Handbook of Purified Gases

In respect to become aware the advances in technology and the more global approach this book will be a revision and enhancement.


Helmut Schön


524 Pages

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English

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Chemical Engineering

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  • Helmut Schön   
  • 524 Pages   
  • 12 Feb 2015
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    Handbook of Purified Gases Helmut Schön read more..

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    Handbook of Purified Gases read more..

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    Helmut Schön Handbook of Purified Gases ABC read more..

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    Helmut Schön Leipzig Germany ISBN 978-3-540-32598-7 ISBN 978-3-540-32599-4 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-32599-4 Library of Congress Control Number: 2014951880 Springer Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the read more..

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    Foreword to the English Edition The German Version of the Handbook of purified Gases was first published in 2005. There has been a great take up from colleges and specialists, so this positive resonance encouraged me to provide an English version of the book. In respect to the advances in technology and the more global read more..

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    Contents 1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 1 1.1 Definition of Purity ......................................................................... 2 1.2 Graduation of Gases ........................................................................ 4 1.2.1 Graduation According to Physical Data .............................. 4 1.2.2 read more..

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    VIII Contents 3.2.3 Syntheses ............................................................................. 72 3.2.4 Gas Washing ....................................................................... 74 3.3 Getter and Gas Purifier .................................................................... 77 3.4 Filter ................................................................................................ 81 read more..

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    Contents IX 7.3.3 Spectroscopic Methods ....................................................... 180 7.3.4 Electro-Analytical Methods ................................................ 188 7.3.5 Moisture Measurement ........................................................ 193 7.3.6 Determination of Oil ........................................................... 198 7.4 Chemical Absolute Methods read more..

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    X Contents 10.13.2 Azeotropic and Non-azeotropic Mixtures ........................... 507 10.13.3 Various Organic and Inorganic Compounds ....................... 507 Symbols and Abbreviations ......................................................................... 509 Subject Index................................................................................................. 517 read more..

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    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 H. Schön, Handbook of Purified Gases, 1 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-32599-4_1 1 Introduction Technical gases are used in almost every field of industry, science and medicine and also as a means of control by government authorities and institutions. They are regarded as indispensable means of read more..

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    2 1 Introduction 1.1 Definition of Purity Purity GR is identical with the content of gases and usually indicated in percent- age. As in the first approach this indication means a mathematical relation only, a reference to volume, masses or the amount of substances is indispensable. With reference to the standard conditions read more..

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    1.1 Definition of Purity 3 Enrichment of Xe must be performed with approx. 10 1 to 10 6 ppm thus by factor 10 7. Progressive industrialization provokes an increase of pollutant concen- tration in the atmosphere, which on the one hand can only be proved by means of enrichment techniques and on the other hand regionally read more..

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    4 1 Introduction Because of a concentration below 10 ppm of O2 and SiH4 in N2 can be kept for weeks whereas reaction in the percentage-range ensues fast and explosion like. New methods are required to obtain further success in the development of purity. 1.2 Graduation of Gases The designations „technical gases“, „industrial read more..

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    1.2 Graduation of Gases 5 – Fig 2: liquefied compressed gas. a gas which is packaged under pressure for transportation purpose at a temperature of > –50°C (–58°F) and partially lique- fied (fig 2 – ADR). Further difference is made between · high pressure liquefied gas with –50 < TCri + 65°C (149°F) or read more..

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    6 1 Introduction Among compressed gases there are pure gases and gas mixtures. The latter may also contain liquid components. Appropriate gases and gas mixtures are, as liquids, stored and transported at very low temperature. Examples: O2,, H2, He and CO2. Relevant advice is to be found among manufacturing methods. An important characteristic feature read more..

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    1.2 Graduation of Gases 7 1.2.2 Graduation According to Other Characteristics Chemical instability is an important feature. Typical examples are vinyl fluoride C2H3F (R 1141), ethylene oxide C2H4O and the well known acetylene C2H2. – R 1141 tends to polymerisation which spontaneously appears at temperatures of over 100°C: the g as bottle must be read more..

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    8 1 Introduction 1 Pa = 1 N · m –2 = 1 kg · m –2 ·s –2 The bar is a derived, but in relation to the SI – System valid unit 1 bar = 1000 mbar = 10 5 Pa . The unit atm is used quite rarely, whereas in the U.S.A., atm is still frequently used. Conversion tables regarding the different units incl. read more..

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    1.3 Regulations and Standard Publications 9 Throughout the United Europe common regulations become more and more popular. It has always been a task of the member countries to transfer European rule into national rule by means of regulations and law. This might be done by a direct international adaption of texts, but may as read more..

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    10 1 Introduction successor (Air Liquid 2005) . A lot of information can also be gathered from special gas catalogues and safety data sheets by Linde, Messer, Matheson Trigas and L’Air Liquide companies. Most of the physical, chemical and safety related data have been compared to the specifications in well known German publications read more..

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    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 H. Schön, Handbook of Purified Gases, 11 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-32599-4_2 2 Introduction to the Physics of Gases In physical textbooks and especially in thermodynamic textbooks there are more or less detailed explanations with the most important equations. For a more in- depth study the monograph from read more..

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    12 2 Introduction to the Physics of Gases Example E2.1-1: Calculating pressure with varying temperature. At 15°C the pressure of the gas cylinder is determined to 198 bar gauge-pressure, thus the absolute pressure is 199 bar. A temperature of 35°C is expected, conse- quently ΔT = 20°C. By approximation read more..

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    2.1 The Ideal Gas 13 Example E2.1.1-1: Calculating RG for Ar (RAr) with a density ϕ Ar,STP = 1,784 kg · m –3 . 11 Ar 101325 R207.9 J kg K 273.15 1.784 −− == ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ From the equations (2.1-10 and -11) one can derive a formula to calculate the density when RG is known. G G,T,p GG M p VT R ϕ= = ⋅ (2.1.1-7) Example E2.1.1-2: read more..

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    14 2 Introduction to the Physics of Gases The gases can be compared with each other using the molar volume. According to Avogadro’s Principle (1811) different gases contain the identical number of molecules at the same pressure and the same temperature and the same volume. The molar volume VG,Mol is the volume that the molar mass read more..

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    2.1 The Ideal Gas 15 kBoltzmann is 1.380658 · 1 0 –23 J · K –1. Thus instead of the equation (2.1.1-15) we ob- tain Mol Boltzmann Avogadro pV k k T ⋅= ⋅ ⋅ (2.1.1-19) This equation is valid read more..

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    16 2 Introduction to the Physics of Gases m,G,p r obability m,G m,G 2 v v 0.8165 v 3 == ⋅ (2.1.2-3) The diffusion which will be dealt with in chapter 2.2.3 is directly proportional to vm,Maxwell . Therefore there may be significant differences in the reaction times of chemical syntheses, adsorption and catalysis depending on the mass read more..

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    2.2 The Real Gas 17 in volume, however, necessitates further derivation. Thus we must use enthalpy for the definition of cp . p p dH c dT = read more..

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    18 2 Introduction to the Physics of Gases important. However when T > TCri , one cannot achieve liquefaction even at high pressure. At the triple point all three thermodynamic phases exist simultaneously, illustrated in P2.2-1 explains this. The vapour-pressure curve separates the gaseous from the liquid phase, the sub- limation curve read more..

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    2.2 The Real Gas 19 – If pTri > p stand , then the sublimation point is the one at the intersection point of the isobars pstand with the sublimation curve, thus we can give a sublimation temperature TSubl which is close to the triple temperature. A typical example is CO2 with pTri = 5.185 bar. These relationships read more..

