applicable to lakes, this was used as a rule of thumb for acceptable water level reduction in reservoirs.The output of the 12 power stations in the main scenario can be increased by 18 200 MW without the water level changes in the upper and lower reservoirs exceeding 14 cm h–1. How long the power stations are able to deliver this read more..

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    60929.5 Case Study: Large-Scale Energy Storage and Balancing from Norwegian Hydropower29.5.3 Water Level Fluctuations in ReservoirsThe magnitude, frequency, and rate of change of water level fluctuations are case specific, depending on the installed capacity, load scenario, and characteristics of the reservoirs, that is, the live storage volume, how steep or gentle the bank slopes, are and the size of the lower reservoir in proportion to the upper reservoir. Table 29.2 shows the characteristics read more..

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    61029 Pumped Storage Hydropowercurrent conditions and 1.20 m d–1 compared with 0.28 m d–1 in the lower reservoir (Table 29.4), while the rise is more moderate in the Rjukan case. This is related to the size of the reservoirs. The Holen case has an upper and a lower reservoir with equal volumes, which allows the transfer of the same amount of water between the reservoirs without any volume limitations, whereas Rjukan has a five times larger upper than lower reservoir. Even though a larger read more..

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    61129.5 Case Study: Large-Scale Energy Storage and Balancing from Norwegian HydropowerTable 29.3 Percentage of days on which the water level changes in the opposite direction to the day before in the upper and lower reservoirs of the two cases.CasePercentage of daysUpper reservoirLower reservoirCurrentSimulatedCurrentSimulatedRjukan8.438.515.540.3Holen3.939.817.739.9Table 29.4 Rate of change in water level in the upper and lower reservoirs of the two cases.CaseValueaRate of change (m d–1)Upper read more..

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    61229 Pumped Storage HydropowerMore unstable ice will limit recreational use of the reservoirs, for example, for game, fishing, or skiing. Another consequence of water level fluctuations is an increased risk of bank erosion, caused by relatively rapid changes in pore water pressure.In the studied cases, the average rates of change in water level are obviously higher than during the current operation, but they are still below the range of critical rates as defined related to the stranding of fish read more..

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    61329.6 System Analysis of Linking Wind and Flexible Hydropowerinstall without extensive grid expansions, when taking into account the flexibility of one of the hydropower plants that are installed in the region.As shown in Figure 29.7, AGC [25] is considered for keeping the power transmis-sion below the maximum export capacity of 270 MW. The AGC is assumed to be applied to two different control strategies [25]: “Control wind”: the power output of the wind farms is constrained if required. read more..

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    61429 Pumped Storage Hydropowerreaches the maximum limit about 25% of the time, forcing wind turbine shut-off or wind production reduction to prevent line overloading. This results in about 15% lost wind energy compared with a situation without grid constraints. With coordinated hydro control, on the other hand, it is possible to store the surplus wind energy with negligible wind energy losses and flooding of the hydro reservoir. As a consequence, the full operating range of the hydropower plant read more..

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    61529.6 System Analysis of Linking Wind and Flexible HydropowerFigure 29.9 Duration curve for simulated hydropower production for a case with 300 MW wind power installed in the region.To quantify the benefits of operating the Goulas hydropower plant in a flexible way, subsequent simulations were run for increasing wind power capacity up to 400 MW, in steps of 80 MW. Figure 29.10 shows the average power export as a function of installed wind power, with and without coordinated control. In the read more..

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    61629 Pumped Storage Hydropower29.7 ConclusionHydropower is the major renewable source for electricity generation worldwide and will remain so for a long time [29]. PSH are also currently the only emission-free available technology to store energy for large power output over time horizons longer than minutes. Currently, the total worldwide installed PSH capacity is ~130 GW. While we can foresee a doubling of global hydropower capacity up to almost 2000 GW and 7000 TWh by 2050, we may see PSH read more..

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    617References References 1 Deane, J. P., Gallachoir, B. P., and McKeogh, E. J. (2010) Techno-economic review of existing and new pumped hydro energy storage plant. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 12, 1293–1302. 2 European Commission (2009) Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC, European Commission, Brussels. 3 UCTE (2007) read more..

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    61829 Pumped Storage Hydropower20 Stockner, J. G. and Macisaac, E. A. (1996) British Columbia lake enrich ment programme: two decades of habitat enhancement for Sockeye salmon. Regul. Rivers Res. Manage., 12, 547–561.21 Solvang, E., Harby, A., and Killingtveit, Å. (2012) Increasing Balance Power Capacity in Norwegian Hydroelectric Power Stations. A Preliminary Study of Specific Cases in Southern Norway, CEDREN, SINTEF Energy Report TR A7126, SINTEF Energi, Trondheim.22 Tande, J. O.G, Korpås, read more..

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    619Transition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.30 Chemical Storage of Renewable Electricity via Hydrogen – Principles and Hydrocarbon Fuels as an ExampleGeorg Schaub, Hilko Eilers, and Maria Iglesias González30.1 Integration of Electricity in Chemical Fuel ProductionRenewable electricity from fluctuating sources (wind, solar) has shown read more..

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    62030 Chemical Storage of Renewable Electricity via Hydrogenpotential future fuels made from renewable electricity, the selection of preferred energy carriers will be based on criteria such as (i) fuel properties with respect to present infrastructures [e.g., energy density (Figure 30.2), combustion, and handling properties], (ii) production cost, depending on availability and price of raw materials and the required process cost for transformation/conversion, and (iii) environmental aspects read more..

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    62130.2 Example: Hydrocarbon FuelsIn the case of substitute natural gas (SNG) (based on methane) or liquid hydrocarbon fuels (kerosene, gasoline, diesel), integration in present infrastructures would be easy. However, any upgrading process has internal energy demands, so for energy efficiency reasons direct utilization of hydrogen would be preferable.30.2 Example: Hydrocarbon Fuels30.2.1 Hydrocarbon Fuels TodayHydrocarbon fuels such as petroleum products or natural gas currently contribute read more..

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    62230 Chemical Storage of Renewable Electricity via Hydrogen30.2.2 Hydrogen Demand in Hydrocarbon Fuel Upgrading/ProductionAn overview of H2 demand values for process pathways/raw materials to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels by hydrogenating various carbon sources is given in Figure 30.4. Calculation of stoichiometric H2 demands for the production of –(CH2)– is based on Eq. 30.1, which implies complete conversion of the feedstock carbon into high-value hydrocarbons and complete conversion read more..

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    62330.2 Example: Hydrocarbon Fuels30.2.3 Hydrogen in Petroleum Ref iningPetroleum refining has developed in the past from simple fractionation according to boiling temperature to chemical upgrading of individual boiling fractions [8, 9]. Some of these upgrading processes require the addition of hydrogen (hydrodesulfur-ization, hydrocracking). Liquid and gaseous distillation products, which constitute about 65–85% of crude oil, need to be desulfurized to reach today’s allowed sulfur contents. read more..

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    62430 Chemical Storage of Renewable Electricity via HydrogenDuring the last decade, hydrogenation of vegetable oil has been established as a proven technology. It is based on experience with desulfurization of petroleum fractions [12–14]. The resulting hydrocarbon product can be used as high-value diesel or kerosene fuels, integrated into present infrastructures for blending with petroleum products without limitation or for separate use.Demand figures for hydrogen in petroleum and vegetable read more..

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    62530.2 Example: Hydrocarbon Fuels(Figure 30.6) [15]. Potential CO2 sources are biogas plants, biomass combustion or gasification (leading to CO–CO2 mixtures), and industrial production (e.g., fertiliz-er). Addition of hydrogen from electrolysis directly to the distributed natural gas is limited according to present standards (5 vol.%). Methanation therefore allows the amount of nonfossil SNG to be increased. Overall efficiencies are envisaged to be around 60% (as heating value of product gas read more..

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    62630 Chemical Storage of Renewable Electricity via HydrogenFigure 30.7 Hydrogen from fluctuating electric energy in synfuel production – example flow diagram for liquid hydrocarbons from biomass.With H2 addition, hydrocarbon yields can be increased significantly such that, in principle, all carbon present in the feedstock biomass would be converted to hy-drocarbons. This reflects the situation with a maximum use of biomass carbon for the production of liquid hydrocarbon synfuels. Hydrogen read more..

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    62730.4 Nomenclature30.3 ConclusionConversion of electric energy into fuels may become an option for energy storage with increasing renewable electricity generation in the future. With liquid hydrocar-bons probably remaining important for mobile applications and natural gas grids offering possibilities for storing fuel gases, integration of H2 from electrolysis in hydrocarbon fuel production offers a potential route, in addition to the direct use of H2. Based on the discussion presented here, read more..

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    62830 Chemical Storage of Renewable Electricity via HydrogenAcknowledgments Financial support from the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF, FKZ 01RC1010C) and the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR, FKZ 22403711) for parts of the present study is gratefully acknowledged.References 1 AG Energiebilanzen (2012) AGEB Home Page, www.ag-energiebilanzen.de (last accessed 8 February 2013). 2 Jarass, L., Obermai, G. M., and Voigt, W. (2009) Windenergie: Zuverlässige Integration read more..

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    629Transition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.31 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen GasJürgen Wackerl, Martin Streibel, Axel Liebscher, and Detlef Stolten31.1 Current SituationA continuous and reliable power and fuel supply is one of the key elements for a stable and growing economy. In the past, this supply was read more..

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    63031 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen GasSince the amount of power involved is huge, the total storage capacity must also be of large dimensions. In 2011, a total working gas volume of 2.04 × 1010 scm (standard cubic meters) was available for natural gas at 48 different storage sites in Germany [4]. For 2012, this volume increased to 3.3 × 1010 scm including all planned sites [6]. This is about the strategic reserve required for an actual natural gas consumption read more..

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    63131.2 Natural Gas Storagedesired location. Therefore, a trade-off between storage type and location has to be made. Additional factors can further complicate the choice.As will be shown later in detail, the dynamics of geological storage sites can be very different. Some types can be used only for slow and continuous, static fluxes, whereas others can also be used for high-rate, dynamic, peak demands. However, the storage sites are only one part of a more complex system. In the most ideal read more..

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    63231 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen GasFigure 31.1 Subsurface storage sites in Germany for natural gas, crude oil, mineral oil products, and liquefied gas [14]. read more..

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    63331.3 Requirements for Subsurface StorageThere are several types of volumes. The first is the geometric volume, which for a cavern represents the total usable volume under standard conditions. The second is the working volume, which is the nominal gas volume that is usable when operating the storage unit between its nominal upper and lower conditions (e.g., pressure). The third is the cushion gas volume, which is either the volume needed to keep the storage site in a stable mechanical read more..

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    63431 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen Gasand not using human accessible inspection. Hence the geological formations must first be examined thoroughly to establish whether they meet the requirements of German mining laws. The requirements for a geological storage unit that concern all phases of the lifecycle include the following [16]: geological safety – on a local, limited area around the site and a more global scale sustained and reliable integrity of the read more..

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    63531.3 Requirements for Subsurface Storagecycles on a daily basis or even shorter which require high drain and fill rates. This will cause only small pressure changes and the effect will be less pronounced in larger storage sites. For a reasonable lifetime of about 50 years, this would imply at least 50 full cycles that a storage site would have to withstand but also roughly 20 000 partial cycles.3. Contamination. One of the very important economic aspects is the preservation of the quality, read more..

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    63631 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen Gaswith geological caverns filled with hydrogen gas show a loss rate of only about 0.01% per year, which is considered acceptable. The overall losses of the currently operated natural gas storage sites amount to about 0.2% [21].31.4 Geological Situation in Central Europe and Especially GermanySince not every location is suitable as a geological storage site, the geological situation is discussed first. It is important to read more..

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    63731.4 Geological Situation in Central Europe and Especially Germanywhereas the effective volume reduction becomes smaller with increasing tempera-ture and pressure. For methane (CH4), as the major component of natural gas, this is more pronounced than for pure H2 gas, which can be treated as ideal for pressures up to 1000 bar. This means for the operator of a geological storage site that at high degrees of filling the storage can store less gas for a given pressure difference than at low read more..

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    63831 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen GasFigure 31.4 The near-surface geological rocks in the German underground [26]. read more..

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    63931.5 Types of Geological Gas Storage SitesIt becomes evident from an examination of the maps that the areas close to the Rhine, the Alps, in the Erzgebirge (area around Hof ), and in most parts of the Swabian Alb (area north of the river Danube) show a lot of seismic activity and are therefore prone to stability issues and should be considered carefully when choosing possible sites for geological storage.A further factor for large-sized storage sites is the type and homogeneity of the read more..

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    64031 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen Gasof sandstone. The sandstones consist of single sand grains with diameters from 60 µm to 2 mm and the required porosity is about 20% [27]. Since a lot of these formations exist in Germany, this kind of storage site has high potential. However, a major problem arises from the rocks surrounding the sandstone. For gas storage purposes these have to be, in the ideal case, completely impermeable to gas [28], and indeed there are read more..

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    64131.5 Types of Geological Gas Storage SitesFigure 31.5 Crude oil and natural gas production sites in Germany [29]. read more..

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    64231 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen Gasthe same storage site. Second, the free mean path of gaseous H2 of about 110 nm is substantially higher than that of CH4 of about 48 nm at 0 °C and 1 bar [32]. This translates to a much faster penetration of H2 than methane along narrow paths since the velocity of a hydrogen molecule is also far higher. In a porous medium, the pressure gradients will therefore be less pronounced or equilibrated faster.Most of the depleted read more..

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    64331.5 Types of Geological Gas Storage SitesFigure 31.6 Overview of the aquifer systems in Germany according to DIN 4049-3 [36]. read more..

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    64431 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen Gasthe related sites [34]. Such effects include pressure loss at one or more of the drain sites or overall reduced drain rates. From an operator’s standpoint, the aquifers need a large amount of cushion gas [38] owing to the mainly porous structure of the aquifer systems. Additionally, the operating pressure of the storage site is largely determined by the hydrostatic pressure of the aquifer, which limits the working volume read more..

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    64531.5 Types of Geological Gas Storage SitesApart from the information that about 0.01% of the total natural gas storage is covered with this kind of storage [42], unfortunately no public data about these sites are available.The small number of sites also indirectly shows that there are major problems such as mechanical stability and the gas tightness of the site. Most of the mining sites were formerly used to mine ore or other solids, so the mine walls are commonly brittle and therefore prone read more..

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    64631 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen GasA smaller facility of this type is already available and in operation at various locations in Germany. For example, in Bietigheim-Bissingen, a bundle of six tubes each with a length of 142 m and a diameter to 1.4 m is buried underground, close to the surface [43]. Operated at 22 bar, the total amount of natural gas stored to smooth the daily peaks is ~2.5 × 104 scm. It is used to cover peak gas demands. Nevertheless, for read more..

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    64731.5 Types of Geological Gas Storage SitesFigure 31.9 Scheme of the Asse diapir close to Braunschweig. The dome-like structure of the salt can be clearly seen, freely adapted from [34].With time, these dome-like structures evolved to very great thicknesses of up to 9 km and reach close to the surface, as can be seen in Figure 31.10. In some areas such as Turkey, these diapirs broke through the surface and formed hills. Owing to the vertical alignment, these structures are of great interest read more..

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    64831 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen GasA positive aspect of using salt formations for gas storage sites arises from the high ductility and creep tendency [25, 57]. If operated correctly, small fractures of the cavern walls due to pressure cycling can be closed again using the creep behavior of the salt by adjusting the operating pressure of the cavern itself [58]. However, the ductility of the salt also results in a disadvantage already observed for natural gas read more..

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    64931.5 Types of Geological Gas Storage SitesFor this type of storage, highly water-soluble rock formations – mainly rock salt (NaCl) – are used. To create the storage, the caverns are produced by solution mining. Vertically aligned cylindrical hollow bodies are formed, as shown in Figure 31.11. In general, fresh water is pumped into a stabilized bore hole. In coastal areas, sea water is preferred as the feed, since it is less costly and the solution process is faster than with fresh water. read more..

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    65031 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen GasDepending on the composition and type of brine, for example if the brine contains a high concentration of potassium, it is even processed during excavation for further use in the chemical industry. Otherwise the brine pumped off is either dumped in rivers or the sea. When the salt cavern is operated later with a nearly constant internal pressure, part of the brine is collected in a large temporary brine storage pond. There read more..

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    65131.5 Types of Geological Gas Storage SitesEspecially for Germany, another issue with the salt caverns exists. Although they seem to be the best choice in terms of short- and also long-term cycling, variable drain and filling rates, and low gas losses, the favorable sites are located mainly in the northern part since that had been the basin of the Zechstein Sea. For the larger cities in the southern part of Germany, only a few useable salt formations are present, located in parts of read more..

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    65231 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen GasFigure 31.13 Salt deposits in southern Germany: Bavaria [62].31.6 Comparisons with Other Locations and Further Considerations with Focus on Hydrogen GasSince the considerations and options discussed so far are not just valid for German locations, and many discussions are taking place regarding hydrogen, it is worth looking at current installations of hydrogen storage sites worldwide. Of special interest is Teesside, United read more..

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    65331.7 Conclusionpriate, mainly owing to the geological situation. In Teesside, a flat salt layer with a low height of the salt layer is found, requiring operation with constant pressure and therefore of pendulum type. In Spindletop, the cavern is located in a diapir as shown in Figure 31.15. The main difference between there and the situation in Germany is the geometry of the diapir. In Spindletop it has a smaller diameter since the salt rock forming these diapirs originates from greater read more..

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    65431 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen Gasstorage sites will be preferred, whereas for the southern part the pendulum type might be a reasonable option.In contrast, aquifer storage sites are more costly to operate but might be of interest for the southern part of Germany since huge working volumes can be achieved. The drawbacks are problems due to humidified gas and the low drain and fill rates. Unresolved issues include not only the lack of exact knowledge about read more..

  • Page - 673

    655References 11 Gu, L., et al. (2005) LH2 Storage Tanks at KSC, https://securedb.fsec.ucf.edu/hr/document_api.download?file=F856558843/Gu%20-%20LH2%20Storage%20Tanks%20at%20KSC.pdf (last accessed 18 March 2013).12 Tzimas, E., et al., Hydrogen Storage: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspective, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Petten, ISBN 92-894-6950-1.13 Flottenkommando Deutsche Marine (2009) Jahresbericht 2009 – Fakten und Zahlen zur maritimen Abhängigkeit der Bundesrepublik read more..