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    20 2 Introduction to the Physics of Gases Mol p,T pV Z RT ⋅ = ⋅ (2.2.1-2) real p,T ideal V Z V = (2.2.1-3) For Zp,T < 1 the real molar volume is smaller than the ideal. This means that in a pressurised container there is more gas than would be expected according to the ideal equation. With Zp,T > 1 it is vice read more..

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    2.2 The Real Gas 21 For the comparison of two states we form the quotients of the two Z. p1,T1 21 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 p2,T 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 Z Vp T M p T ZV p T M p T ν ⋅⋅ ⋅ ν ⋅ ϕ ⋅⋅ ⋅ == ν ⋅⋅ ⋅ ν ⋅ ϕ ⋅⋅ ⋅ (2.2.1-11) read more..

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    22 2 Introduction to the Physics of Gases Example E2.2.1-2: From a pressurised gas cylinder filled with CH4 with V1 = 50 litres volume and p1 = 200 bar with stable temperature T = T1 = T2 =20°C = 293.15 K in a container with V2 = 200 litres pressure equalization takes place. We are determined to find read more..

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    2.2 The Real Gas 23 Example E2.2.2-1: 3 m · h –1 are to be removed from a propane gas cylinder in a gaseous state at T = 20°C = 293.15 K. How much electrical energy has to be used for the water bath? First of all, one will ask why it is necessary to have additional heating. The cyl- inder contains liquid propane, read more..

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    24 2 Introduction to the Physics of Gases As the enthalpy of evaporation depends on the temperature there are various approximations for Eq. (2.2.2-4). Most frequently the following Eq. is applied us- ing the decade logarithm (lg). A to F are constants which depend on the type of gas. They have to be ascertained experimentally (see Table read more..

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    2.2 The Real Gas 25 As the temperature increases the density of the liquid falls and it takes up more and more volume. The filling factors are calculated so that at the maximum per- mitted temperature range for the pressurised gas cylinders of −20 to +70°C the pressure can't be higher than the tested one. If the container read more..

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    26 2 Introduction to the Physics of Gases Example E2.2.3-1: Calculating the pressure p2 and temperature T2 after the adiabatic expansion of N2 with V1, p1 = 30 bar and T1 = 293.5 in a V2 = 3 V1. Ideally apply cp,Mol = (7/2) · R Mol and = 7/5. RMol = 8.31441 J · mol –1 · K –1 11 read more..

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    2.2 The Real Gas 27 To understand viscosity we must consider the internal friction of a gas. If two adjacent layers of gas move with different speeds then particles move from one layer to the other. The layers become interlocked; this causes the faster layer to slow down and vice versa. To maintain the difference in read more..

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    28 2 Introduction to the Physics of Gases For the real gases the dependency of the individual coefficients of p and T dif- fer from the ideal calculation. The empirical data mostly serve a mathematical rep- resentation in the form of a series expansion based on p or T, similar to that for the real gas factor. For flammable gases the read more..

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    2.3 Gas Mixtures 29 2.3 Gas Mixtures In this book we predominantly describe gas mixtures in pressurised cylinders. The manufacture is described in chapter 5. Gas mixtures close to atmospheric pressure, as required by the user, are mentioned briefly in chapter 8.2. In the case of the pure gases it became clear in the previous chapters read more..

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    30 2 Introduction to the Physics of Gases Table T2.3-1: Conversion of the different kinds of concentration ,j Cν V, j C M, j C j ,j n i i1 Cν = ν = ν ___________ jV, j j N iV,i i1 i C M C M = ϕ ⋅ = ϕ⋅ M, j j n M,i i1 i C M C M = = j V, j n i i1 V C V = = ,j j j n ,i i i1 i CM CM ν ν = ⋅ ϕ = ⋅ ϕ read more..

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    2.4 Moisture Content 31 It still needs to be proven that one is not dealing with the volume concentration but with the desired concentration of the fraction of the molar concentration. jj STP jj j,Mol j j STP j nn n n n iSTP i STP ii i i1 i1 i1 i 1 i1 ii,Mol MM V VM V C MV M V V M == = = = ⋅ ϕ νν == = = = ⋅ ν ν ϕ Example E2.3-2: read more..

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    32 2 Introduction to the Physics of Gases acids) in connection with liquid water in the steel cylinder cause corrosions nega- tively which effect safety. The strongly polarised H2O molecule bonds with almost every means of adsorption and can be removed, e.g. by heating. First of all one must differentiate between two marginal cases in read more..

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    2.4 Moisture Content 33 which correspond to a concentration of 0.603 volume-% at 1013.25 mbar in the air. The range which is of interest for the purest gases is the one with few ppm or ppb. As the wet mirror method has also been used successfully in this area the va- pour pressures over ice are relevant. The phase borderline read more..

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    34 2 Introduction to the Physics of Gases – The absolute moisture concentration 3 H2O abs,H 2O n i i1 M Cg m V − = =⋅ (2.4-8) The relationship between the types of concentrations applies with an ideal calcula- tion and under normal conditions, C ,H2O in ppm: Mol,H2O 63 abs,H2O v,H2O v,H2O Norm 33 v,H2O M 18.0152 CC 10 C 10 V 22.41383 0.80375 read more..

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    2.5 Leak Rate 35 geometric volume Vgeom by evacuating it separating it from the vacuum pump and measuring the increase in pressure p after a time t. We call this the vacuum leak rate Lvac . geom 1 vac pV Lmbar l s t − Δ⋅ =⋅ ⋅ (2.5-1) In the pressure technique the relationships are different. The cylinder is under a pressure read more..

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    36 2 Introduction to the Physics of Gases When considering the container pressure one peculiarity of the leak must be mentioned. At high pressures the form of the pressure containers is changed, sometimes leaks only occur at this stage. Thus it makes sense to check an indus- trial gas plant for leak tightness at the read more..

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    2.5 Leak Rate 37 the Ar should not be increased by more than 0.1 ppm by leakage. How large can the leak rate for the individual sealing element be? Using Cair = 0,1 · 10 –6 and QV = 10 m 3 · h –1 we obtain 6 air total air V 6 631 6 4 3 1 QL C Q 0.1 10 10 10 10 m h 10 2.8 10 cm s 60 60 − − −− read more..

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    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 H. Schön, Handbook of Purified Gases, 39 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-32599-4_3 3 Manufacturing and Purification Very different methods are used to manufacture a gas • Separating a mixture of different gases. Typical examples are separating air to obtain O2 , N2 , Ar, Kr or Xe or the read more..

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    40 3 Manufacturing and Purification One must be aware of the inversely proportional dependence on pressure p abs. The higher the pressure, the smaller and more advantageous is vlin, which is nor- mally given in m · s –1. The dwell time tdwell gives the period of time, in which an impurity caused by sorption can be read more..

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    3.1 Physical Processes 41 This approximate calculation shows that the adsorption bed at the chosen QV can cope with relatively small pressures. A reducing valve is added to the adsorp- tion bed which provides an initial pressure of 200 bar and a secondary pressure appropriate to the suction of the compressor. The chosen adsorption bed has read more..

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    42 3 Manufacturing and Purification liquefied gases, i.e. the components are all present in a liquid form at the tempera- ture in question. The aim is to distribute the components in the liquid and then the gaseous phase. For the gaseous phase one uses the known (ideal) law of Dalton (Eq. 2.1.1-9), in which the mole read more..

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    3.1 Physical Processes 43 3.1.1.1 Separation of Liquefied Gases The explanation of distillation can be most easily effected with a binary mixture with the substances A and B, whereby the boiling point Tbp,A > T bp,B is and, pD,A < p D,B are valid. Thus, component B with the lower boiling point is the more read more..