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    65631 Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen Gashttp://www.naturalhy.net/docs/3rd_workshop/Naturalhy%20Workshop%20IGRC%20Rapporteur%20feedback.pdf (last accessed 16 January 2012)31 Bondi, A. (1964) van der Waals volumes and radii. J. Phys. Chem., 68 (3), 441–451.32 Hirschfelder, J. O., et al. (1954) Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.33 Gaupp, R., Liermann, N., and Pusch, G. (2005) Adding value through integrated research to read more..

  • Page - 675

    657References 52 Warsitzka, M., Kley, J., and Kukowski, N. (2012) Salt diapirism driven by differ-ential loading – some insights from analogue modelling. Tectonophysics, in press.53 Geluk, M. C., Paar, W. A., and Fokker, P. A. (2007) Salt, in Geology of The Netherlands (eds. T. E. Wong, D. A. J. Batjes, and J. de Jager), Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, pp. 283–294.54 Maystrenko, Y., Bayer, U., and Scheck-Wenderoth, M. (2010) Structure and Evolution of the Central read more..

  • Page - 676

    659Transition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.32 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of HydrogenVanessa Tietze and Sebastian Luhr32.1 IntroductionFuture sustainable energy systems face the challenging task of simultaneously providing energy supply security, economic competitiveness, environmental friendli-ness, and safety. Strict and consistent read more..

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    66032 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of Hydrogenor in bonded form with low binding energies. In the former case, densities sufficient for storage can be achieved by physical methods such as compression and lique-faction. In the latter, hydrogen is stored in molecular or atomic form absorbed in or adsorbed on solid-state materials [6]. Examples are metal hydrides, high surface area sorbents, and carbon-based materials [5]. In regenerable off-board storage approaches, the hydrogen is stored in read more..

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    66132.2 Storage ParametersEmphasis is especially set on the description of the storage vessel: storage vessel types that can be considered as being readily available are described, and both technical and economic data are given. In addition, the storage capacity and efficiency of selected storage technologies are assessed in relation to the daily hydrogen demand of a future fueling station and with respect to the boundary conditions of a chosen delivery scenario. However, first some important read more..

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    66232 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of Hydrogen32.3 Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen Storage32.3.1 Thermodynamic FundamentalsAt STP conditions, which means 0 °C and 1.01325 bar, the density of hydrogen is 0.09 kg m–3 [17]. When hydrogen is compressed to pressures of 250 and 1000 bar, the densities are 19.02 and 52.12 kg m–3, respectively, at standard temperature [18]. From these data, it can be seen that there is no linear correlation between the density and the pressure. The thermodynamic read more..

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    66332.3 Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen Storagesion pipelines compressors are needed that can manage a high throughput of 50 000–2 000 000 kg d–1 with a modest compression ratio, since the pressure typically has to be increased from ~5 to ~70 bar. However, in refueling stations a pressure of 350–700 bar has to be provided for high-pressure hydrogen onboard storage, but with lower flow rates of 50–3000 kg d–1 [9].32.3.3 Hydrogen Pressure VesselsThe technique of storing hydrogen under read more..

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    66432 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of Hydrogen Table 32.1 Classification and main features of hydrogen pressure vessel types in 2006 [9, 29].Type IType IIType IIIType IVAll-metal cylinderLoad-bearing metal liner hoop wrapped with resin-impregnated continuous filamentNon-load-bearing metal liner axial and hoop wrapped with resin-impregnated continuous filamentNon-load-bearing, non-metal liner axial and hoop wrapped with resin-impregnated continuous filamentTechnology mature: ++Pressure limited to read more..

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    66532.3 Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen StorageSpherical pressure vessels can store gas volumes of up to 300 000 m3 and can be operated at pressures of up to 20 bar [36].The first spherical pressure vessels were built in 1923 by the Chicago Bridge and Iron Company [40]. As in the case of gas holders, they were usually employed to store town gas. Table 32.3 provides some technical data. Today, spherical pressure vessels are a widespread technology. They are employed, for example, in the indus-trial read more..

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    66632 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of HydrogenA spherical pressure vessel for hydrogen with a volume of about 15 000 m3 and an operating pressure between 12 and 16 bar has been reported [41–46], but despite intensive efforts no proof for the actual existence of this storage tank was found. Instead, back-tracing of the literature cited lead to a book chapter [11] published in 1988 with the statement that the application range of typical low-pressure spherical containers (> 15 000 m3 at 12–16 read more..

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    66732.3 Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen StorageTable 32.4 Calculated hydrogen storage parameters based on technical data for spherical pressure vessels for natural gas of different public utility companies.Site/year builtHeilbronn am Neckar/1964hReutlingen/1965iGießen/1961jWuppertal/1956kParameterUnitDiameteram34h34.11i16.88j47.3kWall thicknessmm30h30i20j30kPressurebbar7h9.3i8j5.05kWeightct759h965l175j1 944kParameterUnitCalculated hydrogen storage parametersGeometric volumedm320 47120 6702 50055 read more..

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    66832 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of Hydrogen Table 32.5 Technical data for pipe storage facilities for natural gas [48].OperatorLength (m)Diameter (DN)Pressure (bar)Water volume (m3)Net volume (m3)SBL, Linz17201600 5–225000 85 000SW Bietigheim-Bissingen 8521400221330 25 000EV Hildesheim60001400759200700 000Gas- und E-Werk Singen1200140016–801800144 000Erdgas Zürich55001500 7–709540714 000DN = Diameter NominalOne of the most recent projects is the construction of a pipe storage read more..

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    66932.4 Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen Storage32.4 Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen Storage32.4.1 Thermodynamic FundamentalsCryogenic liquid hydrogen has the advantage of a higher physical energy density than compressed gaseous hydrogen. For example, liquid hydrogen at normal pressure has a physical energy density of 8.49 MJ l–1 which is about four and three times the energy per unit volume compared with gaseous hydrogen at 250 and 350 bar, respectively [24, 56, 57]. The reason for this is the difference read more..

  • Page - 687

    67032 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of HydrogenIn this context, two factors are relevant for long-term liquid hydrogen storage. First, the exothermic conversion of ortho- to para-hydrogen is very slow, and second, the heat of hydrogen vaporization is lower than the heat of ortho-to-para-conversion (Table 32.6). If liquid hydrogen that has not yet attained its equilibrium concentration is stored over a longer period, the ortho-hydrogen present would finally transform to para-hydrogen. This conversion read more..

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    67132.4 Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen StorageThe typical energy demand of existing hydrogen liquefaction plants is in the range 36–54 MJ kg–1 [20], which corresponds to 30–45% of the LHV of hydrogen. The cost and the energy requirements per kilogram of hydrogen liquefied decrease as the plant capacity increases [64]. Currently, only a few plants exist worldwide, with more than nine plants located in the United States, four plants in Europe, and eleven plants in Asia. Their production read more..

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    67232 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of HydrogenFigure 32.4 Typical bulk liquid storage system with cryogenic storage tank, ambient air vaporizer, and control manifold [23].Table 32.7 Technical data for horizontal and vertical tanks for liquid hydrogen storage [66].ParameterType specif icationTLH-1500VLH-4500TLH-4500TLH-9000VLH-15000TLH-18150Diameter (ft-in)7 -38 -08 -08 -810 -810 -8Height (ft-in)17 -523 -523 -1/838 -841 -443 -3Weight (empty vessel) (t)3.869.259.0721.0528.8934.84Gross volume capacity read more..

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    67332.4 Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen Storage Table 32.8 Technical data for liquid hydrogen storage tanks depending on their size [26].Parameter“Local”Large/“today”Large/“long-term”Water volume (m3)603000100 000Net mass capacity (t)3.81916 371Net energy capacity (MWh)1276370212 349Technical system lifetime (a)303030Utilization by timea (h a–1)8,4008400N. A.Utilization by volume (%)909090Loss rate due to boil-off (%)0.40.070.01a According to [45].Figure 32.5 (a)Spherical storage tank of read more..

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    67432 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of Hydrogennear Munich, Germany, which started operation in 2007. The fueling station has a vertical above-ground liquid hydrogen storage tank, which is super-insulated and provides a storage volume of 17 600 l. The fueling process for both liquid and compressed gaseous hydrogen can be accomplished in a few minutes, whereby the liquid hydrogen is kept at a cryogenic temperature of –253 °C and the compressed gaseous hydrogen is provided at 350 bar through read more..

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    67532.5 Metal HydridesSection 32.4.1, the ortho-to-para ratio of the liquid hydrogen also has an influence on the boil-off rate. The spherical form is advantageous because it offers a minimal surface area-to-volume ratio. With increasing storage capacity or volume, respectively, this ratio increases so that larger vessels have a lower evaporation rate as smaller vessels assuming equal insulation (Figure 32.6) [26]. Typical values for boil-off rates are below 0.03% per day for large storage read more..

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    67632 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of HydrogenIn Table 32.9, characteristics of different metal hydrides are presented. In addition to storage, consideration is being given to using the special properties of metal hydrides for refrigeration, pumping, purification, and other purposes. However, these technologies are still far from commercialization [1]. 32.5.2 Metal Hydride TanksThe hydrogen storage system is composed of the metal hydride itself, a pressure vessel, and an integrated heat exchanger read more..

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    67732.6 Cost Estimates and Economic Targets32.6 Cost Estimates and Economic TargetsCosts for bulk stationary hydrogen storage are a decisive factor [9, 74]. This section presents economic data for different storage systems together with cost targets of the DOE [8] and the European Commission (EC) [75]. A literature search revealed that several detailed assessments and review articles [11, 12, 44, 45, 76–79] were published before 2000, but only two sources [14, 80] with newer data, published read more..

  • Page - 695

    67832 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of Hydrogenonly reasonable on the basis of a detailed application scenario including all relevant aspects such as the charging-discharging schedule [76, 78]. Table 32.10 Technical and economic data of spherical pressure vessels [14].Volume (m3)Maximum pressure (MPa)Minimum pressure (MPa)Volume capacity (m3(STP))Investment (€)Specif ic investment (€ m–3(STP)) 3001.20.1 3 000 230 0007620.1 5 200 307 0005910000.80.1 6 400 383 0006020.117 400 844 read more..

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    67932.7 Technical AssessmentTable 32.12 Economic data and targets of the DOE for stationary gaseous hydrogen storage [8].CategoryUnits2005 statusFY 2011 statusFY 2015 targetFY 2020 targetLow pressure (160 bar) purchased capital cost$ kg–110001000 850 700€ m–3(STP)a 68 68 58 48Moderate pressure (430 bar) purchased capital cost$ kg–111001100 900 750€ m–3(STP)a 75 75 61 51High pressure (860 bar) purchased capital cost$ kg–1N. A.145012001000€ m–3(STP)aN. read more..

  • Page - 697

    68032 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of HydrogenTable 32.13 Technical assessment of different bulk hydrogen storage technologies.ParameterStorage technologyGas holderSpherical pressure vesselPipe storage facilitySpherical dewarAverage operating temperature (°C)101010–253Minimum operating pressure (bar)1.5d1.51.51.5Maximum operating pressure (bar)1.5d20g100i1.5Inner diameter (m)23.231.11.4j19.4Height/length (m)100–6 496–Footprint (m2)42076015 391 k295Geometric volume/water volume (m3)42 01415 read more..

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    68132.7 Technical AssessmentLegend for Table 32.13Values in bold: design value/assumption. Values in italics: own calculation.a Represents the number of days a fueling station with a hydrogen consumption of 1500 kg d–1 could be supplied.b Reference point is 1.5 bar and only the energy required for loading has to be considered.c Reference point is 30 bar and the energy required for loading and unloading has to be considered.d According to [32].e According to [33].f Compression from 1.5 to 30 read more..

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    68232 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of HydrogenFor the calculation of the latter, a tank temperature near to the normal boiling point is assumed. According to the literature[83–85], the annual average temperature of the air and the soil do not show much difference and therefore for simplification a temperature of 10 °C is chosen and it is assumed that the containments are always in thermal equilibrium with their surroundings.The operating pressure of gas holders remains approximately constant, read more..

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    68332.7 Technical Assessmentin the final part of the loading process. Therefore, the storage efficiency at 1.5 bar is > 98.6%. Similarly, to calculate the power demand for unloading, it is assumed that no energy is required until an equal vessel pressure of 30 bar is reached. Sub-sequently, the total power demand was calculated as was done for the spherical pressure vessel. Consequently, also the storage efficiency at 30 bar has to be > 97.1% in practice. A change of the compression read more..

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    68432 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of Hydrogen32.8 ConclusionCurrently, only very few near-surface bulk hydrogen storage facilities exist. They store hydrogen in either the gaseous or liquid state mainly for further utilization in the chemical industry or in the space flight sector. In the future, however, when hydrogen is employed in addition to its current chemical usage as a versatile energy carrier, a greater number of storage facilities will be needed. One promising application field is to read more..

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    685References At present, the costs for metal hydrides are still fairly high, but they are expected to decrease in the future.Investment cost estimates for gaseous and liquid hydrogen storage vessels were also considered. The costs for gaseous storage vessels clearly depend on the size, the pressure range, and the shape of the vessel. For the same storage size, liquid storage tanks were estimated to be cheaper than gaseous storage vessels. However, considering only the storage vessels can be read more..

  • Page - 703

    68632 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of Hydrogenhydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/delivery_infrastructure_analysis.pdf (last accessed 16 February 2013).11 Carpetis, C. (1988) Storage, transport and distribution of hydrogen, in Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier: Technologies, Systems, Economy (ed. C. J. Winter and J. Nitsch) Springer, Berlin, pp. 249–290.12 Carpetis, C. (1994) Technology and cost of hydrogen storage. TERI Inf. Dig. Energy Environ., 4 (1), 1–13.13 Detlef Stolten, Thomas Grube (Eds.): 18th read more..

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    687References http://www.cleanenergystates.org/assets/2011-Files/Hydrogen-and-Fuel-Cells/CESA-Lipman-H2-prod-storage-050311.pdf (last accessed 16 February 2013).29 Barthélémy, H. (2012) Hydrogen storage – industrial prospectives. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 37 (22), 17364–17372.30 Weldship Corporation (2012) Inventory: Ground Storage, http://www.weldship.com/tools/inventory.html (last accessed 14 December 2012).31 Hydrogen Strategy Group of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour read more..

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    68832 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of Hydrogenfileadmin/redaktion/PDF/Veroeffentlichungen/2003/BET-Artikel_Gasbezug_0306.pdf (last accessed 16 February 2013).49 Wuppertaler Stadtwerke (2012) Pressebilder, Energie & Wasser: Gaskugel in Sonnborn, http://www.wsw-online.de/unternehmen/presse/Fotoarchiv/Energie_Wasser/Startseite_Energie_Wasser (last accessed 20 December 2012).50 Erdgas Zürich (2012) Röhrenspeicher Urdorf, Tag der offenen Baustelle, Medienmitteilungen, read more..

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    689References 67 National Aeronautics and Space Admin-istration (2009) Kennedy Media Gallery, http://mediaarchive.ksc.nasa.gov/detail.cfm?mediaid=48266 (last accessed 12 December 2012).68 Linde (2012) Linde Hydrogen Center, http://www.the-linde-group.com/de/news_and_media/image_library/index.html (last accessed 20.12.2012).69 Linde (2012) Linde Hydrogen Center in Munich, Germany. Liquid and Gaseous Hydrogen Fuelling Station, read more..

  • Page - 707

    69032 Near-Surface Bulk Storage of HydrogenLiquefied Hydrogen, SINTEF Energy Research, http://www.sintef.no/upload/lh2%20pres%20berstad.pdf (last accessed 16 February 2013).87 Nexant (2008) H2 A Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis Models and Conventional Pathway Options Analysis Results, DE-FG36-05GO15032, Interim Report, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/nexant_h2a.pdf (last accessed 16 February 2013).88 STIMME.de (2010): Heilbronner Gaskugel wird im November read more..

  • Page - 708

    691Transition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.33 Energy Storage Based on Electrochemical Conversion of AmmoniaJürgen Fuhrmann, Marlene Hülsebrock, and Ulrike Krewer33.1 IntroductionThe restructuring of the energy supply in favor of renewable sources faces significant challenges owing to the intermittency of wind and solar energy input. For read more..

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    69233 Energy Storage Based on Electrochemical Conversion of AmmoniaIn Section 33.2, the thermodynamic and chemical properties of ammonia that would allow it to be used as a medium for energy storage are discussed. A number of historical investigations and uses in this context are also reported. In Section 33.3, known processes for ammonia synthesis are reviewed. The discussion mainly focuses on options for a dynamic operation mode of the Haber–Bosch process, which is responsible for the read more..

  • Page - 710

    69333.3 Pathways for Ammonia Conversion: SynthesisTable 33.1 Higher heating values (HHV) calculated from enthalpies of formation of pure substances [9], boiling points BBbarbarandTT110 [10], HHV-based volumetric energy densities (EV) using density data from [10], and volumetric energy densities relative to NH3 NHR*VVVEEE3 for selected chemical energy carriers.Parameterp (bar)T (°C) NH3H2CH4C3H8CH3OHDieselHHV (kWh kg–1)6.2539.3915.4213.896.1112.5TB1 bar (°C)1–33–253–161–4264TB10 bar read more..

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    69433 Energy Storage Based on Electrochemical Conversion of AmmoniaAnother natural process is the direct oxidation of nitrogen in air, which is observed at very high temperatures in lightning. Based on this fact, the “Norwegian arc process” (also called the Birkeland–Eyde process) running at temperatures around 3000 °C, was the first candidate for industrial nitrogen fixation [20, 21]. The resulting nitrogen oxides provide only the first step for ammonia synthesis.When the importance of read more..

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    69533.3 Pathways for Ammonia Conversion: Synthesisor Ru-based catalysts for ammonia production [25] are oxidized during shut-down and need to be reduced with the help of hydrogen or synthesis gas to become active again. This activation process can take 30 h and more; already during this process the reactor can produce ammonia [22]. Most catalysts employed are sensitive to oxy-gen-containing compounds up to the parts per million level [22], which necessitates purification of the reactants.The read more..

  • Page - 713

    69633 Energy Storage Based on Electrochemical Conversion of AmmoniaWhen using ammonia to buffer intermittent electricity generated from renewables, alternative, small scale processes to generate the reactant streams for the Haber–Bosch process may be employed: hydrogen may be supplied by a water electrolysis facility which is powered by intermittent energy; pure nitrogen may be supplied by pressure swing adsorption (PSA).The efficiencies for converting electricity into hydrogen can reach more read more..

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    69733.3 Pathways for Ammonia Conversion: Synthesis33.3.2 Electrochemical SynthesisIn many cases, electrochemical methods have the potential to circumvent the thermo dynamic restrictions of purely chemical methods. Along with high pressure, a properly applied voltage difference can shift the reaction equilibrium in favor of the reaction products.A number of recent laboratory results suggest that there is some potential in electrochemical ammonia synthesis that may be worth investigating further. read more..

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    69833 Energy Storage Based on Electrochemical Conversion of AmmoniaHellman et al. [25] surveyed theoretical work based on molecular-scale calcula-tions. They considered ammonia synthesis with the Haber–Bosch-method to be fairly well understood, and to be based on an associative Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism starting with N2 adsorption on the catalyst surface. On the other hand, biocatalytic ammonia synthesis follows a different route starting with N2 hydroge-nation [17], suggesting that a read more..

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    69933.4 Pathways for Ammonia Conversion: Energy RecoveryCombustion chambers for ammonia would have to be optimized for the compa-rably low combustion rate of ammonia. At the same time, this optimization would be the primary way to reduce ammonia slip, and possibly NOx.The reduction of ammonia slip in the exhaust is currently under discussion in connection with the SCR–urea technology and can be performed using a second catalytic oxidation step [54] or catalysts that are able to reduce both NOx read more..

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    70033 Energy Storage Based on Electrochemical Conversion of Ammoniaconductivity of a Nafion membrane [61]. This effect is significantly less evident in alkaline cells [76, 77].33.5 Comparison of PathwaysFigure 33.2 gives an overview of the different pathways for chemical energy storage based on ammonia.The Haber–Bosch process and pressure swing adsorption (PSA) are already established and commercially available on a large scale. Water electrolysis and hydrogen fuel cells seem to be at the read more..

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    70133.5 Comparison of PathwaysNonetheless, to get a first idea about the currently achievable practical efficiencies of the pathways, the ammonia production pathways are discussed in the following.Hydrogen production by water electrolysis is needed for ammonia generation by Haber–Bosch or electrochemical synthesis. It is assumed to take place at 80 °C and 1 bar; under these conditions, alkaline and PEM electrolysis both can yield cell efficiencies between 86% and 76% depending on the applied read more..

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    70233 Energy Storage Based on Electrochemical Conversion of Ammoniaallow for stacking of cells, and the possibility of dynamic operation, which should be excellent for electrochemical pathways also. Both aspects need to be investigated in greater depth for the pathways including the Haber–Bosch process.33.6 ConclusionsOwing to its thermodynamic properties, its energy content, the good availability of its precursors, and a number of possibilities for energy recovery, ammonia is a possible read more..

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    703References Acknowledgment The authors thank Lasse Nielsen for his support of the investigations presented in this chapter, especially in computing the energy for compression and expansion of the gases entering and exiting the Haber–Bosch process with Enbipro, the in-house software of the Institute of Energy and Process Systems Engineering.References 1 Klaus, T., Vollmer, C., Werner, K., Lehmann, H., and Müschen, K. (eds.) (2010) Energieziel 2050: 100% Strom aus erneuerbaren Quellen, read more..

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    70433 Energy Storage Based on Electrochemical Conversion of AmmoniaVegge, T., Jónsson, H., and Nørskov, J. K. (2012) A theoretical evaluation of possible transition metal electro-catalysts for N2 reduction. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 14 (3), 1235–1245.19 Smil. V. (1999) Detonator of the popula-tion explosion. Nature, 400 (6743), 415.20 Mellor, J. W. (1935) A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, vol. 8, Longmans, Green, London.21 Leigh, G. J. (2004) Haber–Bosch and read more..

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    705References water and nitrogen gas in molten salt under atmospheric pressure. Electrochim. Acta, 50 (27), 5423–5426.40 Murakami, T., Nishikiori, T., Nohira, T., and Ito, Y. (2005) Investigation of anodic reaction of electrolytic ammonia synthesis in molten salts under atmospheric pressure. J. Electrochem. Soc., 152 (5), D75–D78.41 Murakami, T., Nohira, T., Araki, Y., Goto, T., Hagiwara, R., and Ogata, Y. H. (2007) Electrolytic synthesis of ammonia from water and nitrogen under read more..

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    70633 Energy Storage Based on Electrochemical Conversion of Ammonia59 Cairns, E. J., Simons, E. L., and Tevebaugh, A. D. (1968) Ammonia–oxygen fuel cell. Nature, 217 (5130), 780.60 Wojcik, A., Middleton, H., Damopoulos, I., and Van Herle, J. (2003) Ammonia as a fuel in solid oxide fuel cells. J. Power Sources, 118 (1–2), 342–348.61 Halseid, R. (2004) Ammonia as hydrogen carrier. Effects of ammonia on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, PhD thesis, Norwegian University of Science and read more..

  • Page - 724

    707Transition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.Part VI Distribution read more..

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    709Transition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.34 Introduction to Transmission Grid ComponentsArmin Schnettler34.1 IntroductionWorldwide power systems are facing a significant change. In developing and newly industrialized countries, power systems are developing rapidly to match the fast-growing demand and to guarantee higher system security read more..

  • Page - 726

    71034 Introduction to Transmission Grid Componentsvery high importance (backbone of the energy grid), transmission grids have to be designed, planned, and operated with extremely high availability and reliability. By whatever means, any malfunction of any component under any environmental conditions must not yield a regional or national/international blackout (e.g., [2]).34.2 Classif ication of Transmission System ComponentsToday, electricity grids of rated voltage levels ≤ 170 kV are often read more..

  • Page - 727

    71134.2 Classification of Transmission System Components34.2.1.2 Underground LinesWith the increasing trend towards a reduced environmental and visible impact, and with steadily growing electricity consumption in cities, underground technologies have continuously increased in importance. Today, three classes of underground transmission technologies are used: (i) AC and DC underground (submarine) cables [mainly with oil-paper or XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene) insulation], (ii) gas insulated read more..

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    71234 Introduction to Transmission Grid ComponentsRecent underground line technologies are used for the following: AC cables: up to 550 kV DC cables: up to ±320 kV (XLPE insulation) up to ±600 kV (oil-paper insulation) GILs: up to 550 kV HTS cables: up to 138 kV ACwith typical transmission capacities for cables of up to 1.5 GW and for GILs of more than 4 GW. Depending on the insulation level and the transmission capacity (cross-section of the conductor), typical manufacturing lengths of read more..

  • Page - 729

    71334.2 Classification of Transmission System ComponentsThe higher the importance of a substation for the operation of the power system, the higher the design redundancy will be, for example busbar layout with up to three busbar systems, and so on. For transmission voltage levels, substation are normally air insulated [AIS (air insulated substation); Figure 34.2], with significant space requirements (up to several tens of hectares) but at relatively low cost and with standardized components read more..

  • Page - 730

    71434 Introduction to Transmission Grid ComponentsSubstations and their main components are normally used for AC systems. Since DC transmission is used for point-to-point transmission, HVDC substations today mainly consist of an AC part including AC filter circuits, transformers with special requirements for application close to power electronic converters, and the DC converters connected to the DC transmission line.34.2.2.2 Power TransformersPower transformers connect different voltage levels read more..

  • Page - 731

    71534.2 Classification of Transmission System ComponentsFigure 34.5 SVC installation at Statnett, Norway (ABB).FACTS devices are used in long transmission lines for compensating voltage drops (e.g., due to the demand of reactive power) or compensating capacitive voltage increases (e.g., Ferranti effect). Owing to their fast control capability, FACTS devices are used for power quality control applications, for example,. due to fast changing load conditions [e.g., SVC (static VAR read more..

  • Page - 732

    71634 Introduction to Transmission Grid Componentsare the preferred solution, especially considering that there is no specific difference if either overhead lines or underground cables are used (Figure 34.6). Today, high power-rated HVDC converters are based on thyristor valve technology. Since thyris-tors require an external circuit (which is provided by the AC system) to turn them off, this technique is often termed the line-commutated converter (LCC) technique.However, so far mainly read more..

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    71734.2 Classification of Transmission System ComponentsFigure 34.7 Structure of a VSC HVDC transmission system (ABB).Figure 34.8 Basic principle of VSC HVDC converter technology (ABB).34.2.3 System Integration of Transmission TechnologiesWith the growing demand for electricity, stronger transmission grids have been planned, designed, and implemented worldwide. Starting in the 1950s, in Europe a 380 kV AC power system was installed, mainly using overhead lines for transmission. read more..

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    71834 Introduction to Transmission Grid ComponentsToday, the European transmission grid is highly meshed, interconnected through-out all western and central European countries and operated very reliably (so far, no complete blackout has been reported). HVDC systems (LCC technology) are in use for undersea transmission/interconnectors, for example, between Sweden and Poland, Sweden and Germany, Norway and The Netherlands (with power ratings of up to 600 MW). In addition, some first VSC converter read more..

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    71934.2 Classification of Transmission System ComponentsFigure 34.9 Power transmission extensions and overlay grid in Germany (Scenario B2032) [7]. read more..

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    72034 Introduction to Transmission Grid Components34.3 Recent Developments of Transmission System ComponentsWith respect to power system developments in Europe, it is expected that three major topics will become essential: Strong development of insulation strength and current-carrying capacity of power electronic blocks/modules combined with innovative control mechanisms, such as multilevel converters for high voltage levels and power ratings (> ±500 kV; > 4000 MW) (Figure 34.10). These read more..

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    721References application of DC technologies on a broader, more cost-sensitive power distribu-tion scale may become realistic. Following the trend towards an underground (invisible) power transmission and distribution system, it may be expected that even higher voltage levels will go underground.References 1 Smart Grid Strategic Research Agenda 2035, http://www.smartgrids.eu/documents/sra2035.pdf.2 Ministry of Power, Government of India (2012) Report of the Enquiry Committee on Grid read more..

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    72335 Introduction to the Transmission NetworksGöran Andersson, Thilo Krause, and Wil Kling35.1 IntroductionTypically, the value creation chain in electricity markets comprises three constit-uents: the production side (generation of electric power), the demand side (“con-sumption” of electricity), interlinked by transmission and distribution grids. The latter play a crucial role as they “transport” electrical energy from the power plants to the customer. The transmission system operates read more..

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    72435 Introduction to the Transmission Networks35.2 The Transmission System – Development, Role, and Technical LimitationsThe electric power system has during its existence developed into a structure con-sisting of in essence three different parts: generation, transmission, and distribution. In addition there are, of course, the consumers, or loads as they often are referred to, which also must be considered in the planning, design, and operation of the power system. The current structure is a read more..

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    72535.2 The Transmission System – Development, Role, and Technical Limitationsconstant light that is pleasant for the human eye. The competing technology based on alternating current (AC) gave at lower frequencies a flickering light, which was annoying. However, as the DC systems grew, the disadvantages of this technology became more and more obvious.It is clear that the ohmic losses in a system increase with the distance the electric power has to be transported. This means that for a given read more..

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    72635 Introduction to the Transmission Networksgenerators require less iron in the magnetic circuits for higher frequencies, while the possibility of transporting power decreases with increase in frequency. Hence there is a certain power frequency that would optimize the system cost and perfor-mance, and this optimal frequency is system specific. For the early AC systems, the frequencies were therefore different, typically in the range 40–70 Hz. However, it was soon realized that there were read more..

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    72735.2 The Transmission System – Development, Role, and Technical Limitationssome attractive advantages for special applications. With the development of power electronics for high voltages and currents, the DC technology has experienced a renaissance and today is regarded as an important complement to AC technology and an essential part in many transmission grids. In the most basic form, the DC transmission system, which for high voltages is called high-voltage direct current (HVDC) read more..

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    72835 Introduction to the Transmission Networkshigh-voltage interconnections in Europe from the 1950s and later. Even if each country was self-sufficient concerning electric power, it was soon realized that during disturbances, such as power plant outages, interconnections could provide reserve power so that the operation was not interrupted. The reserves needed for secure operation of the system could therefore be shared between several countries, which led to improved security and/or reduced read more..

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    72935.3 The Transmission Grid in Europe – Current Situation and Challengesshort-circuit currents. In case of short-circuits, for example as a consequence of a ground fault, these currents must be interrupted and the circuit breakers used for this task must have the required capability. These deliberations might impose restrictions on the expansion and operation of the transmission grid.The various limits described above are all of fundamental physical nature and a number of engineering read more..

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    73035 Introduction to the Transmission NetworksTransmission of Electricity). In 1958, the transmission grids of Switzerland, France, and Germany were coupled. During the following decades, other national networks joined the UCTE. In 2008, the UCTE was replaced by its successor organization, ENTSO-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity), with 41 members. Technically, this means that all transmission systems of the member countries are operated together as one read more..

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    73135.3 The Transmission Grid in Europe – Current Situation and Challenges35.3.3 Transmission Challenges Driven by the Production SideIn the period between the 1950s and the 1980s, investments in large “conventional” thermal or hydro power plants prevailed. However, the introduction of the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) provided a technological justification for competition. The CCGT technology allowed for smaller plant sizes, being at least as economical as conventional thermal and read more..

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    73235 Introduction to the Transmission Networksflow from higher to lower voltage levels may be altered. In-feeds from lower voltage levels are becoming increasingly common. Additional developments on the demand side concern the transformation of formerly “passive” consumers to loads, which can be integrated actively by means of demand-side participation. In doing so, loads (consumers) in conjunction with storage devices and small renewable generation units may contribute to traditional read more..

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    73335.4 Market Options for the Facilitation of Future Bulk Power Transport35.4.2 Cross-Border BalancingAnother step forward is the coupling of balancing markets for real-time operation to deploy balancing resources (secondary reserves) from other control areas. When a certain control area monitors an area control error (ACE), balancing services could be deployed from transmission system operators (TSOs) across the border. The first step towards cross-border balancing is the share of ACEs among read more..

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    73435 Introduction to the Transmission NetworksFigure 35.2 Connection of systems.In these cases, instead of using AC, energy may be transmitted by HVDC using an overhead line, an underground or submarine cable, or a combination of these [7]. Converter stations to switch between AC and DC are needed at both ends of an HVDC connection. Distinction can be made in true DC connections and the so-called back-to-back installations (see Figure 35.2).In the case of synchronous connection, the choice of read more..

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    73535.5 Case StudyFigure 35.3 shows what a higher voltage means for the tower image. The DC solution is also drawn. The capacity of the 750 kV line is twice that of the 380 kV line; the DC line has the same capacity as the 750 kV line, but can be built in the same trace width as the 380 kV line.For AC coupling, the line costs are dominant over the substation cost. With DC, the substation costs (converters) are higher than with AC, but the cost of an overhead DC line is lower than that of an AC read more..

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    73635 Introduction to the Transmission NetworksIn the following we compare three expansion technologies: (1) double-circuit AC–400 kV lines with a rating of 3000 MVA, (2) a single-circuit AC–750 kV line with a rating of 3900 MVA, and (3) voltage source converter high-voltage DC trans-mission with a rating of 3000 MVA. In all cases we assume that we add one parallel line along interconnections which are congested (i.e., 100% loaded) over 50% of the time during the year in the base-case read more..

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    73735.5 Case StudyFigure 35.4 shows the annual average of line loadings when we rely on double-cir-cuit AC–400 kV lines with a rating of 3000 MVA for network expansion. Eleven new lines are built. Furthermore, three HVDC lines are installed representing projects that are already planned today (2012). Red lines indicate congestion. The operating costs (generation and network) for such a scenario amount to €95.29 billion. Compared with the base-case scenario (no network expansion), we save read more..

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    73835 Introduction to the Transmission NetworksFigure 35.5 shows an investment scenario where 11 new 750 kV AC lines are built as indicated by the different colors. As in the previous case, the three already existing HVDC investment projects are considered. In this case, operating costs amount to €94.01 billion. This means a decrease of 11.5% compared with a situation without any network investments.Figure 35.6 Annual average line loading in 2050 (HVDC expansion). High loading, > 85%; read more..

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    739References Figure 35.6 shows the results for the case when the network is reinforced, relying completely on VSC (voltage source converter)–HVDC technology. Fourteen new HVDC lines are built. This investment scheme leads to a 16.5% decrease in operating costs to €88.74 billion per year.The results are dependent on several parameters assumed for the development of generation and load and also the spatial distribution of generation. However, it becomes obvious that the choice of technology read more..

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    741Transition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.36 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon FutureGoran Strbac, Marko Aunedi, Danny Pudjianto, and Vladimir Stanojevic36.1 Overview of the Present Electricity System Structure and Its Design and Operation PhilosophyIn most industrialized countries, the present electricity read more..

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    74236 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon FutureGiven the average demand across the year, the average utilization of the generation capacity is below 55%.4)One of the key distinguishing features of the electricity system is that the balance between demand and supply must be maintained at all times. Given that the demand is not controllable (or not responsive), the only source of control is the generation system. Any changes in demand are met by almost instantaneous read more..

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    74336.2 System Integration Challenges of Low-Carbon Electricity Systemsbution network is resolved through the robust specification of primary network infrastructure, hence these networks traditionally operate as passive systems (i.e., the network control problem is resolved at the planning stage).36.2 System Integration Challenges of Low-Carbon Electricity SystemsWorldwide, future electricity systems face challenges of unprecedented proportions. By 2020, 20% of European electricity demand will read more..

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    74436 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon Futureoutput uncertainty [2]. Provision of a significant part of these services will be accompanied by energy production, given the involvement of part-loaded fossil fuel generation. The increased need for system management services will not only reduce the efficiency of operation of conventional generation in the presence of intermittent generation, but also may limit the ability of the system to absorb renewable output, read more..

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    74536.3 Smart Grid: Changing the System Operation ParadigmFigure 36.2 Reversing the trend of degradation of asset utilization by smart grid technologies supported by ICT.If the asset utilization is not to degrade but rather potentially to become enhanced, the system flexibility that has been traditionally delivered through asset redundancy would need to be provided through more sophisticated control that incorporates advanced technologies (supported by appropriate communication and information read more..

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    74636 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon FutureThe proliferation of energy storage, distributed generation, and solid-state equipment and greater demand-side participation are at present not appropriately integrated, for a variety of reasons (such as market, regulatory, and policy barriers discussed later). Furthermore, information management, wide-area measurement, and disturbance recognition and visualization tools are yet to be fully developed and implemented to read more..

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    74736.4 Quantifying the Benefits of Smart Grid Technologies in a Low-Carbon futureFigure 36.3 Balancing electricity supply and demand across different time horizons.Capturing the interactions across different timescales and across different asset types is essential for the analysis of future low-carbon electricity systems that include alternative balancing technologies such as storage and demand-side response. Clearly, applications of those technologies not only may improve the economics of read more..