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    44 3 Manufacturing and Purification Example E3.1.1.1-1: Simple distillation from “cylinder to cylinder” According to illustration P3.3.1.1-3 the mixture which is to be distilled is in gas container 1, which is maintained at the temperature T1 in a water bath. The path of the distilled vapour is highlighted in dark black. The read more..

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    3.1 Physical Processes 45 This demonstration assumes ideal conditions. However, real gases behave in a way which deviates both positively and negatively from Raoult’s Law. In both cases there may be spots in the boiling-point diagram at which the liquid and the gaseous phase have exactly the same composition. This is referred read more..

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    46 3 Manufacturing and Purification One forms the relationship liq, N2, 20 gas, N 2, 20 D,CO2, 20 20 liq, N2, 20 20 D,CO2, 20 gas, N 2, 20 C C p 19, 6 0,34 C p57,1 C − − − − + ++ + Ω =≅ = Ω then the following is easily obtained C liq,N 2, −20 C liq,N 2, +20 = read more..

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    3.1 Physical Processes 47 bottom product bottom condenser overhead product random packing / trays reflux (liquid) head vapour rectification column input crude product evaporator vapour Illustration P3.1.2-1: Schematic of a continuous rectification. The raw product is continuously added. The one of the head is removed parallel to the reflux, the product of read more..

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    48 3 Manufacturing and Purification QD is the volume flow of the vapour in the column which is given by the perfor- mance of the evaporator vlin,D is the permissible linear speed of the vapour at at- mospheric pressure. In order to calculate these partially empirical data are neces- sary, see (Lide 2003-04), (Kirschbaum 1969) und read more..

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    3.1 Physical Processes 49 From the amount of reflux and the head product the external reflux ratio Ψ ext is calculated. This provides information about the efficiency of the column. reflux ext head Q Q Ψ= (3.1.2-4) In general the following applies: the greater the purity of the head product, the bigger the reflux ratio and the taller the read more..

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    50 3 Manufacturing and Purification Description of the processes: Atmospheric air is sucked in by compressor 1, com- pressed to approx. 6 bars and freed of undesirable constituents such as water, carbon dioxide and hazardous hydrocarbons in a drying and cleaning system 2 (molecular sieve adsorber station). The air flow is divided into read more..

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    3.1 Physical Processes 51 Adsorption is an exothermic process. Energy is released in the form of heat. The enthalpy of physisorption is about the same as the heat of evaporation. With chemisorption there are significantly higher energy values. The boundary between the two is often regarded as 40 kJ · m ol –1. For adsorption read more..

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    52 3 Manufacturing and Purification Table T3.1.3-1: Critical atomic and molecular diameters substance dCri in [nm] substance dCri in [nm] helium 0.20 krypton 0.41 hydrogen 0.24 ethane 0.42 neon 0.26 methanol 0.42 (0.36) water 0.28 ethanol 0.42 ammonia 0.29 propane 0.43 carbon dioxide 0.33 read more..

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    3.1 Physical Processes 53 with the constants k2 and Max,G as the maximum possible monomolecular cover- age. Sattler’s comprehensive work of 2001 is recommended for further details, es- pecially the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller-isotherm (BET isotherm) for multi-layered coverage. Now one considers the borderline case of a very small pD,Ads,G as is read more..

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    54 3 Manufacturing and Purification ,1 Cν 0 t 2 t resorption t 1 ,1/ 2 Cν ,2 Cν ,min Cν Cν t Illustration P3.1.3.1-1: Breakthrough curves The adsorption capacity is determined by experimentation to obtain the break- through curve. A schematic representation can be found in Illustration P3.1.3.1-1 The gas 1 which is to be read more..

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    3.1 Physical Processes 55 exceeding the desired value C ,2. This can be clearly seen by the dashed break- through curve. This reaches the value C ,2 after a relatively short coverage time. Example E3.1.3.1-1: In a service pipeline at 10 bar (g) Ar and a daily con- sumption of 12 m 3 one has to apply a post-drying process. The read more..

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    56 3 Manufacturing and Purification O atoms. The network of long channels contains both water molecules and alkali ions which can be exchanged by other cations. The collective formula of the crys- tallographic unit cells is () ( ) x/ Va 2 2 2 xy MAlO SiO zH O ⋅ (3.1.3.2-1) with the cation Mx/Va and its valence number Va. The read more..

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    3.1 Physical Processes 57 Table T3.1.3.2-2: Examples for usage of molecular sieves in large-scale industry compiled according to documents of the firm Grace GmbH in Worms. Type Bulk density in [kg · m− 3] Natural gas industry Chemical industry 3A 700 – 720 Natural gas drying with H2S con- version to COS less read more..

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    58 3 Manufacturing and Purification waste gas pure gas input gas p 1 p 2 DR-V DR-V = pressure regulator ads orpt io n reac to r 1 rea c tor 2 ads orp tion reac tor 1 heating regeneration gas - warm rege nerat ion gas - c o ld pure -gas input gas waste gas/ disposal rea c tor 2 rea c tor 3 Illustration P3.1.3.2-1 (left): Schematic representation of a read more..

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    3.1 Physical Processes 59 G,mbar V,G V,total ,G V,total p QQ C Q 1000 ν == ⋅ (3.1.3.2-1) 31 V,CO2 0.4 Q 100 0.04 m h 1000 − == ⋅ 31 V,H 2O 8 Q100 0.8 m h 1000 − == ⋅ Transfer to QM with ϕ CO2 = 1.848 kg · m –3 according to the data sheet and ϕ H2O = 0,8 kg · m –3, for more exact values read more..

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    60 3 Manufacturing and Purification Finally, a different very often used adsorbent which must be considered is silicagel, a porous, amorphous form of silica SiO2. Although it has the same chem- ical composition as sand, silica gel is radically different to other SiO2-based mate- rials, due to its unique internal structure. It is composed of read more..

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    3.1 Physical Processes 61 Only in a few cases physisorption is involved, then regeneration is possible. An example is the adsorption of hydrocarbons C3 and higher from CH4 or C2H6. Here, the regeneration of the activated carbons takes place with vapour heated to 120°C. Afterwards drying with hot N2 is necessary. Table T3.1.3.3-1: read more..

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    62 3 Manufacturing and Purification For small partial pressures for concentration C in the plastic similarly for solu- tion in liquids (Eq. 2.2.3-9) Henry’s Law applies. Perm Cp =δ ⋅ (3.1.4-1) The concentration is proportional to the partial pressure, Perm is the solubility co- efficient for the permeation. In Fick’s first Law the read more..

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    3.1 Physical Processes 63 As the specific permeability PN2 is not negligibly small one obtains for the volume flow of N2 10 7 3 1 3 1 V,N 2 3 1.6 0.4 Q 0.005 10 1 0.012 10 m s 4.32 10 l h 0.5 10 −− − − − − − =⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ This means that the nitrogen portion of the permeate gas is about 2%. read more..

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    64 3 Manufacturing and Purification Illustration P3.1.4-2: Procedure for diffusing H2 through a palladium alloy according to (Chu 1989) On the surface of the first side is the mixture where adsorption (2) of the molecu- lar H2 takes place. This is the prerequisite for the dissociation (1) in the atomic state of the H read more..

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    3.1 Physical Processes 65 Finally, further important developments have to be pointed out: – Membranes for fuel cells, (Ruffmann et Rohland 2005). – Utilisation of oxide ceramics with high oxygen transport in the form of oxide ions offers new perspectives for separation of O2 from air, process temperatures are 800 to 900 read more..