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    74836 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon FutureFigure 36.4 Annual system integration savings in the UK system from optimizing demand-side response and distributed storage in transition to a low-carbon future.The savings are calculated as the difference in total annuitized investment and annual operating costs between (a) a counterfactual system, with energy storage not being available, and (b) the system with DSR and energy storage, given its cost, being optimally read more..

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    74936.5 Integration of Demand-Side Response in System Operation and Planningthe high penetration of renewable generation (we observe a significant curtailment of renewable energy). In order to comply with the carbon emission targets of 100 and 50 g CO2 kWh–1 in 2040 and 2050 respectively, if DSR or energy storage are not available then significant additional capacity of low-carbon generation such as carbon capture and storage (CCS) or nuclear would need to be built. On the other hand, DSR and read more..

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    75036 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon FutureHence the total load of a group of controlled devices will increase during the load recovery period. To counteract this load increase, some other appliances must be switched off. This would reduce load control efficiency. A key technical challenge is to design ways to maximize both the efficiency and use of controlled loads, while at the same time not compromising consumers’ comfort levels.This section describes the read more..

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    75136.5 Integration of Demand-Side Response in System Operation and PlanningFigure 36.6 Controlled and uncontrolled load profile for a residential area.The models developed for this analysis are able to schedule optimally the control of groups of water heaters to minimize peak demand (or generation cost), while considering the load reduction and load recovery effects shown in Figure 36.5. The model was calibrated using data obtained from field trials. Figure 36.6 shows examples of controlled and read more..

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    75236 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon FutureFigure 36.8 Typical operation cycles for (a) WM, (b) DW, and (c) WM+TD.Similarly, control of wet appliances, including washing machines (WM), dish-washers (DW), and washing machines equipped with tumble dryers (WM+TD) could contribute to the delivery of savings in system operation and investment. The operation cycle defines the duration and power consumption at each time instant when the appliance is in use (typical read more..

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    75336.5 Integration of Demand-Side Response in System Operation and PlanningIn particular, system frequency needs to be carefully managed following a sudden loss of a large generator (due to, e.g., an unforeseen outage), and restored to its nominal value within a relatively short time frame. Frequency regulation services are usually provided by synchronized generators, running part loaded, and by fre-quency-sensitive load control actions involving certain industrial customers. These read more..

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    75436 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon FutureFigure 36.11 Standard refrigerator operating cycles with temperature variations (a) and compressor switching (b).A domestic refrigerator generally maintains its internal temperature between two set points. Once the internal temperature has reached the set point Tmax, the compressor switches on and the refrigerator starts to cool. Once the refrigerator’s internal temperature reaches the minimum temperature set point read more..

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    75536.5 Integration of Demand-Side Response in System Operation and PlanningFigure 36.12 Value of SR in today’s and future systems for different contributions of wind to system management.36.5.2 Integration of EVsEV loads are particularly well placed to support power system operation, for several reasons: (i) their energy requirements are relatively modest; (ii) light passenger vehicles are generally associated with short driving times (relevant databases indicate that vehicles are stationary read more..

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    75636 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon Futureat work, as illustrated in Figure 36.14. On the other hand, a very flat profile can be obtained if charging is optimized, while still allowing batteries to be fully charged before vehicle owners leave work.Figure 36.15 contrasts the increases in network peak demand for uncontrolled and smart charging modes. Clearly, not incorporating demand side in network real-time operation will result in a massive degradation of read more..

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    75736.5 Integration of Demand-Side Response in System Operation and PlanningFigure 36.14 (a) Uncontrolled and (b) smart charging profiles in a commercial district (1 km2) driven by charging of 5000 EVs following arrivals at work.Figure 36.15 Increases in electricity demand and local network peak load. read more..

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    75836 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon FutureFigure 36.16 (a) Uncontrolled and (b) smart charging in a residential area (8000 properties) driven by charging of 5000 EVs when people return from work.Figure 36.17 provides an estimate of the necessary reinforcement cost for UK distribution networks in the 2050 horizon for three different approaches to network control: (i) passive control (business as usual approach), (ii) smart voltage control, and (iii) smart read more..

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    75936.5 Integration of Demand-Side Response in System Operation and Planning35 million vehicles). The values shown were obtained using an advanced whole-sys-tem analytical model capable of optimally utilizing smart EV charging to reduce both operation cost and investment into generation and network capacity. When all EVs are controlled in a smart manner (i.e., for 100% smart charging), the value generated to the system amounts to around €180 per vehicle annually. As indicated in Figure 36.18, read more..

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    76036 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon FutureFigure 36.19 Change in annual carbon emissions from the UK electricity system for different EC charging control regimes.The transport sector is a major contributor to environmental emissions. For instance, road-based transport accounted for almost one-quarter of the UK CO2 emissions in 2010.7) Therefore, reducing the reliance on carbon-based fuels in this sector is seen as a key contributor to reducing the overall CO2 read more..

  • Page - 775

    76136.5 Integration of Demand-Side Response in System Operation and Planning36.5.3 Smart Heat Pump OperationThe residential heating sector is another area that has significant potential for de-carbonization. There has been significant interest in various electrical heat pump (HP) technologies, in the form of domestic-scale installations or large-scale instal-lations supporting heat networks. This concept relies on the assumption that future electricity systems will be largely carbon neutral as a read more..

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    76236 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon FutureGiven the characteristics and constraints of HPs (low-temperature operation and reduced rate of heat delivery), it might be beneficial to equip an HP-based system with thermal storage (such as a hot water tank) in order to enable the HP to follow the same heat requirements with a lower electrical rating. This would potentially lead to a more uniform operation of HPs, but will also provide an opportunity to optimize HP read more..

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    76336.5 Integration of Demand-Side Response in System Operation and PlanningFigure 36.21 Net benefits of storage in the future UK system with a significant contribution of renewable generation and electrified transport and heat. read more..

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    76436 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon Futuretion, and reduction in the need for interconnection, transmission, and distribution network investment. In some cases the objective of overall cost minimization may lead to an increase in cost in particular assets, such as expenditure in transmission network reinforcement between Scotland and England (note that, for example, in 2030 bulk storage reduces the need for transmission whereas distributed storage increases read more..

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    76536.5 Integration of Demand-Side Response in System Operation and PlanningA highly flexible demand side, however, is the most direct competitor to energy storage. Both offer very similar services (deferring or avoiding distribution network reinforcement in particular) and are therefore not complementary. High levels of demand flexibility may reduce the market size for storage in 2030 by more than 50%.Given the shape of the peak demand, the value of storage in the future UK is not strongly read more..

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    76636 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon Futurequirements,11) but they can further facilitate a more effective use (i.e., higher load factors) of more efficient plant, or avoid the need for costly abated plants in providing peaking services in low-carbon systems.As illustrated in Figure 36.23, additional storage duration leads to rapidly dimin-ishing value per unit of energy falling well below £20 kWh–1 per year.Storage efficiency has been found to have limited read more..

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    76736.5 Integration of Demand-Side Response in System Operation and PlanningImproved wind forecasting (50% improvement in the root mean square error) will result in reduced reserve requirements and will hence reduce the value of storage, as illustrated in Figure 36.24.Furthermore, the approach to allocating storage resource between energy arbitrage and reserve provision will be critical. Figure 36.25 presents the difference in the value of storage being evaluated using conventional deterministic read more..

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    76836 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon Futureand reserve varies dynamically depending on the system conditions. We observe that with 2 GW of storage when considering a particular scenario, stochastic scheduling increases the value of storage by more than 75%, whereas for the installed capacity of 20 GW of storage this would be around 50%.36.6 Implementation of Smart Grid: Distributed Energy MarketplaceThe smart grid presents a technical vision for electricity read more..

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    76936.6 Implementation of Smart Grid: Distributed Energy MarketplaceThe distributed energy marketplace will bring together all energy system end users (both generation and demand) from all levels of the power system to interact with each other and the system operators in a competitive market-based environment, buying and selling energy and ancillary services [30].Crucially, the marketplace will link all market participants in a single real-time marketplace and remove the disconnection caused by read more..

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    77036 Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon Futureis unlikely to be very tangible to market participants in 2020, yet a failure to deploy these technologies in a timely manner may lead to higher system costs in 2030 and beyond. Strategic policies will be needed to ensure that markets can deliver long-term system benefits.References 1 Imperial College London and NERA Economic Consulting (2012) Understanding the Balancing Challenge, Report for the UK Department of read more..

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    771References 18 Silva, V., Stanojevic, V., Pudjianto, D., and Strbac, G. (2009) Value of Smart Appliances in System Balancing, Part I of Deliverable 4.4 of Smart-A Project (No. EIE/06/185//SI2.447477), http://www.smart-a.org/W_P_4_D_4_4_Energy_Networks_Report_final.pdf (last accessed 8 February 2013).19 Short, J. A., Infield, D. G., and Freris, L. L., Stabilization of grid frequency through dynamic demand control. IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 22, 1284–1293.20 Molina-García, A., Bouffard, F., read more..

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    77337 Natural Gas Pipeline SystemsGerald Linke37.1 Physical and Chemical FundamentalsAt first glance, the transport of natural gas within pipeline systems appears to be a physical phenomenon, based on the compressibility of the medium, and less on chemical parameters. However, this is not the case, for several reasons: On the one hand, the transport capacity depends on the properties of the medium such as density and calorific value, as will be seen below when the transport equation is derived read more..

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    77437 Natural Gas Pipeline SystemsTable 37.1 Typical compositions of low calorific value gas (or L gas) and high calorific value gas (or H gas).ComponentHigh Caloric GasLow Caloric GasRussian FederationNorth SeaBlended gasThe Nether-lands“Verbund-gas” areaWeser/Ems areaMethaneCH498.0986.9087.5283.4985.3087.73EthaneC2H6 0.66 8.03 7.30 3.80 3.01 0.65PropaneC3H8 0.22 1.91 1.17 0.76 0.56 0.04ButaneC4H10 0.08 0.50 0.30 0.24 0.18 0.02PentaneC5H12 0.02 0.08 0.05 0.07 read more..

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    77537.1 Physical and Chemical FundamentalsTable 37.2 Gas properties of a typical high calorific value Russian natural gas and of methane (main component).SymbolPropertyEquationValueDensity of methane MV0.717 kg m–3WSWobbe index of methane (based on upper calorific value)SSairWH1255.45 MJ m–3–Primary energy factor of natural gas–1.1–CO2 emissions (of an ideal combustion of natural gas)–200 g kWh–122idid1dd21 d2ppw pxDpwpK xD (37.2)where p is the pressure, the integral friction read more..

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    77637 Natural Gas Pipeline Systemsdiameter, pipeline length, integral pipeline friction, and average conditions (such as the temperature):nnmnnmpDT pVpLTpK252221111 1116 (37.5)It should be noted that the transport capacity of a pipeline (measured in cubic meters per second) is proportional to D2.5 and not, as one might expect, to the cross-sectional area of the pipe or to the square of the diameter.Furthermore, it can be shown that the pressure drop along the line is a simple function of the read more..

  • Page - 790

    77737.2 Technological DesignWhat happens next? Since a pipeline is a large pressure vessel, it has to be con-structed in accordance with proven rules that ensure sufficient provision against bursting. Two parameters have an influence on the stability of the vessel: the wall thickness and the yield strength of the chosen material. The Barlow law quantifies this interdependence between the operational pressure in the pipe, its diameter, and these two terms:Dmint .mint.orDPDP DtRtff R05052020 read more..

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    77837 Natural Gas Pipeline SystemsDmint...PDtfR 05600 80692020 0 62 560 (37.9)A wall thickness of ~7 mm would be sufficient in this case.During its lifetime, a pipeline is not only exposed to stresses from internal pressure but also has to cope with other influences. However, a set of suitable protection and counter-measures has been developed and specified in an international standard1): Threat from corrosion: The pipeline is protected against corrosion via a coating (passive protection) and read more..

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    77937.2 Technological DesignBut how many cubic meters per hour can a single compressor raise to the required pressure level? This depends on the amount of energy for the thermodynamic process of boosting a cubic meter of the relevant gas to the outlet pressure and on the installed power of the prime engine. A derivation can be found in [1]; we just show the results:enginespecificNspecificSm.kkPPVkPK Tk1411111 0304 1011 (37.10)where Pengine is the power of prime engine (kW), Pspecific the read more..

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    78037 Natural Gas Pipeline Systemsstations (to measure the delivered gas quantities and the compositions for billing purposes), and blending stations (to prepare gases with different calorific values).The efficiency of the overall natural gas transmission system is extremely high. Since the gas is clean and dry and since modern pipeline systems have an internal flow coating, the losses due to friction are very low. The integral friction factor in Eq. 37.4 is, in general, less than 0.01 mm. In read more..

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    78137.3 Cutting Edge Technology of Todayhundred kilometers. The pigs deliver very reliable diagnostics of the remaining wall thickness of the pipe. In many countries, pigging of gas pipelines has become mandatory. However, not every pipeline is piggable owing to installations present in some of the pipe section, or to too tight curves, or for some other reasons. Then alternatives need to be applied and the state of the system has to be assessed via other methods (for example, control sample read more..

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    78237 Natural Gas Pipeline SystemsFigure 37.3 CHARM® (CH4 airborne remote monitoring).A similar gas detection system is GasCam, a camera system that visualizes the smallest gas releases and provides pictures comparable to those of a thermo camera (Figure 37.4). The application was developed for the inspection of gas plants. Compared with CHARM®, the GasCam is more sensitive but not appropriate for mobile operation in a helicopter.Figure 37.4 GasCam in operation to identify the smallest gas read more..

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    78337.3 Cutting Edge Technology of TodayStatistics show that unintended and undetected damage to a pipeline system, for example, a cut in the coating or dents and gouges from excavators, is the most common failure. This can lead to a corrosion defect years later when its initiator can no longer be discovered. If the impact takes place shortly after the last inline inspection, the defect might grow over several years before the next pig run is performed. Especially combinations of a dent and a read more..

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    78437 Natural Gas Pipeline Systemsneeds to be determined from the gas quantity and its specific energy content or calorific value) and can make it necessary to equip the biomethane plant with an expensive gas conditioning system. The additional installation of chromatographs is the most uneconomic approach. However, E.ON New Build & Technology has developed a flow simulation software package that has proven its capability to re-construct the local calorific value of the gas mixture with the read more..

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    78537.4 Outlook on R&D ChallengesFigure 37.7 The natural gas system can store wind or solar excess power.Figure 37.8 Comparison of discharge times and capacities of different power storage systems.Several studies have come to the conclusion that power grids will need large storage facilities to manage the growth of renewable generation [3] and the solution could be to produce hydrogen from excess power and to inject it into the natural gas grid. Figure 37.8 shows the order of magnitude of read more..

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    78637 Natural Gas Pipeline Systemsto 60% – and calculation of the effect of hydrogen injection on the most important quality parameters (Wobbe index and calorific value) suggests that even modern gas appliances should function properly with a 10% hydrogen content or even more (Figure 37.9). The power of a burner – a classical gas appliance – is proportional to the gas volume flow and the calorific value:SSPV HA w H (37.13)whereas the second conversion considers the average cross-sectional read more..

  • Page - 800

    78737.4 Outlook on R&D Challengeswhere d is the relative density of the gas, the ratio between the densities of the gas and air. Therefore, the heating power of a burner is proportional to the Wobbe index and should not change if the index remains constant. However, calculations by Altfeld and Schley have shown that this is the case if the hydrogen admixed with natural gas is kept below ~10% (see [4], but also [5], where a detailed analysis of the functional relationship between Wobbe index read more..

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    78837 Natural Gas Pipeline SystemsFigure 37.10 Schematic representation of the utilization paths of excess power. In addition to direct hydrogen injection into the natural gas grid, another option exists: hydrogen and carbon dioxide – in this case a biomethane plant serves as the source of CO2 – can be used to produce (synthetic) methane, which is 100% compatible with natural gas.Figure 37.11 Biological methanization. (a) 100 m3 production plant designed by MicrobEnergy. (b) Reactor read more..

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    78937.4 Outlook on R&D Challengescapture/cycling (CCC) technology of the future, reducing or eliminating the demand for carbon storage as in the case of carbon capture and storage (CCS).Both the injection of wind power-generated hydrogen and of synthetic natural gas – the product of methanization of green hydrogen and carbon dioxide – are options to provide energy storage to the power grid. Hence they are the keys for a convergence of the power grid and the natural gas grid to form a read more..

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    79037 Natural Gas Pipeline Systems reduce the consumption of primary energy increase the energy efficiency (Figure 37.12) relieve the local power distribution grids make the construction of new, large power plants dispensable on the long run once a significant number of CHP plants together add up to a so-called virtual power plant of comparable size.The outlook on future R&D challenges could be extended to the entire natural gas chain. This would bring us to questions such as: How do we read more..

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    79137.5 System Analysis37.5 System AnalysisDriven by market mechanisms, the natural gas grid has grown rapidly during recent decades. Figure 37.13 illustrates this boost impressively by comparing the European gas infrastructure fin 1970 and 2011.Figure 37.13 Development of the natural gas infrastructure in recent decades: (a) 1970 and (b) 2011. Source: E.ON Ruhrgas AG. read more..

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    79237 Natural Gas Pipeline SystemsThese infrastructure investments will reveal their benefits in the decades to come: The pipeline system is the backbone for the gas supply of distributed generation units such as micro-CHPs or fuel cell heating systems; the integration of renewable gases such as biomethane or of excess power from wind and solar via electrolysis or methanization; extended clean mobility based on proven CNG technology or mobile LNG units (trucks or ships); better convergence of read more..

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    79337.5 System AnalysisFigure 37.15 (a) Prediction of the change in power generation by fuel in the Gas Scenario (2010–2035). Total electricity demand increases by 70% by 2035, underpinned by a near doubling of gas-fired generation. (b) The CO2 emissions of the Gas Scenario compared with the New Policy Scenario 2035. Source: WEO Special Report 2011: Are We Entering the Golden Age of Gas? [6].The IEA has studied how increased utilization of natural gas and of the existing capable infrastructure read more..

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    79437 Natural Gas Pipeline SystemsReferences 1 Mischner, J., Fasold, H.-G., and Kadner, K. (2011) gas2energy.net – Systemplanerische Grundlagen der Gasversorgung, ISBN 978-3-8356-3205-9, Oldenbourg Industrieverlag, Munich.2 DIN (2009) Gas Supply Systems – Pipelines for Maximum Operating Pressure over 16 bar – Functional requirements, DIN EN 1594, Deutsches Institut für Normung, Berlin.3 Pieper, C. and Rubel, H. (2011) Revisiting Energy Storage – There is a Business Case, Boston read more..

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    79538 Introduction to a Future Hydrogen InfrastructureJoan Ogden38.1 IntroductionHydrogen has been widely proposed as a future energy carrier to address envi-ronmental and energy security problems posed by current fuels. There is growing interest in using hydrogen as a transport fuel, and fuel-cell vehicle (FCV) demonstra-tions are proceeding in Europe, Asia, and North America. Hydrogen fuel-cell cars are 1.5–2.5 times more efficient than advanced gasoline cars (on a tank to wheels basis), and read more..

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    79638 Introduction to a Future Hydrogen InfrastructureHowever, hydrogen faces significant technical, economic, infrastructure, and societal challenges before it could be implemented as a transportation fuel on a large scale or used for the storage of intermittent renewable sources. In particular, the need to develop a hydrogen infrastructure is a key issue. This chapter examines the current and projected future status of hydrogen infrastructure technologies, including hydrogen production and read more..

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    79738.2 Technical Options for Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Use in VehiclesTable 38.1 Current status and 2015 goals for hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles [14].ParameterToday2015 goalsFuel cell in-use durability (h)2500 (4000 in laboratory)5000Vehicle range (miles per tank) 280–400 300Fuel economy (miles kg–1 H2) 72 60Fuel cell efficiency (%) 53–58 60Fuel cell system cost ($ kW–1) 49 30H2 storage cost ($ kWh–1) 15–23 10–15 (NRC) 2–4 (USDOE)38.2.2 read more..

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    79838 Introduction to a Future Hydrogen InfrastructureFigure 38.2 Examples of thermochemical hydrogen production methods [15].Hydrogen is made thermochemically by processing hydrocarbons (such as natural gas, coal, biomass, or wastes) in high-temperature chemical reactors to make a synthetic gas or “syngas,” comprised of H2, CO, CO2, H2O, and CH4. The syngas is further processed to increase the hydrogen content via the water gas shift reaction, and hydrogen is separated out of the mixture at read more..

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    79938.2 Technical Options for Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Use in VehiclesFigure 38.3 Electrolytic hydrogen production [15].HOHO22222 (38.1)Any source of electricity can be used, including intermittent (time varying) sources such as off-peak power, solar, or wind. Various types of electrolyzers are in use. Commercially available systems today are based on alkaline or PEM technologies. PEM electrolyzers also have advantages of quick start-up and shut-down and the ability to handle read more..

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    80038 Introduction to a Future Hydrogen Infrastructure38.2.3 Options for Producing Hydrogen with Near-Zero EmissionTo realize the full environmental benefits of hydrogen, it should be produced via pathways with zero or near-zero net emissions of carbon. There are several zero emission options, all of which face technical issues.For H2 from renewable sources (wind or solar electrolysis and biomass gasifica-tion), the issue is primarily cost rather than technical feasibility. There are ample wind read more..

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    80138.2 Technical Options for Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Use in VehiclesHydrogen delivery technologies are well established in the merchant hydrogen and chemical industries today. While most industrial hydrogen is produced and used on-site, a significant fraction is delivered by pipeline or truck to more distant users. No one hydrogen supply pathway is preferred in all situations, so, like electricity, it is likely that diverse primary sources will be used to make hydrogen in different read more..

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    80238 Introduction to a Future Hydrogen Infrastructure38.3 Economic and Environmental Characteristics of Hydrogen Supply PathwaysClearly, there are many different options for producing and supplying hydrogen to users (Table 38.2). Each has differing costs, performance, and environmental char-acteristics with respect to emissions, primary energy use, land, water, and materials use. In this section, we compare a range of near- and long-term hydrogen pathways.Table 38.2 Hydrogen supply pathways read more..

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    80338.3 Economic and Environmental Characteristics of Hydrogen Supply Pathwaysfor LH2 is sensitive to the cost of electricity. For very large amounts of hydrogen (tens of thousands of kilograms per day), pipeline transmission is preferred. The pipeline capital cost is the largest single factor. Pipeline costs scale strongly with both distance and flow rate.The layout and cost of hydrogen distribution within a city depend on the city pop-ulation, the city radius (or equivalently the population read more..

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    80438 Introduction to a Future Hydrogen InfrastructureStudies by the NRC [3] suggest that the total capital investment for mature hydrogen infrastructure in the United States would be $ 1400–2000 per light-duty vehicle served, depending on the pathway. Early infrastructure investment costs per car (to serve the first million vehicles) would be higher ($ 5000–10 000 per car).Figure 38.6 shows the levelized cost of hydrogen delivered to vehicles including production, delivery, and refueling, read more..

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    80538.3 Economic and Environmental Characteristics of Hydrogen Supply Pathways38.3.2 Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen Pathways38.3.2.1 Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Air Pollution, and Energy UseMost hydrogen production today is from fossil fuels, which releases CO2, the major GHG linked to climate change. For the near term, FCVs using hydrogen produced from natural gas would reduce well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions by about half compared with current gasoline vehicles. Production of read more..

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    80638 Introduction to a Future Hydrogen InfrastructureWith hydrogen FCVs, the amount of primary energy required is similar to that for gasoline hybrids and considerably less than that for conventional gasoline cars. There are plentiful near-zero carbon resources for hydrogen production in the United States. For example, a mix of low-carbon resources including natural gas, coal (with carbon sequestration), biomass, and wind power could supply ample hydrogen for vehicles. With 20% of the biomass read more..

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    80738.4 Strategies for Building a Hydrogen Infrastructure Feedstocks. The price and availability of feedstocks for hydrogen production, and energy prices for competing technologies (e.g., gasoline prices), must be taken into account. Technology status. Assumptions about hydrogen technology cost and performance determine the best supply option. Supply and demand. The characteristics of the hydrogen demand and how well it matches supply must be considered. Time variations in demand (refueling read more..

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    80838 Introduction to a Future Hydrogen Infrastructureunder-utilized. Installing a large number of stations for a small number of vehicles might solve the problem of convenience but would be prohibitively expensive.A series of studies by UC Davis researchers [17, 18, 28, 29] analyzed how many stations would be needed for consumer convenience (defined as travel time to the station), and used spatial analysis tools to estimate where stations would be located. Based on studies of four urban areas read more..

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    80938.5 Conclusion38.5 ConclusionHydrogen FCVs are making rapid progress; it appears likely that they will meet their technical and cost goals and could be commercially ready by 2015. Hydrogen infra-structure technologies are also progressing, and the technology to produce natural gas-based hydrogen is commercial today. In the near term (up to 2025), hydrogen fuel will likely be produced from natural gas, via distributed production at refueling stations or, where available, excess industrial or read more..

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    81038 Introduction to a Future Hydrogen InfrastructureAcknowledgments The author would like to acknowledge her colleagues at UC Davis Dr Christopher Yang, Dr Michael Nicholas, Dr Nils Johnson, Dr Nathan Parker, Dr Mark Delucchi, Dr Yongling Sun, Dr Xuping Li, Prof. Yueyue Fan, and Prof. Daniel Sperling and the sponsors of the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways research program at UC Davis for research support.References 1 Wipke, K., Anton, D., and Sprik, S. (2009). Evaluation of Range read more..

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    811References 14 Ogden, J. M. and Anderson, L. (2011) Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways, Institute of Transportation Studies. University of California, Davis, Regents of the University of California, Davis Campus. Available under a Creative Commons BY-NC-ND, 3.0 license.15 Ogden, J. (1999) Prospects for Building a hydrogen energy infrastructure. Annu. Rev. Energy Environ., 24, 227–791.16 Yang C. and Ogden, J. (2007) Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode. Int. J. read more..

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    81339 Power to GasSebastian Schiebahn, Thomas Grube, Martin Robinius, Li Zhao, Alexander Otto, Bhunesh Kumar, Michael Weber, and Detlef Stolten39.1 IntroductionSince renewable energies have been introduced in greater quantities, it is well known that there are very strong fluctuations of the energy input over time and that there are even periods stretching out over weeks where there is little or no renewable power input. This can be alleviated by a mixture of different renewable energies, but read more..

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    81439 Power to GasFigure 39.1 Principle of power to gas concept.39.2 ElectrolysisIn the 1800s, Nicholson and Carlisle were first to demonstrate the process of water electrolysis. Faraday clarified the principle in 1820 and introduced the word electrol-ysis in 1834. It involves two porous graphite electrodes and an electrolyte, and the system is the most important method for producing hydrogen from water by using electricity [1, 2]. The basic chemical reaction of water electrolysis is(l)(g)(g)H read more..

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    81539.2 Electrolysisdiaphragm (Figure 39.2) [3, 4]. In the zero gap configurations, a highly insulating diaphragm is placed between the electrodes, acting as a barrier to keep the gases apart and to avoid short-circuiting. In the electrolysis module, cells are connected in series or in parallel, called bipolar and monopolar, respectively. In the monopolar configuration, the power supply is connected to the corresponding electrodes of each cell. This configuration is known as a conventional tank read more..

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    81639 Power to GasTable 39.1 Main manufacturers of and performance data for currently available alkaline water electrolyzers [3, 5].ManufacturerTechnologyRated production [m3 (STP) h–1]Maximum pressure (bar)Energy consumption [kWh m–3 (STP)]LocationHydrogenicsBipolar10–6010–255.2–5.4 (system) CanadaH2 LogicBipolar0.66–1.331.0/2.0/atmospheric5.4 (system)DenmarkH2 LogicBipolar32–644–124.9–5.0DenmarkNEL Hydrogen Bipolar10–500Atmospheric4–4.35NorwayNEL Hydrogen read more..

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    81739.2 ElectrolysisThe cost of an alkaline electrolyzer on the megawatts scale has been estimated to be ~€1000 kW–1 [3]. Moreover, the investment costs of large units of alkaline water electrolyzers are approximately proportional to the electrolysis cell surface area [5]. The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has performed several analyses on forecourt and electrolysis costs based on a thorough suppliers’ questionnaire covering all cost contributors read more..

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    81839 Power to GasFigure 39.3 Schematic working principle of PEM electrolysis [3].Table 39.4 Advantages and targeted improvements of PEM electrolyzers [3, 5].AdvantageTargeted improvementHigh power densityIncrease lifetimeHigher efficiencyReduce investment costFast response under fluctuating power regimesIncrease hydrogen throughput capacityCompact stack design permits high-pressure operationScale-up of the stack and hardware in the MW rangeAnode (l)(aq)(g)HOHOe122222 (39.5)Cathode (aq)(g)HeH222 read more..

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    81939.2 Electrolysisand development phase. HTE typically operates at much higher temperatures, in the range 900–950 °C, and feeding water is replace with steam. During continuous tests on a single cell, voltages of < 1.07 V were achieved with a current density of 0.3 A cm–2 [3]. In HTE, water is fed as steam towards the cathode, where it acts as a reactant with electrons to split water into hydrogen and oxygen ions. Oxygen ions move towards the anode, then discharge electrons and make read more..

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    82039 Power to Gasis called renewable hydrogen, where the electrolyzers are directly integrated with the renewable energy sources [5]. In on-grid applications, the surplus amount of energy can be used because the transmission grid is connected with the national grid and the electrolyzers are directly integrated with the grid for hydrogen production.39.3 MethanationTo produce renewable power methane, hydrogen has to be reacted with carbon dioxide via the methanation process. Here the Sabatier read more..

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    82139.3 Methanation39.3.2 Methanation PlantsThere are different reactor designs for the methanation process, such as fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and three-phase reactors. Because of the exothermic reaction, the reactor should have good heat removal and a homogeneous distribution for better control of the reaction. In a fixed-bed reactor, this is only possible with high technical investment, such as additional cooling elements inside the reactor; however, they are often used because of the low read more..

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    82239 Power to GasFigure 39.5 Process flowsheet of a methanation plant patented by SolarFuel [16]. GHSV = gas hourly space velocity. read more..

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    82339.3 Methanation39.3.3 CO2 SourcesIn addition to H2, CO2 is the other important component of the Sabatier process, so obtaining CO2 efficiently and economically is a key factor in the renewable power methane (RPM), as mentioned in Section 39.3.1. An investigation of possible CO2 sources is explored here. In order to ensure the downstream product synthetic natural gas (SNG) with high quality and at low cost, the CO2 should be produced economically with high purity.The quality issue of SNG is read more..

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    82439 Power to Gasin the LCOE evaluation the avoidance cost is considered; and the exchange rate between the US dollar and euro is assumed to be 1, and this will be done in the following discussion also.39.3.3.2 CO2 Obtained from BiomassThe most direct source for SNG is to use biomass as feedstock, which is available worldwide, such as agricultural residues, forestry biomass, energy crops, food and food processing wastes, and some novel feedstocks such as algae. The World Energy Outlook 2012 read more..

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    82539.3 Methanation Gasification concept, Scenario 4 (biosyngas, composed of H2 + CO + N2 + CO2 + CH4, using air as gasification medium): The gas mixture is composed of 15–20 mol% CO, 10–12 mol% H2, up to 4 mol% CH4, 45–55 mol% N2, and 8–12 mol% CO2 [13], and direct combustion for CHP plants is a feasible option [39]. The CO2 content in the flue gas is fairly low, < 10 mol%. The subsequent CO2 separation is similar to a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plant in CCS, using chemical read more..

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    82639 Power to GasTable 39.5 Worldwide CO2 emissions from different industrial processes in 2005 [43, 44].SectorCO2 emissions (Gt)Percentage of total amountCO2 concentration in f lue gas (mol%)Steel1.56 15–27Cement0.934 14–33Refinery0.83 3–13Chemical industry0.412100 in some processes39.3.3.4 CO2 Recovery from AirThe capture of CO2 from the atmosphere (air capture) means extracting CO2 at a very low concentration (~390 ppm) to produce a highly concentrated stream of CO2.In read more..

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    82739.3 Methanationtemperatures and pure oxygen [47]. In order to reduce the carbon footprint in air capture, the use of non-fossil energy to run the process has been investigated [47]. On the other hand, non-conventional causticization techniques are being developed. Most of them are based on the addition of a metal oxide (MexOy) to convert Na2CO3 directly to Na2MexOy+1 and CO2. NaOH is then regenerated by dissolving Na2MexOy+1 in water [47]. Furthermore, owing to the corrosiveness of strongly read more..

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    82839 Power to Gas39.4 Gas StorageAn increasing share of renewable energy, particularly by wind and PV sites, to the total power supply will lead to increased fluctuation of the power input into the grid. In the case of predominant power supply by renewables, temporary excess and insufficient power generation, which can last for either very short periods or over weeks, are the consequences. The storage of large amount of energy will become mandatory. The Association for Electrical, Electronic, read more..

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    82939.4 Gas StorageFigure 39.6 Underground storage types [58].Table 39.7 Underground gas storage capacity in Germany [59, 60].DateStorage capacity (volumetric) [109 m3 (STP)]aStorage capacity (energetic) (TWhth)Porous rockCavernsTotalMethanebHydrogencStatus end of 201110.010.420.4204 31.22011 including planned11.721.533.2332 64.5Expected in 205013.636.851.4514110.4a Corresponds to working gas.b Calculated with lower heating value LHV(CH4) = 10 kWh m–3.c Calculated with LHV(H2) = 3 kWh m–3 read more..

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    83039 Power to GasBecause of the high porosity, internal pressure losses in porous rock storages are high, leading to lower achievable extraction rates and making the storage feasible only for long-term storage ranging from weeks to months. In terms of hydrogen storage in depleted fields and particularly aquifer formations, reactions between hydrogen and microorganisms, and also between hydrogen and mineral constitu-ents, may occur. Deterioration or depletion of the hydrogen storage and plugging read more..

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    83139.5 Gas PipelinesFigure 39.7 Full costs of different storage systems in two cases (Case 1, long-term storage, 500 MW, 100 GWh, 1.83 cycles per month; Case 2, load-leveling high-voltage network, 1 GW, 8 GWh, one cycle each day) [67].39.5 Gas PipelinesA gas transport system in principle has the task of transporting gas from the source of supply to the demand sink. Gas transportations are based on compressed gas transport, direct pipeline transfer, gas-to-power, gas-to-solid, and gas-to-liquid read more..

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    83239 Power to Gasgas grid is divided into three supply levels, the national, the regional, and the local supply levels, which are operated at different pressure levels (see Figure 39.8). The total length of the German pipeline gas grid amounts to 524 000 km [71]. Applying the Sabatier process, where hydrogen reacts with CO2 to give methane, SNG is produced that is in accordance with the standard quality definition from the German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water (DVGW) read more..

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    83339.5 Gas Pipelines€3730 million. Furthermore, in a hydrogen feed, local concentration jumps have to be avoided. Therefore, hydrogen should be injected into natural gas carrier streams. In Germany, potential entry points for hydrogen (produced from offshore wind power) according to [78] could be, for example, Emden, Dornum, and Lubmin (Table 39.8). It has been determined, assuming an efficiency of 75% for electrolysis plants, that a maximum of 4149 MWhth h–1 of hydrogen can be fed into the read more..

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    83439 Power to GasFigure 39.9 Example of hydrogen pipeline system from source (electrolysis and coal gasification) to sink (petrol stations) [80, 81].39.6 End-Use TechnologiesThe various hydrogen use paths encounter specific requirements from end-use technologies. Uses for SNG are the same as those for (fossil) natural gas; end use does not impose additional requirements. The German natural gas consumption in 2010 was 880 TWh, of which 35% was used for residential heating, 14% in commerce and read more..

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    83539.6 End-Use Technologies39.6.1 Stationary End Use39.6.1.1 Central Conversion of Natural Gas Mixed with Hydrogen in Combustion TurbinesAccording to the DVGW, turbine developers have no experience with the combustion of natural gas with hydrogen proportions above 3–4% [89]. Nevertheless, there have been theoretical investigations and experiments in model combustors. Hydrogen addition has several effects on premixed combustion: a slight increase in the flame temperature, a reduction in read more..

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    83639 Power to Gas39.6.2 Passenger Car Powertrains with Fuel Cells and Internal Combustion EnginesWith the availability of the power-to-gas products hydrogen and methane, new options for their efficient and low- or even zero-emission usage in transport arise. Hydrogen can be utilized as a neat fuel in fuel cell systems with zero tailpipe emissions and superior efficiency compared with the conversion of pure hydrogen, hydrogen–natural gas mixtures, or methane–natural gas mixtures in internal read more..