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    66 3 Manufacturing and Purification For isotope separation all properties which are dependent on the mass of the molecule are suitable: density, viscosity, diffusion, vapour pressure, ability to transfer heat, melting point, boiling point and other. In this way heavy water D2O which is present in small quantities in H2O is separated read more..

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    3.2 Chemical and Electro-chemical Procedures 67 The enrichment was atomic 98%, the purity was better than 99.9% volume, the price of DM 34,000 was exorbitant! Example E3.1.5-2: carbon dioxide with a special composition and purity is to be produced: 13 17 68 2 C O 6.0 SFC 99Atom % − (3.1.5-2) SFC means “suitable for Supercritical Fluid read more..

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    68 3 Manufacturing and Purification The speed of reaction vReact serves as a measure of the activity of a catalyst. It is the relationship between the amount of substance MG used to the product of the amount of the catalyst Mcat and time t. G Re act cat M v Mt = ⋅ (3.2.1-1) The dimension is either mol · k g –1 · h –1 read more..

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    3.2 Chemical and Electro-chemical Procedures 69 Table T3.2.1-1: Platinum and palladium catalysts for supplementary purifying. Carrier gas Impurities Cν,output in [ppm] T in °C vV x1000 Active metal Air H2 , CO 0.005 130 – 220 5 – 15 Pd, Pd/Ag, Air CO 0.005 80 – 130 5 – 15 Pd, Pt Air CO,H2,CH read more..

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    70 3 Manufacturing and Purification One must still consider the case where the impurity bonds with the (unreal) cat- alyst. This has the advantage that it is not necessary to add the co-reactant. Typical examples are catalysts which contain Ni. In a reduced form, i.e. as finely distribut- ed Ni, O2 bonds to give NiO. A suitable read more..

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    3.2 Chemical and Electro-chemical Procedures 71 The principle can be seen in Illustration P3.2.2-1 on the this page. The dissoci- ated components K + and OH− of the potassium hydroxide solution move in oppo- site directions to the electrodes and take on or give off electrons which flow back over the electric circuit. Thus the whole read more..

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    72 3 Manufacturing and Purification technology for the future. Prerequisites for this are cheaper solar energy and vehi- cles powered by H2. The relation between the electric current I, time t and the amount of material used (mass M) is given by Faraday’s laws. The first says that the amount of mate- rial converted is proportional read more..

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    3.2 Chemical and Electro-chemical Procedures 73 Example E3.2.3-1: Manufacture of monosilane (silane). In the 80s it was necessary to develop a suitable process and plant to obtain 100 t per year (Hiller 1987) and (Klockner et Eschweg 1988) . From a number of different processes the following have achieved different tech- nical maturity. – read more..

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    74 3 Manufacturing and Purification restrictions in obtaining LiH which is well known to play an important role in the production of nuclear weapons. Here is a short description of the patented pro- cess to produce highly pure arsine (Schön et al. 1984) . 350 g of zinc arsenide in small pieces in powder form are put into read more..

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    3.2 Chemical and Electro-chemical Procedures 75 There are very different methods of establishing the contact between gas and liquid. Accordingly one finds different types of scrubbers. With spray absorbers the washing liquid is injected into the gas flow, a typical example is the Venturi scrubber. With film absorbers a film of read more..

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    76 3 Manufacturing and Purification gas output demister 2x sprayer packings 2800 700 gas input 315 315 control- board circulating pumps trough with washing liquid Illustration P3.2.4-1: Cross section and side view of a two-stage scrubber (factory descrip- tion by the firm Jäger K G Kunststoffwerk in Braunschweig/Germany, labelling addeded). Example read more..

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    3.3 Getter and Gas Purifier 77 Whereas mainly rigid packing is used with rectification columns with scrubbers the packing can be made of metal, usually stainless steel, ceramic or plastic. (Makowiak 1990) determined the loss of pressure in ballast and packing theo- retically and also compared technical data for many uses. Empirical ones are very read more..

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    78 3 Manufacturing and Purification – The fine purification of gases. – The bonding of reactive components in waste gas streams. For both types the word gas purifier is often used. In addition one must differenti- ate according to the size of the volume flow QV: – Purifiers for the production of industrial read more..

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    3.3 Getter and Gas Purifier 79 The developments in the semiconductor industry have led to the use of many, previously not well-known, chemical substances which however have to be re- moved from the waste gas streams due to their toxicity. Table T3.3-2 has been created according to documents provided by the firm CS CLEAN SYSTEMS in read more..

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    80 3 Manufacturing and Purification Table T3.3-2: (continued) Substance R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 C ν,output in [ppm] POCl3 X 5 SbH3 X 0.1 Si2Cl6 X 5 Si2H6 X 5 SiCl4 X 5 SiF4 X 3 SiH2(CH3)2 X 5 SiH2Cl2 X 5 SiH3CH3 X 5 SiH4 X read more..

  • Page - 89

    3.4 Filter 81 3.4 Filter Filtration of air has a long history. According to (Davis 1973) the first description was given by the Roman author Plinius the Elder in his “naturalis historia” in about 50 A.D. Up to the end of the 19 th Century filtration was mainly used to hold back dust and aerosols and small drops of read more..

  • Page - 90

    82 3 Manufacturing and Purification be pointed out. Whereas vm,G depends on the MG,molecule and is thus specific to the type of gas, this does not apply to the Em. Furthermore the Em does not depend on the pressure. It is very difficult to estimate the extent to which the real behaviour of the gases leads to read more..

  • Page - 91

    3.4 Filter 83 Illustration P3.4-1: Ultramet L 4400 Series Filter Assembly of firm Pall New York. Example E3.4-2: Filter for high pressure and flow rates of 100 to 500 m³ · h− 1. Illustration P3.4-2: Filter DN15, PN400 of firm Hofer GmbH in Mühlheim an der Ruhr in Germany, material stainless steel 1.4471, design read more..

  • Page - 92

    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 H. Schön, Handbook of Purified Gases, 85 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-32599-4_4 4 Filling Manifolds This chapter introduces the necessary basics for constructing stations to fill com- pressed gas cylinders with as well as appropriate technical elements. These are also required for the stations to manufacture read more..

  • Page - 93

    86 4 Filling Manifolds – Soap bubble method: again the pressurised gas cylinder is filled. Brushing or spraying with a soap solution achieves a proof limit of about 1 · 10 –3 cm 3 · s –1. Individual leaks can be located well. – Pressure increase method: the station is in an evacuated state and a sensitive read more..

  • Page - 94

    4.1 Filling Manifolds for Pure Gases 87 The Δp i s (12 – 2) · 10 –3 = 1 · 10− 2 mbar and Eq. (2.5-1) applies. 2 geom 41 4 3 1 vac pV 10 1.2 L8 10 mbar l s 8 10 cm s t15 − −− − − Δ⋅ ⋅ == = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ≅ ⋅ ⋅ Stations which are used to fill portable compressed gas cylinders for commer- cial purposes read more..

  • Page - 95

    88 4 Filling Manifolds The principle of filling stations for compressed pure gases is explained in Illus- tration P4.1.1.-1. In each case a high pressure line is assumed which is equipped with a safety valve Si-V, adjusted to the maximum operational pressure of the manifold and with a manometer. off-gas M1 M2 F-V M1 high read more..

  • Page - 96

    4.1 Filling Manifolds for Pure Gases 89 plant is open to the atmosphere when the gas cylinder is connected, it is recom- mended that several purges are carried out. To this effect, high-pressure gas is in- troduced with the cylinder valve closed and then discharged through the vent line (off-gas). The filling begins by opening the read more..

  • Page - 97

    90 4 Filling Manifolds 2 1 1 , Part n , Part p p ln p p ln n = (4.1.1-4) For the low-pressure purge between 1 and 1300 mbar N2 6.0 one obtains n at 5 210 ln 0.2 n1.28 2 1 ln 1300 − ⋅ == → For pressures from 1 – 200 bar the n for the high-pressure purge is 5 210 ln 0.2 n1.74 2 1 ln 200 − ⋅ == → The results do read more..

  • Page - 98

    4.1 Filling Manifolds for Pure Gases 91 4.1.2 Liquefied Gases The Illustration P4.1.2-1 shows the filling of a gas barrel from a so-called mother cylinder. This is carried out from cylinder 1 with a dual-ported valve and a dip- tube. Cylinder 2 which is to be filled is on a scale as the filling of liquefied gases has to read more..

  • Page - 99

    92 4 Filling Manifolds small volume. The filling valve F-V is controlled by scale and closes when the given mass for the filling has been reached. By closing the F-V the FP is also switched off. 4.2 Tips for the Construction of Stations In different countries there is a large number of individual rules and regulations for read more..

  • Page - 100

    4.2 Tips for the Construction of Stations 93 – piping for fluids in group 2 with a DN greater than 32 and a product of pplant x DN > 1000 bar · m m Example E4.2.1-1: In an analysis device there is a collection vessel for CO with a Vgeom = 0.6 l, with a pressure of 6 bar (g). Is this vessel a read more..

  • Page - 101

    94 4 Filling Manifolds The preceding table provide information about a selection of materials which are not only used for pressurised containers but also for tubing, fittings and meas- uring instruments. When selecting tubing the parameters material of construction, compressive strength, loss of pressure and surface quality have to be read more..

  • Page - 102

    4.2 Tips for the Construction of Stations 95 Table T4.2.1-5: compressive strength in bar of seamless tubing in Monel-400, considering the external diameter da in inches and the wall thickness sW, in mm and inches. The permis- sible range of temperature is from −30 to +40 °C. sW mm read more..

  • Page - 103

    96 4 Filling Manifolds The smooth straight tube has the lowest resistance to flow and Table T4.2.1-6 only applies to such tubing. Every connection, bend and fitting has a higher resis- tance to flow, the measure for this is the drag coefficient cW. Many manufacturers indicate the cW for their products. Table T4.2.1-6: Inner diameter read more..

  • Page - 104

    4.2 Tips for the Construction of Stations 97 Firstly the QV is calculated in m 3 · h –1: 12 3 1 V Q 700 l min 6 10 700 42 m h −− − =⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ From the Table one uses the slightly higher values QV = 50 m 3 · h –1 and p = 250 bar (g). At ND 4 the appropriate length of tubing is 500 metres! read more..

  • Page - 105

    98 4 Filling Manifolds 4.2.2 Valves and Fittings For the items dealt with in this chapter the general principles are based on the need of a small leak rate. This has to be be ascertained and guaranteed by the manufac- turer. The highest leak tightness between fitting and tubing is achieved by welding which however makes the read more..

  • Page - 106

    4.2 Tips for the Construction of Stations 99 This is avoided by the following way of sealing, referred to as () R VCR : vac- uum coupling remakeable. The name indicates its origin in the ultra-high vacuum technology as well as its reusability. It is, however, necessary to weld the fittings. The VCR achieves a leak rate of read more..

  • Page - 107

    100 4 Filling Manifolds Illustration P4.2.2.1-3: Quick release coupling type RBE from the firm Stäubli T ec Sys- tems GmbH Connectors in Bayreuth / Germany. Left: Factory photo with a tube connec- tion, right: Cross section, with thread connections on both ends. When the coupling read more..

  • Page - 108

    4.2 Tips for the Construction of Stations 101 Safety valves should be sealed from the atmosphere at an appropriate pressure. However, it is possible that there are minuscule leaks when the manifold is evacu- ated in spite of the soft seals. Bursting discs achieve a smaller leak rate but in this case the entire contents of gas in the read more..

  • Page - 109

    102 4 Filling Manifolds Bursting discs are safety devices which have to be thoroughly tested. They fulfil their task by bursting a certain differential pressure. However, in general bursting discs must put up with significant stress below the bursting point, e.g. changing the pressure-cycling stress, without leaking. At the read more..

  • Page - 110

    4.2 Tips for the Construction of Stations 103 Example E4.2.2.2-3: check valve installed with a highly efficient external seal- ing: CH-series of Swagelok Co.: Fixed cracking pressures from 0.03 to 1.9 bar Illustration P4.2.2.2-3: Check valve with bonded elastomer seal (factory photo from Swagelok read more..

  • Page - 111

    104 4 Filling Manifolds 4.2.2.3 Shut-Off Valves In accordance with the nominal diameter DN in mm and the pressure PN in bar one can ascertain two different developmental directions with shut-off valves. Af- ter the Second World War in chemical installations and for nuclear power plants very low leakrate values with convoluted bellow read more..

  • Page - 112

    4.2 Tips for the Construction of Stations 105 For both types of valve the choice of seat in place is strongly dependent on the substances which have to be isolated. The very stable metal-metal sealing is dis- advantageous because of the leak rate being 1 · 10 –3 mbar · l · s –1 and of the in- creased forces necessary read more..

  • Page - 113

    106 4 Filling Manifolds Example E4.2.24-1: Control valves from the firm Flowserve GmbH in Es- sen/Germany. Ill. P4.2.2.4-1 and -2. Illustration P4.2.2.4-1: Typical actuator and valve configuration. The setting of the valve is either achieved by the pneumatic actuator or by an elec- tric motor or by a solenoid shown here. Sealing read more..

  • Page - 114

    4.2 Tips for the Construction of Stations 107 Illustration P4.2.2.4-2: Kämmer valves with bellows sealing from the firm Flowserve in Essen GmbH (factory drawings). Left: The valve needle of the high pressure valve is made of stellite and has a very small slope. It is seated in the round base made of read more..

  • Page - 115

    108 4 Filling Manifolds To overcome the problem of constant volume of flow in a plant a pressure regulator can be used. This sets the downstream pressure as constant as possible and also fluctuation can be compensated to a certain extend. In standard pressure regulator designs the diaphragm needs to be as elastic as possible. An read more..

  • Page - 116

    4.2 Tips for the Construction of Stations 109 Section 8.2 deals with fittings for small flows for the withdrawal from gas cylinders. 4.2.2.5 Special Characteristics for Oxygen The concentration of oxygen in our atmospheric air is 20.99 Vol.-% which under normal conditions corresponds to a partial pressure of 212.7 mbar. The evolutions of read more..

  • Page - 117

    110 4 Filling Manifolds Example E4.2.2.5-1: Material demands for fittings and plants for oxygen sys- tems according to (M034 2005). The following metallic materials are suitable for casings, internal parts and seals: – Cu, Cu alloys with a concentration of Cu > 55% , Ni – Cr-Ni-steels with a concentration of Cr+Ni >22% read more..

  • Page - 118

    4.2 Tips for the Construction of Stations 111 friction-caused particle production. The attempt to avoid the above-mentioned problems and the need to meet the demands for purity led to the development from piston compressors to diaphragm ones. This principle has also been used in the pumps for liquids. 4.2.3.1 Dry-Running Gas Compressors In read more..

  • Page - 119

    112 4 Filling Manifolds 4.2.3.2 Diaphragm Compressors The following description of the working principle including Illustration P.2.3.2-1 has been taken from a factory bulletin by the company of Andreas Hofer Hochdrucktechnik GmbH in Mülheim an der Ruhr in Germany. Illustration P4.2.3.2-1: Diagram of a two-stage diaphragm read more..