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    83739.6 End-Use Technologiessystem with 80 kWel rated power output and a typical storage capacity of 5 kg of H2 corresponding to HkWh2170 would cost €4100.39.6.2.2 Internal Combustion EnginesToday, passenger cars with ICEs [internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs)] running on CNG are commercially available from a variety of car manufacturers such as Fiat, Opel, and Volkswagen. As of December 2011, the CNG vehicle population in the EU countries was 1 million (96 000 for Germany), and 2800 read more..

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    83839 Power to GasICEs for operation with hydrogen have been developed and demonstrated for many years. BMW demonstrated this technology with one hundred 7-Series Hydrogen 7 between 2006 and 2008. Other car manufacturers with notable developments in that area include Ford (passenger cars and buses), MAN (buses) [109], and Mazda (battery-electric passenger car with hydrogen-fueled rotary engine as range extender) [110]. Regarding fuel efficiency, BMW reported a peak value of 42% for its read more..

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    83939.7 Evaluation of Process Chain Alternativesnetwork and geological storage. The interest rate was assumed to be 8%. Operation and maintenance costs were assumed to be 3% of the investment. Results of this comparative assessment are displayed in Figure 39.11.Figure 39.11a compares RPH supply costs including retail at the refueling stations with today’s gasoline cost of €0.08 kWh–1 or €0.70 l–1 before tax. With the assumption that FCVs have only half of the fuel consumption compared read more..

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    84039 Power to GasFor comparison, values regarding natural gas conversion to hydrogen in large plants based on [105] are displayed that show that hydrogen supply can already today be cost-competitive with gasoline at the refueling station. However, CO2 emissions must be considered in this case.Figure 39.11b shows the results of comparing natural gas feedstock costs and the costs of the RPH or RPM feed-in alternatives. In relation to today’s natural gas feedstock costs of €0.04 kWh–1, RPM read more..

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    84139.8 ConclusionThe compressors are operated on renewable electric power. At the refueling station, a three-stage compression from 30 to 870 bar high-pressure storage is assumed. Again, renewable electric power is used. In total, the WTT efficiency of RPH for transportation is 65%.The RPM case employs a methanation step with an assumed efficiency of 80%, subsequent to the electrolysis. RPM is then fed into the natural gas pipeline grid and delivered to refueling stations. According to the read more..

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    84239 Power to Gasorder to homogenize the power production. Another application can be use as a heat source for households and industry. Moreover, each chemical energy carrier can be applied as fuel in the transportation sector.Subsequent to the production of hydrogen in the electrolyzer, it can be processed in several ways. The first and easiest path is to feed the hydrogen directly into the natural gas grid. The existing infrastructure, including pipelines, storage facilities, and end users, read more..

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    843References If the renewably produced hydrogen or methane is to be used as a substitute for natural gas, the current production costs calculated at the grid feed-in point exceed the costs for natural gas by four- and six-fold, respectively. Hence, under present conditions this will not be economically viable. Regarding the substitution of fuels for the transportation sector, especially the use of hydrogen may become econom-ically reasonable, since the higher efficiency of fuel cells in read more..

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    84439 Power to Gas 13 Hoekman, S. K. and Broch, A. (2010) CO2 recycling by reaction with renewably-generated hydrogen. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, 4, 44–50. 14 Lunde, P. J. and F. L. Kester (1974) Kinetics of carbon dioxide methanation on a ruthenium catalyst. Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 13, 27–33. 15 Bajohr, S., Götz, M., Graf, F., and Kolb, T. (2012) Dreiphasen-Methanisierung als innovatives Element der PtG-Prozess kette. gwf-Gas/Erdgas, (5), 328–325. 16 Solar Fuel GmbH read more..

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    845References 100% renewable energy systems, Dissertation of Fraunhofer IWES, University of Kassel. 35 European Biofuels Technology Platform: Zero Emissions Platform (ZEP) (2011) Biomass with CO2 Capture and Storage (Bio-CCS), ZEP and EBTP. 36 IEAGHG (2011) Potential for Biomass and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, Report 2011/06, IEAGHG, Cheltenham, http://www.eenews.net/assets/2011/08/04/document_cw_01.pdf (last accessed 22 January 2011). 37 Nussbaumer, T. (2003) Combustion and read more..

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    84639 Power to Gasuploads/2011/05/120917-Power-2-Gas-European-Hydrogen-Road-Tour.pdf (last accessed 22 January 2013). 56 Müller, K., et al. (2012) Energetische Betrachtung der Wasserstoffeinspeisung ins Erdgasnetz. Chem.-Ing.-Tech., 84 (9), 1513–1519. 57 Crotogino, F. (2011) Wasserstoff-Speicherung in Kavernen, presented at the PRO H2 Technologie Forum, http://www.kbbnet.de/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Wasserstoffspeicherung-in-Kavernen.pdf. 58 Schmitz, S. (2011) Einfluss von Wasser-stoff read more..

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    847References 76 Hüttenrauch, J. and Müller-Syring, G. (2010) Zumischung von Wasserstoff zum Erdgas. Energie Wasser-Praxis, 61 (10), 68–71. 77 Sterner, M, Jentsch, M., and Holzhammer, U. (2011) Energiewirt-schaftliche und ökologische Bewertung eines Windgas-Angebotes, Fraunhofer IWES, Kassel. 78 Deutsche Fernleitungsnetzbetreiber (2012) Netzentwicklungsplan Gas 2012 – Entwurf (ed. M. Wild), http://www.netzentwicklungsplan-gas.de/files/130310_netzentwicklungsplan_gas_2012.pdf. 79 read more..

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    84839 Power to Gas 98 Thiesen, L. P., von Helmolt, R., and Berger, S. (2010) HydroGen4 – The First Year of Operation in Europe, presented at the 18th World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2010. 99 Rees, J. (2010) Brennstoffzelle Reloaded, http://www.wiwo.de/technologie/auto/wasserstoffautos-brennstoffzelle-reloaded/5666152.html (last accessed 22 January 2013).100 US Department of Energy (2012) Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure read more..

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    849Part VII ApplicationsTransition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. read more..

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    85140 Transition from Petro-Mobility to Electro-MobilityDavid L. Greene, Changzheng Liu, and Sangsoo Park40.1 IntroductionFrom the perspective of physics, transportation is work: force must be applied to overcome inertia and friction in order to move mass over a distance. Work cannot be accomplished without energy; energy is the ability to do work. Hence energy is and always will be essential for transportation. Securing adequate energy for transportation while protecting the environment and read more..

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    85240 Transition from Petro-Mobility to Electro-Mobilityemissions are almost entirely comprised of CO2 produced by the combustion of fossil petroleum.Global resources of conventional petroleum are finite and the rate of global consumption is now large (1.5–3%) relative to best estimates of annual ultimately recoverable conventional petroleum resources (1–2 trillion barrels). Unconventional fossil resources that can be converted into liquid hydrocarbon fuels at costs that the world’s read more..

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    85340.2 Recent Progress in Electric Drive TechnologiesTransport energy use has more than doubled since 1970, increasing at an average rate of about 2% per year. Recent “business as usual” projections anticipate slower growth in the future, with nearly all the growth occurring in the developing econo-mies, but still foresee a near doubling of global energy use for transport by 2050 [2].This chapter briefly reviews recent progress in electric drive technologies (Section 40.2), discusses the read more..

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    85440 Transition from Petro-Mobility to Electro-MobilityFigure 40.2 Estimated costs of automotive fuel cell systems assuming current year technology and production of 5 000 000 units per year [7].40.3 Energy Eff iciencyIn the next one to two decades, increasing energy efficiency will be the most effective strategy for improving the sustainability of transportation. Even after a century of technological advances, it is still possible to double, triple, or even quadruple the energy efficiency of read more..

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    85540.3 Energy EfficiencyFigure 40.3 Energy losses in a modern ICE vehicle: combined U. S. test cycles. Source: www.fueleconomy.gov [12].The importance of increased energy efficiency to reducing global transportation GHG emissions to 50% of their current level can be illustrated by a simple calcula-tion. A very simple extrapolation of 2009 transportation energy use by mode leads to the approximate doubling of energy use in 2050, as expected by the International Energy Agency (IEA). The IEA has read more..

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    85640 Transition from Petro-Mobility to Electro-MobilityTable 40.1 Illustration of the effect of energy.ModeEnergy use 2009 (EJ)Growth rate (%)Energy use 2050 (EJ)Energy intensity (%)Energy use with rebound20502050Light-duty481.3 81.5–5040.843.7Heavy-duty231.5 42.3–5021.222.7Air102.0 22.5–5011.312.1Water 91.8 18.7–33 2.0 2.1Rail 21.0 3.0–33 2.0 2.1Total92168889440.4 The Challenge of Energy TransitionAchieving sustainability, assuring that the world we leave to future read more..

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    85740.4 The Challenge of Energy TransitionThe transition to electric drive vehicles faces six major economic barriers that help lock in petroleum powered ICE vehicles:1. current technological limitations of alternative powertrains and fuels;2. learning by doing;3. scale economies;4. consumers’ aversion to the risk of novel products;5. lack of diversity of choice in the early market for alternatives;6. lack of an energy supply infrastructure for alternatives.Market researchers add lack of read more..

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    85840 Transition from Petro-Mobility to Electro-Mobility40.5 A New Environmental Paradigm: Sustainable Energy TransitionsIf every path to the future could be assigned a value reflecting its overall worth to society, then alternative paths with different policies inducing different combinations of vehicles and fuels could be compared. The net social value (NSV) of a path is the sum over all future years (t = 0, ∞) of its full benefits minus its full costs. To simplify, assume both benefits (B) read more..

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    85940.6 Status of Transition PlansHowever, energy transitions take decades [22] and, because of this, deep uncer-tainty about technology and markets is unavoidable. As a consequence, risk-averse decision-makers may further discount expected future benefits, lowering the marginal NPV curve and reducing the efficient number of vehicles to be deployed in year t.40.6 Status of Transition PlansNearly all countries have PEVs on their roads and many countries have hydrogen vehicle demonstration read more..

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    86040 Transition from Petro-Mobility to Electro-MobilityTable 40.2 Current status and future plans for BEV market development in five cities.CityPopulation (millions)Vehicles (millions)Average km per vehicle per dayEVsStations2012Future2012FutureBerlin 3.51.320 35015 000 (2015)2201 400Kanagawa 9.13.1n.a.2 1833 000 (2013)4501 000 (2014)Los Angeles 4.12.5232 00080 000 (2015)106To be de-terminedRotterdam 1.20.2201 124200 000 (2025)1001 000 (2014)Shanghai23.01.7391 12830 000–50 000 read more..

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    86140.6 Status of Transition PlansThe German Ministry of Transport, Building, and Urban Development (BMVBS) is supporting the creation of an EV market within eight Electromobility Model Regions under the management of the Nationale Organisation Wasserstoff (NOW). Some 2000 EVs and associated recharging infrastructure participate in the project, supported by €500 million of government funding. In 2011, NOW reported there were over 1000 public and semipublic recharging stations in Germany [9, read more..

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    86240 Transition from Petro-Mobility to Electro-MobilityThe CaFCP’s estimates of FCV sales are much higher than estimates of the number of FCVs that are likely to be induced by the state’s ZEV requirements. Only one manufacturer, Hyundai, has announced plans to sell FCVs to the public before 2015, and they have estimated total sales by 2015 of 1000 vehicles. The CaFCP’s estimates imply that essentially all those vehicles would go to California, an unlikely allocation given Germany’s read more..

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    86340.7 Modeling and Analysisproduction and with substantial cumulative learning. In the LAVE-Trans model, prices are far higher during the initial periods of market development owing to lack of scale economies and the immature state of learning-by-doing. Energy efficiencies are also expected to increase several-fold, driven by increasingly strict fuel economy and GHG emissions standards (Figure 40.7).Figure 40.5 Diagrammatic representation of light-duty alternative vehicle energy transition read more..

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    86440 Transition from Petro-Mobility to Electro-MobilityFigure 40.7 Energy efficiencies of alternative power train technologies to 2050.Figure 40.8 Assumed world new passenger car sales technology market shares.The example scenario presented in the following is one of six scenarios analyzed in the ICCT study. It assumes that California and the subset of 14 US States that have adopted California’s emissions regulations attempt a transition to electric drive vehicles but that the rest of the read more..

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    86540.7 Modeling and AnalysisAgency’s (EPA’s) rules for 2025 continue to tighten until 2050 and that they induce pricing of the alternative technologies that reflects the social costs of their GHGs and petroleum use.1) The current tax credits for advanced technology vehicles are replaced in 2015 by policies estimated to be necessary to achieve a transition. Decarbonization of the electricity grid is assumed, as is low-carbon production of hydrogen. By 2050, each kilowatt hour is responsible read more..

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    86640 Transition from Petro-Mobility to Electro-MobilityFigure 40.10 Dollar equivalent utility index for hydrogen fuel cell passenger cars in States adopting California standards: majority consumers.The effect of the ZEV program and subsequent federal policies on the marketability of FCVs is illustrated in Figure 40.10. The costs shown pertain to majority consumers who, unlike innovators and early adopters, are averse to the risk of new technology. Initially priced at over $ 45 000 per vehicle read more..

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    86740.7 Modeling and AnalysisInnovators and early adopters generate network external benefits not only for future California and Section 177 State buyers but also spillover benefits for the rest of the United States. The spillover benefits allow the transition to proceed more rapidly and permit a less intense policy effort. Early installation of refueling infrastructure and sales of the first FCVs to the earliest adopters between 2015 and 2020 reduce fuel availability costs by another estimated read more..

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    86840 Transition from Petro-Mobility to Electro-MobilityFrom this perspective, subsidies to the first purchasers of electric drive vehicles are more than justified by the network external benefits that they create for subsequent purchasers. Of course, this interpretation depends critically on the ultimate success of the transition such that present value benefits exceed present value costs by a substantial amount. In reality, the expected benefits of the transition would include the possibility read more..

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    86940.7 Modeling and Analysisexpected lifetime of a light-duty vehicle in the United States is about 14 years.5) Other benefits are the value of reduced CO2 emissions, reduced petroleum consumption, and improved local air quality. Of course, there is disagreement about the values of all of the social benefits; those used in Figure 40.13 are documented in [30].Although the early deployment of infrastructure is important to PEVs and essential for HFCVs, it is not the major part of transition costs read more..

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    87040 Transition from Petro-Mobility to Electro-Mobilitybehavior changed. The results indicate both a high degree of uncertainty about future market success and the existence of tipping points that lead to zero market penetration even in 2050. It is possible that zero market share outcomes could be “tipped” to positive market shares by making policy adjustments. Nonetheless, it is instructive to see how probable the failure mode is without an adaptive policy strategy.The estimated market read more..

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    871References drive by 2050. The recent progress in electro-mobility technology has largely met expectations. Much remains to be done, however: both hydrogen fuel cell and plug-in electric systems need to reduce costs by the order of 50% to compete effectively with the incumbent technology.Energy efficiency improvements to conventional vehicles, especially those that reduce the power requirements of vehicles (reduction of mass, aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance) are key enablers of the read more..

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    87240 Transition from Petro-Mobility to Electro-MobilitySaur, G. (2012) Final Results from U. S. FCEV Learning Demonstration, NREL/CP-5600-54375, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.11 German, J. (2012) Future Costs and Energy Efficiencies of Alternative Power Trains, International Council on Clean Transportation, San Francisco.12 US Department of Energy (2012) Fuel Economy: Where the Energy Goes, http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/atv.shtml (last accessed 4 January 2012).13 Greene, D. read more..

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    873References 29 Ogden, J. M. and Nicholas, M. (2010) Analysis of a “cluster” strategy for introducing hydrogen vehicles in southern California, Energy Policy, 39 (4), 1923–1938.30 National Research Council (NRC) (2013) Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.31 Greene, D. L., Park, S., and Liu, C.-Z. (2012) LAVE-Trans Model Documentation, Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.32 National read more..

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    87541 Nearly Zero, Net Zero, and Plus Energy Buildings – Theory, Terminology, Tools, and ExamplesKarsten Voss, Eike Musall, Igor Sartori and Roberto Lollini41.1 IntroductionIn most European countries, buildings and their use account for approximately one-third of total energy consumption and associated carbon emissions. The majority of this demand is generated by living in residential buildings and the remainder by so-called nonresidential buildings, that is, for commercial uses, trade, and read more..

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    87641 Nearly Zero, Net Zero, and Plus Energy Buildings – Theory, Terminology, Tools, and ExamplesThe European concerted action assisting the 2010 recast of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) offers a platform for member states to discuss the various national approaches to formulate relevant definitions at the building code level [5]. The ongoing International Energy Agency (IEA) activity “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings” was formed in 2008 as a scientific forum at read more..

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    87741.2 Physical and Balance Boundariespoint to supply grids (power, heating, cooling, gas, fuel delivery chain). Conse-quently, the physical boundary is the interface between the building and the grids. The physical boundary therefore includes up to the meters (or delivery points). The physical boundary is also useful for identifying so-called “on-site generation” systems; if a system is within the physical boundary (within the building or building cluster distribution grid before the read more..

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    87841 Nearly Zero, Net Zero, and Plus Energy Buildings – Theory, Terminology, Tools, and ExamplesAlthough these loads are not related to the building performance, a holistic balance including all electric consumers on-site helps to characterize the grid interaction in more detail (see later). Electric vehicles include batteries, thereby increasing the “on-site” storage capacity.Other forms of energy consumption that do not appear in the annual operational phase but belong to the life cycle read more..

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    87941.4 Balance Typesgeneration approaches (Germany 2012: 2.4 kWh primary energy per kilowatt hour of electricity delivered from the grid, 2.8 kWh primary energy per kilowatt hour of electricity exported to the grid [19]). Weighting factors may vary seasonally (or even at the daily or hourly level), as discussed later.41.4 Balance TypesThe Net ZEB’s annual balance between weighted demand and weighted supply is often implicitly understood as the so-called import/export balance, indicated by the read more..

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    88041 Nearly Zero, Net Zero, and Plus Energy Buildings – Theory, Terminology, Tools, and Examplesestablish standardized self-consumption fractions. This is one of the points which were left open in the previous REHVA article on a Net ZEB definition [4]. In order to permit an import/export balance calculation in the design phase, planners need to have data on end uses patterns, for example, for appliances, cooking, hot water use, with sufficient time resolution. In the same way as weather data read more..