  • Page - 120

    4.2 Tips for the Construction of Stations 113 Example E4.2.3.2-1: Three-stage diaphragm compressor Illustration P4.2.3.2-2: Three-stage diaphragm compressor, factory photo of the firm Hofer GmbH. Technical data: Suction pressure 8 bar abs., final pressure 800 bar abs., medium: He, out- put: 20 m 3 · h –1 at STP, construction: horizontal, read more..

  • Page - 121

    114 4 Filling Manifolds Example E4.2.3.2-3: Technical gaseous connection of a two-stage compressor, see Illustration P4.2.3.2-3 . The simple example is suitable for inert gases or oxygen where the pressurised re- sidual can be vented to the atmosphere without any problems. Furthermore an evacuation and/or a low-pressure purging need to be used. read more..

  • Page - 122

    4.2 Tips for the Construction of Stations 115 The following supervisory control is recommended to ensure smooth operation: – continual indication and alarming of a break in the diaphragm – continual oil pressure indication and automatic shut-down if the oil pressure is too low – temperature measurement at the cylinder heads: once a read more..

  • Page - 123

    116 4 Filling Manifolds 4.2.3.3 Pumps for Liquefied Gases Pumps for liquefied gases and liquids which require a very low leak rate are based on the same principles as the diaphragm compressor dealt with in the previous section. For transporting gases in laboratories pumps are mostly provided with an eccentric drive for transporting read more..

  • Page - 124

    4.2 Tips for the Construction of Stations 117 Example E4.2.3.3-1: LEWA diaphragm metering pumps with the technical specification flow rate 0.005 l · h –1 to 180 m 3 · h –1 , discharge pressure 20 to 1200 bar, fluid temperature –80 to +200°C. Little known is the fact that diaphragm me- tering pumps for liquids can read more..

  • Page - 125

    118 4 Filling Manifolds 4.2.3.4 Vacuum Pumps The evacuation of tubing and pressurised containers is an ever-recurring task. The necessary vacuum levels are between 1 and 10 –6 mbar. Here the partial pressures of sealants in the rotary vane pump have to be kept as low as possible. In addition it is often necessary to read more..

  • Page - 126

    4.2 Tips for the Construction of Stations 119 Some concepts of safety technologies are dealt with below, even if we do not have to adhere to the standards of aerospace technology or nuclear technology. “Redundancy” means extravant or superficial. In controls technology redun- dancy or a redundant factor means the parallel switching of read more..

  • Page - 127

    120 4 Filling Manifolds gas supply ampli- fier PLC + PC + Supply (electric, air) off gas (vent) off gas (vent) R-V F-V V1 M1 V2 V3 M2 M3 Si-V L1 L2 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 S1 S2 Illustration P4.2.4-1: Switching of a pressure safety chain. The gas supply provides pressure p1 which is maintained at the pressure p0 via the safety valve read more..

  • Page - 128

    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 H. Schön, Handbook of Purified Gases, 121 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-32599-4_5 5 Mixtures of Pure Gases In this chapter we will deal with the production of gas mixtures in gas cylinders. Here the components should be in the gas phase and the associated pressure can be up to 300 bars. The read more..

  • Page - 129

    122 5 Mixtures of Pure Gases The analyzed mixture is delivered with the following composition: 4.15 % O2, 138 ppm CH4. The evaluation must result from the correlation between the blend- ing tolerance and analytical accuracy. In the case of the O2 – content, 4.15 % ± 1 %-rel. signifies: the actual concentra- tion value lies between 4.11 read more..

  • Page - 130

    5.1 Static Procedures 123 produced mostly manometrically (by pressure). Before the first and after every following addition of a gas, the cylinder would be disconnected from the filling manifold and weighed. The data obtained through large balance accuracy were clearly better than the results achieved by analysis through a comparative read more..

  • Page - 131

    124 5 Mixtures of Pure Gases The principles of this kind of the mass determination have remained unmodi- fied up to now, the accuracy has further increased; see among other things (Wilde 1988). Newer data about the methodology and the analysis of errors as well as ex- amples can be found in (ISO 6142 2001) . The three read more..

  • Page - 132

    5.1 Static Procedures 125 Table 5.1.1-1: Scales for the gravimetric production. Suitable for the cylinder size [l] Maximum load in [kg] Readability (resolution) in [g] Suitable for explo- sion protection 10 32 0.1 yes 50 150 1 yes 12x50 * 1500 20 yes *in the pallet: single cylinders, in bundles firmly secured. Before the read more..

  • Page - 133

    126 5 Mixtures of Pure Gases The cylinders should be evacuated; because of time limitations the use of the vac- uum pump VP at the manifold should be restricted to residual evacuation of the cylinders. O 2 N 2 He Ar VG1 VG2 VG3 exhaust gas BS VP V7 V6 V5 V4 V3 V2 V1 V8 exhaust gas V9 V10 F-V V11 R-V V12 V13 V15 V14 balance M2 M4 Rü-V 1 2 3 4 M1 read more..

  • Page - 134

    5.1 Static Procedures 127 Illustration P5.1.1.1-2: View in a filling cabinet. Abb. Illustration P5.1.1.1-3: View of the operating side of the filling cabinet. read more..

  • Page - 135

    128 5 Mixtures of Pure Gases Illustrations P5.1.1.1-2 and -3 show the filling manifold for the production of flammable mixtures which came into operation in the year 2000. Two Metler-scales with 32 and 150 kg maximum capacity are installed in the ground, 11 cylinders of either 10 or 50 litres can be filled in parallel. In read more..

  • Page - 136

    5.1 Static Procedures 129 V12 normally closed 1 balance O-Ring Piston cylinder Instrument air 2x from the filling plant Filling line from the filling plant VCO- seal support A support B Illustration P5.1.1.2-1: Schematic representation of the re-weighing. – A: The seals are closed, V12 is open like the cylinder valve, which is read more..

  • Page - 137

    130 5 Mixtures of Pure Gases – E: After the filling of the last component, the gas cylinder valve is closed and after venting the filling line from V12, the cylinder is removed from the scale. 5.1.2 Manometric and Volumetric Procedures A significant number of manometric (by pressure) and volumetric procedures as well as read more..

  • Page - 138

    5.1 Static Procedures 131 Explanation: Both volumes, Vol. 1 and 2, must be determined very precisely including the tubing and fittings. It is favourable that the structural design occurs in such a way as to permit complete filling with water. Vol. 1 and 2 are evacuated individually through valves V3 and V4 and then read more..

  • Page - 139

    132 5 Mixtures of Pure Gases A related method is the use of a smaller receiver without seals C, but, with addi- tional valves in the lines to seals B and C. Here, likewise, filling is possible on a separate manifold. V4 septum syringe with gas or liquid V2 (a) V1 helical Fül lleitung V3 V3 Fül lleitung V2 V1 (b) seal C seal B seal A glas read more..

  • Page - 140

    5.1 Static Procedures 133 – The homogenisation takes place faster in shorter containers with larger diame- ters than in taller, narrow ones. – Using a so-called mixing-tube. This is a dip-tube screwed-into the valve (simi- lar to those used for the withdrawal of liquefied gases), but with a closed end and containing many small, laterally read more..

  • Page - 141

    134 5 Mixtures of Pure Gases Example E5.1.3-1: Computation of the average kinetic and potential energy of H2 and CO2 at –20 and +20°C and a height s, which approximate the conditions in a 10-liter cylinder. The temperatures are T = 253.15 and T = 293.15 K, MMol,H2 = 2.016 · 10 –3 kg and MMol,CO2 = 44.01 read more..

  • Page - 142

    5.1 Static Procedures 135 Usually, the computation limit for condensation (“Dew-point limit”) is pre- scribed with +5°C. In the USA a limit of 0°C (+32°F) is often used. All compo- nents occurring in the mixture are to be considered at the same time. If there is the risk of the test gas cylinders exposed to much lower read more..

  • Page - 143

    136 5 Mixtures of Pure Gases sequence O2 → H2). A BAM approval for this mixture allows production up to 100 bar. Table T5.1.4-2: Preweighed quantities for the mixture 1% O2 in H2. Gas G Concentration in [%] Volume in [l] MG in [g] O2 1.00 8.89 12.70 H2 99.00 880.49 79.20 With this mixture, one will read more..

  • Page - 144

    5.1 Static Procedures 137 – Constructive explosion prevention: Pressure resistant building method, protec- tive chambers. For the evaluation of explosivity of a mixture, the pressure and material de- pendencies of the explosive limits must be evaluated. In tables and safety data sheets, one usually only finds the values for atmospheric read more..

  • Page - 145

    138 5 Mixtures of Pure Gases With the detonation about 600 cylinders were thrown from the dock, the roofing and roller were damaged, all windows facing the dock were shattered. Only indi- vidual pieces of the cylinder remained. The cause for the ignition was a reaction of O2 with the mixing strips, in addition these proved to be read more..

  • Page - 146

    5.1 Static Procedures 139 With the explosion 6.18 Mol of water vapour developed and an energy of [] [ ] H2O H 2O E H 242 6.18 1495.6 kJ 0.415 kWh =Δ ⋅ν = ⋅ = = (5.1.4-1) has been released. This divides into radiation energy, which is transferred directly to the cylinder wall, and the read more..

  • Page - 147

    140 5 Mixtures of Pure Gases detonation, the pressure develops as a wave whose amplitude can be greater than the calculated one. If one carries-out this calculation with a starting pressure of 20 bar in Example E5.1.4-1, one calculates a p2 = 179 bar. A cylinder with a test pressure of 300 bar will withstand such read more..

  • Page - 148

    5.2 Dynamic Process 141 5.2 Dynamic Process These processes are used much less often in the production of gas mixtures in compressed gas cylinders than the static methods described above. control parameter: concentration C C mixing-chamber steel-wool R-V1 R-V2 V1 V2 P1 P2 P3 compressor Illustration read more..

  • Page - 149

    142 5 Mixtures of Pure Gases support other mixtures for cylinders or tube-trailers. The automatic controllers from P5.2.1 are Mass Flow Controllers. These are well suited for the application because they measure and control the flow of each gas component to a tight toler- ance. The concentration differences warrant different read more..

  • Page - 150

    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 H. Schön, Handbook of Purified Gases, 143 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-32599-4_6 6 Compressed Gas Cylinders “Pressure equipment” according to (97/23/EC 1997) means vessels, piping, safety accessories and pressure accessories. “Vessels” me ans housing designed and built to contain fluids under pressure read more..

  • Page - 151

    144 6 Compressed Gas Cylinders Example E6.1-1: Sizes and forms of high pressure cylinders made of light steel. From the gas cylinders for technical gases of the company EUROCYLINDER SYSTEMS in Apolda/Germany common sizes were selected from the product range and the most important data were compiled in Table T6.1-1. All read more..

  • Page - 152

    6.1 Types and Conditions 145 Illustration P6.1-1: Various high pressure steel cylinders. Works drawing from the com- pany EUROCYLINDER SYSTEMS in Apolda/Germany. Explanation: the bottoms are either convex (round, bent outwards) or concave (drawn-in, second from left), L is the length of the cylinder according to Table T6.1-1, X read more..

  • Page - 153

    146 6 Compressed Gas Cylinders Table T6.1-3: Cylinders, USA: old english units. Volume in [cu in] Outside Diam- eter in [in] Service Pres- sure in [psi] Length L in [in] Mass in [lbs] 43 3.21 2216 9.0 1.9 43 3.21 2216 11.8 2.2 87 4.38 2015 9.2 3.0 244 5.25 2216 17.1 8.8 515 5.25 2216 33.1 read more..

  • Page - 154

    6.2 Accessories 147 necessary to obtain a construction authorisation or an individual approval by an authorised testing organisation such as TÜV in Germany. Separate accessories also include measuring devices which can be located in- side the cylinder. Every component which comes into contact with the gas has to be suitable for the read more..

  • Page - 155

    148 6 Compressed Gas Cylinders Illustration P6.2-2: Cylinder valves for ultra high purity gases (works drawings). Explanation: PN 200, DN 4, leakage rate 10− 8 mbar · l · s –1. Left: type D350, opening and closing via a pneumatic air cylinder. Right: dual valve type D395 read more..

  • Page - 156

    6.2 Accessories 149 Illustration P6.2-3: ECOCYL TM from Linde AG. Example E6.2-3: Sub-atmospheric delivery system UpTime TM from Praxair Inc. Illustration P6.2-4. The system is a delivery gas package designed as an alternative to existing ad- sorbent-based technology used in ion read more..

  • Page - 157

    150 6 Compressed Gas Cylinders Dual-port cylinder valve left: 1/2" VCR outlet port right: Tamper-proof fill valve Up time express pressure valve Up time capillary flow restrictor read more..

  • Page - 158

    6.4 Preparation for Filling 151 6.4 Preparation for Filling The preparation of the gas cylinder is the first step on the way to filling and qual- ity control. This is decisive because mistakes in preparation can not be adequately corrected later and mostly require a new fill with the entire procedure being re- peated. read more..

  • Page - 159

    152 6 Compressed Gas Cylinders affinity to the Al than the O2 it displaces the latter from the Al2O3. This process is very exothermic and best takes place at temperatures between 500 and 800°C. Therefore usually quartz pipes are used which have the additional advantage that the reddish burning area can be observed well. The resultant AlF read more..

  • Page - 160

    6.4 Preparation for Filling 153 evacuation at a pressure of p = 1.3 bar abs. measured with the manometer M1. Firstly the remaining gas present is removed via V1. After a chosen pressure (20 – 50 mbar abs.) has been reached V1 is closed again and the purging gas enters via V2. Then a significant period of time (up read more..

  • Page - 161

    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 H. Schön, Handbook of Purified Gases, 155 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-32599-4_7 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition The different requirements for the analysis of purity and composition have already been mentioned briefly in the introduction and are re-introduced here: – The values for read more..

  • Page - 162

    156 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition mutually determined needs to be known and appropriate gas standard needs to be available. As far as the concentrations which has to be determined and is dependent on the sample volume, is a limit for each method of measurement. Beneath this the measurement uncertainty is so large read more..

  • Page - 163

    7.2 Error Analysis 157 they are still partially regarded to classic methods. These are described in ISO 6145: Gas analysis – Preparation of calibration gas mixtures, 10 parts. – (ISO 6145-1 2003): Methods of calibration. – (ISO 6145-2 2001): Volumetric pumps. – (ISO 6145-4 2004): Continuous syringe injection method. read more..

  • Page - 164

    158 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition 7.2.1 Mean, Error and Error Propagation If the values Xi are present in mA, mV, mm or simply as a scale division and if their number is n then the mean is usually formed as the arithmetic term X n i i1 X X n = = (7.2.1-1) Coming to different kinds of errors the variance read more..

  • Page - 165

    7.2 Error Analysis 159 Of course rel can be used instead of then one gets rel X Δ . The t-distribution is a function of the chosen probability W (0 < W < 1) and the number of the degrees of freedom fFG = n–1. Appendix T10.8 is a table which gives various probabilities. Example E7.2.1-1: calculation of read more..