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    88141.5 Transient Characteristicsin the building operation phase typically results in a lower load/generation match and higher export than that estimated by the monthly net balance. The monthly net balance is a simplified approach for the design phase, when high-resolution profiles are not available.41.5 Transient CharacteristicsBuildings using on-site generating systems have different abilities to match the load and benefit from the availability of energy sources and the demands of the local read more..

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    88241 Nearly Zero, Net Zero, and Plus Energy Buildings – Theory, Terminology, Tools, and Examplesfor most climates. Low weighting factors during summer as compared with higher factors during winter would stimulate building energy solutions which operate to the benefit of the grids. Time-dependent electricity tariffs are a typical measure within “smart grids” to communicate such issues at the financial level.41.6 ToolsAs aids to studying the various definition options and associated read more..

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    88341.7 Examples and Experiences EnerCalC: This Excel-based tool realizes a multi-zone, monthly energy balance calculation based on the German code DIN V 18599 in a simplified manner [24]. It calculates the energy demand for heating, ventilation, cooling, hot water, and lighting as well as the on-site power generation by PV and CHP. The 2013 edition includes a set of load/generation balances for primary energy and carbon emissions and also load match estimations. The tool is freely available read more..

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    88441 Nearly Zero, Net Zero, and Plus Energy Buildings – Theory, Terminology, Tools, and ExamplesFigure 41.5 School at Hohen Neuendorf, Germany, 2011. The energy systems consist of 22 m2 solar thermal collectors, 55 kWp PV and a biomass-based CHP unit. Architecture and photograph: IBUS, Berlin.Figure 41.6 School renovation in Wolfurt, Austria, 2010. The energy system consists of 80 m2 solar thermal collectors, 26 kWp PV and a ground coupled heat pump. Architect: G. Zweier, Wolfurt. Photograph: read more..

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    88541.7 Examples and ExperiencesFigure 41.7 Primary energy credits for energy generation versus measured total primary energy consumption with respect to the net floor area (local primary energy factors, no climate normalization) [27]. Source: University of Wuppertal, EU.The choice of the systems for heat generation is clearly more differentiated than for power generation. Systems range from the compact ventilation and heating units, ground or ground water coupled heat pumps to biomass boilers read more..

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    88641 Nearly Zero, Net Zero, and Plus Energy Buildings – Theory, Terminology, Tools, and ExamplesFigure 41.8 Comparison of the primary energy consumption for the technical services and the user-related consumption, such as plug loads and appliances. Only those buildings are plotted for which both types of consumption are recorded separately (local primary energy factors, no climate normalization). Optimal results are achieved for the buildings which show a high efficiency in both areas of read more..

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    88741.8 ConclusionFigure 41.9 Installed power of PV systems per square meter of net heated floor area. The analysis is split by building typology and also the services to be balanced (unfilled symbols, central services only, plug loads excluded; filled symbols, all inclusive). The lines indicate the average values in each category [27]. Source: University of Wuppertal, EU.41.8 ConclusionThis chapter underlines the complexity of the topic and the implications of defini-tions and regulations for read more..

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    88841 Nearly Zero, Net Zero, and Plus Energy Buildings – Theory, Terminology, Tools, and ExamplesAsymmetric and time-dependent weighting factors for grid-based energy are important components of a future method. Such an approach would be in line with tariff systems that communicate the strategy to consumers at a financial level. However, this does not mean that a net zero or nearly net zero energy building would have net or nearly zero energy costs. This is due to the cost of using the grid read more..

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    889References 14 SINTEF (2012) http://www.zeb.no/ (last accessed 3 March 2013).15 Berggren, B., and Hall, M. (2012) LCE Analysis of Buildings – Taking the Step Towards Net Zero Energy Building, Task Report, IEA SHCP Task 40/ECBCS Annex 52.16 Gebäudeenergieausweise der Kantone – Nationale Gewichtungsfaktoren, EnDK, Bundesamt für Energie, Bern, 2009.17 Energi Styrelsen (2012) Analyser til Bygnigsklasse 2020, read more..

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    89142 China Road Map for Building Energy ConservationPeng Chen, Yan Da, and Jiang Yi42.1 IntroductionChina has made great achievements in the field of building energy conservation with joint efforts of the community in recent years. For instance, the heating energy intensity in northern urban areas has sharply declined. Efforts aimed at building energy reduction help to offset the unavoidable increase in building energy con-sumption due to rapid developments and urban construction. However, the read more..

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    89242 China Road Map for Building Energy ConservationThe Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, which has been studying building energy in China for a long time, considers the proportion of building energy in the total to be about 20% and comparatively low, and it will rise to 30%. Zhou et al. pointed out that building energy use in China will be 1 billion tce by 2020, and that urbanization is the chief factor for the increase in residential building energy, while the building area and the read more..

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    89342.2 The Upper Bound of Building Energy Use in China42.2.1 Limitation of the Total Amount of Carbon EmissionsCarbon emissions are mainly generated from the utilization of fossil energy. The IEA suggests that the carbon emission generated from fossil energy is about 80% of the total amount caused by human activity. Reducing the utilization of fossil energy is an important way to reduce carbon emissions.In 2010, the total amount of carbon emission caused by energy use was 30.49 billion tons, of read more..

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    89442 China Road Map for Building Energy Conservation42.2.2 Limitation of the Total Amount of Available Energy in ChinaThe total primary energy use in China was 3.25 billion tce in 2010, of which 68% was coal, 19% petroleum, 4.4% natural gas, and 8.6% nuclear power, hydroelectric power, and wind power [13]. The external dependence on petroleum is already over 50% [14]. It would be difficult for nuclear power, hydroelectric power, and wind power to replace fossil energy as the main source over a read more..

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    89542.2 The Upper Bound of Building Energy Use in China42.2.3 Limitation of the Total Amount of Building Energy Use in ChinaRestricted by carbon emissions and available energy, the total amount of primary energy use in China in the future should be under 4 billion tce. This is the target required by long-term development instead of a temporary restriction: based on the target of global carbon emission reduction, both carbon emissions and fossil energy use in the future are supposed to decrease read more..

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    89642 China Road Map for Building Energy ConservationFigure 42.1 Industrial energy use and industrial GDP [13, 18].Figure 42.2 Development process of building energy consumption in China [13, 19]. read more..

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    89742.3 The Way to Realize the Targets of Building Energy Control in China42.3 The Way to Realize the Targets of Building Energy Control in China42.3.1 Factors Affecting Building Energy UseThe question emerges of whether and how we can realize the target of building energy control in China after the upper bound of building energy use is specified.Building energy use can be calculated as the following equation:total building energy use energy use intensity total ownershopEnergy use intensity read more..

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    89842 China Road Map for Building Energy Conservationconditions. China should restrict the building floor area per capita to about 40 m2, as in Japan, South Korea, and Singapore. If it is controlled to be in the range 40–45 m2 and the population is assumed to be 1.47 billion, the calculated total building floor area is about 60 billion m2.The total building floor area in China is currently 45.3 billion m2 [1], of which about 14.4 billion m2 is in residential buildings in urban areas, about 7.9 read more..

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    89942.3 The Way to Realize the Targets of Building Energy Control in China42.3.1.2 The Energy Use IntensityThe energy use intensity varies with different building energy use types. What causes the difference is the different energy use patterns and types in urban and rural areas, the different use patterns of commercial and public buildings and res-idential buildings in urban areas, and the different heating modes and intensities in southern and northern areas. According to the characteristics read more..

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    90042 China Road Map for Building Energy Conservationof different energy use types are introduced. The targets of energy conservation and total energy consumption for each of the sub-sectors mentioned above are specified; based on actual context, suitable technologies and measures are proposed.42.3.2 The Energy Use of Northern Urban HeatingOwing to the energy intensity of district heating in urban areas of northern China, it represents a key sector in the reduction scheme. During the Eleventh read more..

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    90142.3 The Way to Realize the Targets of Building Energy Control in Chinatransformation from charging by area to heating quantity, and encouraging occupants to regulate actively. The terminal regulation equipment will be installed to regulate the room temperature to avoid overheating, and reducing the heating loss caused by overheating from 15–25% at present to 10% or less. For example, a certain district in Changchun [26] was reformed with terminal on–off regulation centering on room read more..

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    90242 China Road Map for Building Energy Conservationheating system reform to eliminate overheating, and improving insulation to reduce heating demand, the heating intensity will possibly decrease from 16.6 kgce m–2 at present to 10 kgce m–2, and the total energy use will decrease from 163 million tce at present to 150 million tce.42.3.3 The Energy Use of Urban Residential Buildings (Excluding Heating in the North)The energy use per square meter of urban residential buildings is increasing read more..

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    90342.3 The Way to Realize the Targets of Building Energy Control in China3. Considering AC energy saving from two aspects, i.e. lifestyles and building system types: (i) An energy-saving lifestyle should be encouraged and main-tained. The cooling mode “full-time, full-space” and “constant temperature and humidity” is discouraged, and the “part-time, part-space” and “ fluctuating according to outdoors climate condition” mode is encouraged to build an indoor environment. (ii) read more..

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    90442 China Road Map for Building Energy ConservationTable 42.2 Current situations and targets of energy use of urban residential buildings.ActivityArea or populationEnergy intensityEnergy use (million tce)Cooling in northern ChinaPresent 6.4 billion m2 2 kWh m–2 4.1Future10.0 billion m2 3 kWh m–2 9.6Yangtze valley heating and coolingPresent 4.5 billion m213 kWh m–2 18.72Future 8.5 billion m230 kWh m–2 81.6Cooling in southern ChinaPresent 3.5 billion m210 kWh m–2 read more..

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    90542.3 The Way to Realize the Targets of Building Energy Control in Chinaof this type in developed countries, the area is predicted to increase from 7.9 billion m2 at present to 12 billion m2. The main problem facing energy conservation is the violated understanding of the concept of “energy saving,” considering “energy saving” to correspond to the application of energy-saving techniques or measures. Actual building operation data must be referred to when evaluating an energy-sav-ing read more..

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    90642 China Road Map for Building Energy Conservation3. It is intended to promote the ESCO (Energy Service Company) mode, improving the current management mode of commercial building operation and encour-aging energy-saving renovation.4. It is intended to develop innovative energy-saving equipment actively and enhance system efficiency, such as the use of LED lamps, elevators with energy recovery, air conditioning systems with independent control of temperature and humidity (the energy use read more..

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    90742.3 The Way to Realize the Targets of Building Energy Control in ChinaFigure 42.5 Trend of the energy intensity of rural residential buildings.Different end energy use types considered, rural residences should make full use of biomass to meet the demand for cooking and heating in northern China, use solar energy to meet the demand for domestic hot water, and optimize natural ventilation with environmental sources to meet the demand for cooling. The energy intensity of lighting should be read more..

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    90842 China Road Map for Building Energy ConservationThere have been many cases of these energy-saving techniques. For example, Shimen Village in Qinhuangdao [1] adopted many techniques such as envelope renovation, construction of biomass pool, replacement of straw gasifier for traditional stove and furnace, and reinforcement of solar energy use. The average energy use per household during a year was 2.1 tce, compared with the 3.8 tce for villages without renovation, and commercial energy read more..

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    90942.4 ConclusionsTable 42.3 Planning of the total energy consumption in China in the future.TypeFloor area(billion m2)Intensity(kgce m–2)Total amount(million tce)Heating energy of northern urban buildingsPresent 9.816.6163Future15.010150Urban residential building (heating excluded)Present14.411.4164Future24.014.6350Urban commercial and public building (excluding heating)Present 7.922.1174Future12.020240Rural buildingsPresent23.0 7.7177Future24.0 read more..

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    91042 China Road Map for Building Energy Conservation3. For the energy use of northern urban heating, from the three aspects of heat source, transportation and allocation, and building heating demand, it is intended to focus on enhancing heat source efficiency, implementing heating system reform to eliminate overheating, and improving insulation to reduce heating demand.4. To guide green and healthy ways of living is the key measure to realize energy conservation in the energy use of urban read more..

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    911References 4 US Energy Information Administration (2011) International Energy Outlook 2011, EIA, Washington, DC. 5 Zhou, N., McNeil, M. A., Fridley, D., Lin, J., Price, L., de la Rue du Can, S., Sathaye, J., and Levine, M. (2007) Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA. 6 Research Group of the Sustainable Energy Situation in China 2020 (2003) The Sustainable Energy Situation in China 2020, China Environmental read more..

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    91343 Energy Savings Potentials and Technologies in the Industrial Sector: Europe as an ExampleTobias Bossmann, Rainer Elsland, Wolfgang Eichhammer, and Harald Bradke43.1 IntroductionIn 2010, industry was responsible for 26% of European final energy use and 29% of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (including indirect emissions). En-ergy-intensive industries, such as primary metals, nonmetallic minerals, chemicals, and pulp and paper, currently account for roughly 65% of total final read more..

  • Page - 922

    91443 Energy Savings Potentials and Technologies in the Industrial Sector: Europe as an Examplecross-cutting technologies (CCT) play a role. About 26% of the identified energy savings potential are based on technologies that provide steam and hot water and an additional 11% on the optimized use of efficient motor applications. About 90% of the identified energy saving potential in 2050 is cost-efficient, triggering annual net cost savings of €102 billion (€’051)). The sectoral primary read more..

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    91543.1 IntroductionFigure 43.1 Electricity demand share of cross-cutting technologies by appliance in the European industry sector in 2008. Source: Fraunhofer ISI [5].Figure 43.2 European industrial electricity demand by appliances in the industry. Source: Fraunhofer ISI 2009a. read more..

  • Page - 924

    91643 Energy Savings Potentials and Technologies in the Industrial Sector: Europe as an Example43.2 Electric DrivesIn general, electric drives convert electric energy into mechanical energy. Although a wide variety of electric drives is available, asynchronous motors are most prevalent – basically in the power range from a few hundred watts up to 5 MW. Their key advantages are that they are robust, inexpensive and very energy efficient. Therefore, about 80% of the European energy demand for read more..

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    91743.2 Electric Drivesfrom 2.1 to 6.9%, depending on the power class of the electric drive. In lower perfor-mance categories, permanent-magnet motors can achieve an even better efficiency than the most efficient asynchronous motors. A permanent-magnet motor does not have a field winding on the stator frame, instead relying on permanent magnets to provide the magnetic field against which the rotors field interacts to produce torque [10]. Reluctance motors represent a technology of comparable read more..

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    91843 Energy Savings Potentials and Technologies in the Industrial Sector: Europe as an ExampleFigure 43.4 Energy-saving potentials of efficient electric drives in the European industry sector by 2050, compared with overall industrial final energy demand. Source: historical data, [7]; final energy demand projections, [11]; energy-saving potentials [3, 5].Figure 43.5 depicts the energy-saving cost curve for more efficient electric drives for the period 2020–2050. The x-axis indicates the size read more..

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    91943.2 Electric DrivesFigure 43.5 Cost curve for the implementation of highly efficient electric drives in the European industry sector. Source: Fraunhofer ISI.43.2.1 E-Drive System OptimizationE-drive system optimization is a holistic approach that considers all elements of a technical system. Therefore, instead of solely improving the performance of physical components, the system optimization approach aims to increase the efficiency of the system as a whole by involving both technical and read more..

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    92043 Energy Savings Potentials and Technologies in the Industrial Sector: Europe as an ExampleA further controlling aspect to improve electricity efficiency is to implement a demand-related control system. This kind of system is nowadays usually designed as a closed loop control which automatically moves the system to the desired operating point and maintains it at that point thereafter by using some or all of the outputs as input parameters to optimize the system in terms of efficiency.In read more..

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    92143.2 Electric DrivesFigure 43.6 Energy-saving potentials of e-drive system optimization measures in the European industry sector by 2050, compared with the overall industrial final energy demand. Source: historical data, [7]; final energy demand projections, [11]; energy-saving potentials, [5].Figure 43.7 Cost curve for energy savings through e-drive system optimization. Source: Fraunhofer ISI. read more..

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    92243 Energy Savings Potentials and Technologies in the Industrial Sector: Europe as an ExampleFurthermore, the utilization of direct drives instead of belts and the optimization of ducting are exclusively illustrated in the chart as cost-effective measures, but with only a minor impact regarding their energy-saving potential.Finally, all the other energy-saving options that are not discussed in detail here also play a substantial role. These options are collectively referred to as “Other read more..

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    92343.2 Steam and Hot Water GenerationFigure 43.8 Share of total heat demand in the European industry sector. Source: [15].Combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems can be used instead of steam boilers to provide steam for processes up to 500 °C. In CHP systems, a variety of technologies are applied such as steam back-pressure turbines, condensing turbines, gas turbines, and combined-cycle gas turbines. Their efficiency increases in that order by ~20% to an overall efficiency of > read more..

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    92443 Energy Savings Potentials and Technologies in the Industrial Sector: Europe as an ExampleThe calculation of technical energy-saving potential considers eight technology groups for the generation of heat in industry, of which only boilers represent the separate heat production (SHP), all other technologies being applied for CHP gen-eration: steam back-pressure turbine, steam condensing turbine, gas turbine, com-bined-cycle, fuel cells, internal combustion engine, boilers, and other read more..

  • Page - 933

    92543.2 Steam and Hot Water Generationa “technical” part (representing measures not being economic) for the rest. While the low-hanging fruit potential further increases to 2050 from 4 to 14 Mtoe, the cost reduction involved increases from €0.4 to €10 billion. The noneconomic potential only becomes cost-efficient by 2050, if financial incentives are undertaken beforehand in order to compensate for the additional investment of the efficiency technology compared with the reference read more..

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    92643 Energy Savings Potentials and Technologies in the Industrial Sector: Europe as an ExampleFor this present economic potential assessment, the most probable case was chosen: new SHP plants consisting of 50% hard coal-fueled (from 2030 onwards equipped with CCS technology) and 50% natural gas-fueled plants will be displaced by CHP plants with a mix of 80% biomass and 20% natural gas. For both SHP and CHP, an efficiency improvement is assumed.Figure 43.10 shows the cost curve of the analysis read more..

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    92743.3 Other Industry SectorsFigure 43.11 Final energy demand (FED) in the industry sector in the EU (historical and forecast). Source: 1990–2008, [7]; 2009, average value; 2010–2030, [11].Figure 43.12 Share of cross-cutting technologies in 2008 by sector. Source: [5].Figure 43.11 gives an overview of the individual shares of final energy demand in the different industrial sub-sectors. The iron and steel industry and the chemical industry are the main energy-consuming sub-sectors in read more..

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    92843 Energy Savings Potentials and Technologies in the Industrial Sector: Europe as an ExampleThe iron and steel industry is the most energy-consuming industry in Europe, accounting for ~20% of the total industrial final energy demand and more than 5% of the total European energy consumption [7]. In this industry branch, two types of production processes need to be distinguished. The blast furnace route manufactures pig iron and crude steel based on the raw materials iron ore, coke, and coal. read more..

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    92943.3 Other Industry SectorsThe chemical industry is characterized by significant heterogeneity, featuring numerous types of processes applied. Consequently, the identification of energy-sav-ing technologies comprises a whole range of process-related measures. However, they can be traced back to a few fundamental principles, such as the application of more efficient catalysts, increased heat integration, the implementation of more energy-efficient separation units, the use of more efficient read more..

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    93043 Energy Savings Potentials and Technologies in the Industrial Sector: Europe as an ExampleEnergy efficiency improvements for mechanical pulp concentrate on shredding and refining the wood and the recovery of waste heat. In the long run, large energy savings could be made by switching to water-free paper production where resin or artificial adhesive agents provide the adhesion between fibers. Long-term efficiency improvements for chemical pulp concentrate on the more efficient (energetic) read more..

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    93143.4 Overall Industry SectorBetter use of waste heat and heat integration means that significant steam savings of up to 20% can be realized in paper factories.Other industry branches, such as the machinery construction, textile, food and drink, and tobacco industries feature additional energy-saving potentials that were not analyzed in detail owing to their relatively low significance. However, a rough estimate of the energy-saving potential is 12 Mtoe by 2030.The total energy-saving read more..

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    93243 Energy Savings Potentials and Technologies in the Industrial Sector: Europe as an ExampleMost of the short-term energy savings can be exploited by improved holistic optimi-zation of electric motor-driven systems and energy-efficient heat generation. In the long run, further energy savings can compensate for the increasing baseline energy demand and promise even higher demand reductions. Provided that there is full implementation of the energy-saving potential by 2050, final energy demand read more..

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    93343.4 Overall Industry SectorFigure 43.15 Cost curve for the industrial sector in the 27. Source: Fraunhofer ISI.Figure 43.16 Primary energy savings in the European industry sector up to 2050 compared with the baseline energy demand. Source: Fraunhofer ISI. read more..

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    93443 Energy Savings Potentials and Technologies in the Industrial Sector: Europe as an ExampleIn contrast, electric drive-based system optimization measures trigger an imme-diate cost reduction (apart from regular maintenance that causes additional labor costs), given the significant specific cost savings of more than 1000 M€’05 Mtoe–1 and the high energy-saving potential, as indicated in Figure 43.15. They account for roughly twice as much cost savings as benefits deriving from process read more..

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    935References It is obvious that even in the baseline scenario GHG emission reductions will occur to a level of 767 Mt CO2-eq. by 2050. Efficiency improvements in power gen-eration support a decline in GHG emissions by 20% to a level of 610 Mt CO2-eq.The actual industry-related efficiency technologies drive a further decrease in GHG emissions by an additional 49% compared with the overall baseline, limiting the emissions to 233 Mt CO2-eq.An increasing share of the emission reduction potential read more..

  • Page - 944

    93643 Energy Savings Potentials and Technologies in the Industrial Sector: Europe as an Exampleübergreifender Techniken in den Bereichen Industrie und Kleinverbrauch, Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe, and Forschungstelle für Energiewirtschaft (FfE), Munich.16 European Commission (2012) Eurostat, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu (last accessed 24 January 2013).17 IISI (1998) Energy use in the steel industry. Brussels: International Iron and Steel Institute.18 World Steel Association (2012) World Steel read more..

  • Page - 945

    937Subject IndexTransition to Renewable Energy Systems, 1st Edition. Edited by Detlef Stolten and Viktor Scherer.© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.aabandoned mining sites 644–646absorbers – flexible wave energy 373 – metallic foam 473–474 – point 374–375AC voltage, three-phase 726acceleration power 411ACE (area control error) 733acidic PEM electrolysis, see PEM electrolysisacidification, ocean read more..

  • Page - 946

    938Subject Index atmospheric receiver 319attenuator 376Automatic Generation Control (AGC) 612–613automotive fuel cell systems, see fuel cell vehiclesautonomy 131availability assumptions 38–39aviation travel 103–105bback contact, interdigitated 297–298back surface field (BSF) 287balance boundaries, ZEB 876–878balance-of-plant (BOP) cost 222–223balance-of-plant (BOP) system 186–187Balance Responsible Party 502–503balancing – cost 83, read more..

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    939Subject Index blades, number of 247–248Blåsjø hydropower reservoir 392–393, 608boil-off loss 670boil-off rate 675boiler – condensing 790 – fossil-fired 180 – solar 171BOP (balance-of-plant) cost 222–223BOP (balance-of-plant) system 186–187boring machines, TBM 392Borkum West offshore wind farm 266boron hydrides 660Bosch, see Haber–Bosch processboundaries, planetary 119–120boundary layer, atmospheric 273Brazil 140BRICS read more..

  • Page - 948

    940Subject Index catalytic methanation 787catalytic reduction, selective 698–699catalytic systems, “structured” 456catchment (hydrological) 146, 383cathodic protection system (CPS) 780caverns – convergence 648 – hydropower 391–392 – salt 203 – storage sites 646–652, 830–831cavity receiver 477CCGT (combined cycle gas turbine) 731CCS, see carbon capture and storage/sequestrationCEDREN 605cells – fuel, see fuel cell – resistance 220 – read more..

  • Page - 949

    941Subject Index coated base metals 444–445coating technologies, large-area 288–290Cobb–Douglas CES 33coefficient of performance (COP) 571 – smart grid heat pumps 761coke-oven gas 785cold start-up tests 189cold storage 561–563collector systems, linear Fresnel 309, 317–320, 457combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) 731combined heat and power (CHP) 50, 58–59 – biomass 507 – demand-driven electricity commission 510–515 – distributed 557 – read more..

  • Page - 950

    942Subject Index corn-based bioethanol 523corrosion – biomass co-combustion 417 – natural gas pipelines 778, 783Corruption Perceptions Index 138cost – assumptions 38–39, 70–71 – balancing 83, 88–89, 260 – biofuel production 543–544, 544 – BOP 222–223 – capital 269–270, 803 – CEPCI 543 – competitiveness 40 – consumer-friendly structures 560 – cost of energy trajectory 357–360 – distribution 517 – drilling 346 – read more..

  • Page - 951

    943Subject Index DCORE (dual-coil reformer) 463–464“dead” wood 415decarbonization, see CO2 emissionsdecentral conversion 835decreasing market value, VRE 75–92deforestation 491–492degradation 743delivery, see transmission, distributiondemand – and supply 486–487, 568–570, 743–744, 747 – demand-driven electricity commission 510–515 – demand-driven power options 95 – FED 927 – flexible 709, 749 – heat 900 – peak 741, 751 – read more..

  • Page - 952

    944Subject Index DNI (direct normal insolation) 329dogmas on sustainability 132domestic appliances, control 750–755domestic energy supply, China 894domestic hot water (DHW) 561, 903domestic industries, Developing World 149double-circuit AC lines 736–739doubly fed induction generator (DIG/DFIG) 250–252, 272Douglas, Cobb–Douglas CES 33downregulation, wind power 615downstream migration 391downwind wind turbines 250drain and refill cycle, geological read more..

  • Page - 953

    945Subject Index EGPS (Electricity Generation Policy Statement) 47–48EGS (enhanced geothermal system) 339electrodes, batteries 581electric arc furnaces (EAFs) 928electric drives 916–922 – technologies 853–854electric motors 208 – four-pole 916electric power – capacity distribution 229 – chemical fuel production 619–621 –CO2 emission source 196 – consumption reduction 920 – cost assumptions 70–71 – cross-cutting technologies demand read more..

  • Page - 954

    946Subject Index – near-zero 800–801 –NOx 495, 698 – Trading Scheme 496 – transport sector 851–852 – WTW 805–806employment opportunities – marine energy 354 – RE 142EMR (Electricity Market Reform) 352EMREG (Electricity Market Reform Expert Group) 354–355encased receiver tubes 176end energy carriers, Germany 621end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) 77, 81–82end-use technologies 834–838endogenous growth theory 123ENE FARMs read more..

  • Page - 955

    947Subject Index – transition 14energy services, see power system servicesenergy storage systems (ESS), see storageenergy supply – global 112 – primary 621 – Sweden 492energy transition – comprehensive concept 119–136 – German industry 67–74 – Japan 14 – supranational level 73 –, see also transitionenergy yield, electrolyzers 222“Engineering, Procurement and Construction” (EPC) contractor 328engines – gas 835 – internal combustion read more..

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    948Subject Index filling stations – hydrogen 210 –, see also refuelingfinal energy consumption, Scotland 52final energy demand (FED) 927financial capital 127–129“financial crisis” 229financial implementation procedure 181financial incentives 151–152financial security, Developing World 149financial support, RE 407fins 474–475fire tests 188–189Fischer–Tropsch process 438, 451 – biofuel production 530–531fish-friendly power plants read more..

  • Page - 957

    949Subject Index fuels – airship 681 – alternative 857 – ammonia 692 – BTL 530–531, 626 – chemical production 619–621 – CNG 836–837 – for transport 523–524 – fossil, see fossil fuels – gaseous biofuels 512–515 – hydrocarbon 619–628 – liquid biofuels 511–512, 625–626 – natural gas, see natural gas – solid biofuels 510–511 – substitution of oil-based 206 – synfuel 624 – wood 493 –, see also read more..

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    950Subject Index – hydrogen pipelines 208–209 – natural gas 780, 832 – offshore wind power 267 – overlay grid 719 – primary energy supply 621 – RE 500–507 – resource mix 517 – seismic activity 636 – supply pattern 405 – TSOs 502–503GHG, see greenhouse gasesGHSV (gas hourly space velocity) 822Giddens, Anthony 124GIGACELL Ni–MH batteries 24GILs (gas insulated lines) 711–712glass-based modules 293glass fiber enforcement read more..

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    951Subject Index growth potential – biomass 494, 515 – food production 490 – hydropower 385–388GTAP (Global Trade Analysis Project) 33GTCC (gas turbine combined cycle) plant 18guard rails concept, global 145–147guide vanes 600GWP (global warming potential) 197hHaber–Bosch process 694–696, 700–701 – efficiency 696Halle mining site 644hard coal 416head 381headrace 389health impact 145heat – binary-cycle exchangers 341 – capture read more..

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    952Subject Index hot water – domestic 561, 903 – generation 922–926 – long-term storage 571–572hourly grid load balancing 230–232house-use ESS 592HP (heat pumps) 57, 101 – gas 790 – “smart grids” 761–762HRSG (heat recovery steam generator) 316HRWL (highest regulated water level) 607–609HTE (high-temperature water electrolysis) 436–438, 818–819HTF, see heat-transfer fluidsHTS (high-temperature superconducting) cables 711–712HTS read more..

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    953Subject Index IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) 26IBC (interdigitated back contact) 297–298ICCT (International Council on Clean Transportation) 862ice formation, wind turbines 256ICE (internal combustion engines), passenger car powertrains 836–838ICT 515, 729 – “smart grids” 744–746, 749ideal gas law 775idle losses 854IEA (International Energy Agency) 95 – geothermal power Roadmap 339, 343–344 – Technology Roadmap 494 – Wind Task read more..

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    954Subject Index intra-day markets, liquid 89inward investment, marine energy 354ion-conducting solid electrolytes 583IPCC emission reduction targets 893IPCC SRREN report – geothermal power 339 – offshore wind power 267, 278IR filling nozzle 191iridium catalysts 442–443Irish–Scottish Links on Energy Study (ISLES) 61–64Irish Sea 62iron production 922 –, see also steel …irreversibilities, thermodynamic 557irrigation 387ISCCS (integrated solar read more..

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    955Subject Index – cryogenic storage 669–675liquid intra-day markets 89liquid materials, sensible heat storage 326liquid water, formation energy of 426liquids, organic 660lithium–air batteries 585–587lithium–ion batteries 185, 581–582, 853 – energy storage systems 591–592 – power density 198lithium–sulfur batteries 584–585lithium super-ionic conductor glass film 585living standards, China 902load – aerodynamic 279 – alternating read more..

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    956Subject Index meteorology, offshore 274methanation 787–788 –CO2 204, 210 – large-scale plants 839 – power-to-gas 820methane – and ammonia 691, 702 – catalytic CO2 hydrogenation 820 – CHARM® 781–782 – cracking 476 – feedstocks 453 – physical properties 775 – power-to-gas 425 – RPM 823, 838–841 – synthetic 788methane reforming – dry 451 – scale-up 476–477 – solar thermal 451–482 – steam 451, read more..

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    957Subject Index – Germany 638 – hydrogen 659–690near-zero emission, hydrogen production 800–801near zero-energy concept 102nearly/net-zero energy buildings 875–889Nesjen reservoir 607–608net mass capacity 681–682net present value (NPV) 858net social value (NSV) 858networks – asset utilization 743 – ENSG 60 – externalities 857 – peak load 757 – transmission 723–739“New Economics” 123new materials development, EV read more..

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    958Subject Index on-site generation 881on-site H2 production 800, 803on-site storage capacity 878one-way storage 571onshore hydroelectric turbines 371onshore wind power 203, 243–263open-center turbines 365“open-loop” systems 452operating pressure 667 – gas holders 682operating temperature, solar tower systems 325operational strategies – hybrid 172, 324 – night-time operation 161–162, 178 – PSH 601–602 – turbines 390OPEX read more..

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    959Subject Index photovoltaics (PV) 110, 883–887 – building-integrated 292–294 – concentrating 302–303 – cost 290–291, 296, 301 – organic 298–299 – power density 198 – R&D 300–301 – semi-transparent modules 294 – technological design 290–300 – terawatt scale technology 283–306 – thin-film 288–290, 294–295, 298–300, 302–303 – ZEB 877pipe storage facilities 668pipeline systems – hydrogen 833–834 – read more..

  • Page - 968

    960Subject Index – passenger car 836–838“predict and provide” philosophy 744present value annuity factor (PVANF) 572–573pressure cycles 778pressure gradient 774pressure level, subsurface storage 634pressure swing adsorption (PSA) 696, 700–701pressure vessels, hydrogen 663–668pressurized electrolyzers 227, 441price pressure 44primary energy – China 895 – credits 885 – electric power generation 201 – Germany 621 – nonfossil sources read more..

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    961Subject Index – energy 698–700rectification 227recycling 98, 932 – paper 929–930redox-flow batteries 582–583 – energy storage systems 592–593reduction, selective catalytic 698–699refill, see drain and refill cyclerefinery waste fuel gas 455refining, petroleum 623–624reflector materials 313reforming – bell-jar solar reforming reactor 469 – DCORE 463–464 – industrial reformers – methane, see methane reforming – SCORE read more..

  • Page - 970

    962Subject Index resource mix, Germany 517retail electricity market 769revenue, hydrogen 211reversible cells, solid oxide 437reversible pump turbines (RPT) 597–600risk-adjusted cost 259risk management 145rivers – flow variation 384 – protection 146Rjukan PSH plant 609–611robustness of technology, solar power 161, 169–170ROC (Renewable Obligation Certificates) 352rock caverns, hydropower 391–392rock salt 647rock structures, permeability read more..

  • Page - 971

    963Subject Index sequestration, carbon 798“shadow price” 865Shimen Village 908shock waves 778shore connection 274–276“short-circuit effect” 412short-term regulation 601short-term supply curve 79shut-down and sealing, subsurface storage 633, 650Si hetero-junction cells 297Si wafer-based solar cells, crystalline 286–288, 297–298, 301SiC foams 473significant wave heights 276simple metal hydrides 675simulated wind power production read more..

  • Page - 972

    964Subject Index solid-state storage 677 – sensible heat 326SOLREF reactor 472–473solubility, hydrogen in water 644SOLUGAS 323solution mining 649sound power level 256 – wind turbines 247sources, CO2 emissions 196South Africa 140 – policies 154South Korea – geological storage 646 – green energy strategies 3–11 – offshore wind power 268Southern ISLES 63soybean 540space flight 673Spain – electric power 217, 228–229 – solar read more..

  • Page - 973

    965Subject Index – power-to-gas 813 – pumped hydropower, see pumped storage hydropower – “smart grids” 762–768 – solid-state 677 – stationary 679 – subsurface 633–636 – wind power 412storage media – fossil fuels 567 – heat 165–168 – hydrogen 426 – power density 197–199strain–stress diagram 777Strangford Lough project 363Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) 50Strategic Research Agenda for Solar Energy Technology (SRA) read more..

  • Page - 974

    966Subject Index system optimization 517 – electric drives 919–922tT CAPEX 748, 763–765Tafel equation 220tanks – hydrogen embrittlement 674 – liquid hydrogen storage 671–675 – metal hydride 676 – “table versus tank” issue 790 – temperature 682tapping, hot 778taxes – carbon dioxide 495–496 – PTC, see Production Tax Credit – relief 151TBM (tunnel boring machines) 392TCI (total capital investments) 542TCO (transparent read more..

  • Page - 975

    967Subject Index transformers, power 714transient characteristics, ZEB 881–882transition – barriers to 868 – cost 857 – hydrogen 807–808 – in the Developing World 138–140 – natural to hydrogen gas 629–657 – petro-mobility to electro-mobility 856–857 – societal 123–132 – sustainability 858–859 –, see also energy transitiontransmission – development stages 724–727 – European grid 408, 729 – flexible 709 – grid read more..

  • Page - 976

    968Subject Index utilization, network asset 743“utilization effect” 81utilization factor 217, 229–230vvacuum receiver 175, 319valence band 285value research, global 131van der Waals radius 640vanes, guide 600vaporization heat 669–670vaporizer, ambient air 672VAR compensator 715variability – hydrological 383–384 – reservoir water level 609–611variable RE (VRE) – and biomass energy 500 – decreasing market value 75–83 – read more..

  • Page - 977

    969Subject Index wholesale electricity market 769wide-area measurement 746wind power – capital availability 261 – CES production structure 34 – China 31 – decreasing market value 76 – design of turbines 87 – downregulation 615 – economic feasibility 258–260 – environmental impact 255–257 – fluctuations 199 – Germany 200–205 – GROWIAN 180 – linking with hydropower 612–615 – offshore, see offshore wind power – onshore read more..

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