  • Page - 166

    160 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition For further explanation in this chapter one now simplifies twice: – f Analysis should only include the four basic mathematical calculations (i.e. not squares, roots, exponential functions or logarithms), for more complicated cases see (GUM 1993) and (Doerffel et al. 1994). – One always accounts read more..

  • Page - 167

    7.2 Error Analysis 161 (7.2.1-1) and (7.2.1-2), because the first step is to form the proportion of the re- spective values. Altogether n values are produced but there are only n/2 pairs. n i,2 i1 i,1 12 X 2 X X n = − ⋅ = (7.2.1-12) 2 i,2 12 i,1 2 12 X X X n 1 2 − − − σ= − (7.2.1-13) 12 Analysis S tan dard Cf X C − == ⋅ read more..

  • Page - 168

    162 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition Table T7.2.2-1: Coverage factor. Probability W Coverage factor kW 0.90 1.645 0.95 1.960 0.99 2.576 () pq 2 ** 2 rel W komb,rel W X,i,rel k,S tan dard,rel 11 Ck k C Δ= ⋅ σ = σ + Δ (7.2.2-4) Using the figures from the example E7.2.1-3 σ komb,rel = 1.1 %-rel is obtained. One chooses W = 0.95 read more..

  • Page - 169

    7.2 Error Analysis 163 value Yi is the sum of the impulses registered during the measurement time. If these measurements are repeated n times within the same timeframe then the mean Y can be formed analogous with Eq. (7.2.1-1). However, the standard deviation looks completely different from that described above. 2 Y σ= read more..

  • Page - 170

    164 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition This leads to the definition that a measurement value can visually be clearly dif- ferentiated and evaluated from the background, and then one obtains S 3 N ≥ or X3 ≥σ (7.2.4-1) This formula also defines the already read more..

  • Page - 171

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 165 7.2.5 Stability of a Gas Mixture The concentration information C ± ΔC means that the “true value Ctrue is in the in- terval of C – ΔC ≤ Ctrue ≤ C + ΔC (7.2.5-1) This corresponds to the understanding based on the probability calculation that each measurement value Ci is equally read more..

  • Page - 172

    166 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition 7.3.1 Mass Spectrometry A mass spectrum is produced by changing the components of a sample into gase- ous ions. These can then be electrically accelerated and separated and collected on the basis of their mass/charge ratio. This principle was first realized in 1919 by F.W. Aston in his read more..

  • Page - 173

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 167 M is the relative atomic or molecular mass; ΔM is the difference in the masses of both neighbouring signals, whereby these may show an overlap of only 10% maximum according to normal determination. Example E7.3.1-1: How high does the R MS have to be if the mercury isotopes Hg-200 and read more..

  • Page - 174

    168 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition Illustration P7.3.1.1-1: Principle of the quadrupole mass spectrometer (works drawing from the InProzessInstruments (IPI) Gesellschaft für P rozeßanalytik m bH in Bremen/Ger- many). The electrical voltage Uelectric in the Illustration is referred to as electric UU V cos t =+ ⋅ ω (7.3.1.1-1) with read more..

  • Page - 175

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 169 Illustration P7.3.1.1-2: Quadrupol mass spectrometer of the company IPI. 7.3.1.2 APIMS The special production of ions at atmospheric pressure succeeded at the beginning of the 90s, it helped to develop the verification of impurities in pure gases in the ppb region. Publications from this time are read more..

  • Page - 176

    170 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition puls counting chanelltron multiplier 200 amu triple filter quadrupole ion focussing lenses orifice cone focus 1 orifice plate focus 2 sample gas inlet sample gas outlet Illustration P7.3.1.2-1: Principle of the APIMS. Works drawing from the company Thermo ONIX in Winsford / UK, earlier VG Gas Analysis. read more..

  • Page - 177

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 171 In addition, by applying a suitable direct voltage the ions in the ion source are ac- celerated. These then pass through several apertures where the pressure in the mass analyzer is gradually reduced to about 10− 8 mbar. Usually the analyzer is the well-known quadrupole mass filter to which a mul- read more..

  • Page - 178

    172 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition 7.3.2 Chromatographic Methods Many analytical methods are rarely specific to one group of materials and even more rarely specifically selective for one substance. Therefore, when carrying out an analysis, it is absolutely essential to separate the analyte from the accompany- ing substances to be ascertained. read more..

  • Page - 179

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 173 A further differentiation must be made according to the way in which the sta- tionary phase and the mobile phase come into contact with each other. In column chromatography the stationary phase is located in thin tubes, the mobile phase moves through the tubes by pressure, rarely also by gravity. read more..

  • Page - 180

    174 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition frequently. Connections, valves, samplers and dividing columns then must also be made of this material. It is also important to have a supply of He for purging pur- Backflush 2 Backflush 1 10 port sample/ switching valve 10 port sample/ switching valve PDID Analysis 1 Analysis 2 Illustration read more..

  • Page - 181

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 175 this. Channels 1 and 2 contain the columns heart-cut 1 and 2 as well as an addi- tional 10-way valve. The chromatogram (right) shows not only the air gases Ar/O2, N2 , CO and CO2 but also shows the Freon’s R12, 13, 22, 116, 125 and 218 as well as the SF6. It is interesting to read more..

  • Page - 182

    176 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition compounds reach the detector they pick up electrons by agglomeration. Thus electrons are removed by the ionization of the operating gas and the basic ion flow falls to 10 –10 A. The linear region is up to 10 –14 g · s –1. The detector is se- lective for halogened hydrocarbon read more..

  • Page - 183

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 177 Illustration P7.3.2.1-3: PDID. Left: Plan, works diagram of the firm UNICAM Chroma- tography in Kassel, the detector is a product of the firm Vici Valco read more..

  • Page - 184

    178 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition The use of HPLC for the identification and quantification of the gas content in various groups of substances has remained limited. These are on the one hand hy- drocarbons which are already liquids and no longer liquefied gases, such as aromatic compounds, aldehydes and ketones, and read more..

  • Page - 185

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 179 more conductive form. Nowadays the use of constantly working membrane sup- pressors is preferred. At first the ions were quantified by the conductivity detector, today further kinds of detection have been introduced: mass spectrometer, electro- chemical (amperometric) detector, UV-VIS absorption detector and photodiode read more..

  • Page - 186

    180 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition 7.3.3 Spectroscopic Methods In 1961 when the author began with his professional career he was responsible, among other things, for filling inert gases, N2 and O2 into glass ampoules with a volume of 2 and 1 litre and a pressure of 700 Torr (760 Torr = 1013.25 mbar). Quality read more..

  • Page - 187

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 181 the 20 th century and have found widespread application in elemental analysis beginning in the early 1930s. In contrast, plasma sources have been developed largely during the 1970s. – Scattering: When radiation passes through a transparent medium, the species pre- sent scatter of the beam in all directions. In read more..

  • Page - 188

    182 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition Illustration P7.3.3.1-1: left:Valence-electron-band of SO2 molecule with an easily recog- nizable oscillation structure, cuvette length 100 mm, according to (Wiegleb et al. 1983).Right: Schematic representation of a non-dissolved rotation-vibration band with P and R branch, read more..

  • Page - 189

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 183 – Selective beamers like fluorescence ones or hollow cathode lamps do not pro- vide a band spectrum but discreet lines so that a spectral disintegration is not necessary. Therefore one refers to non-dispersive instruments (e.g. NDIR). Typical analytes are CO, CO2, N2O and NH3. These instruments are wide- spread. – In read more..

  • Page - 190

    184 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition fn(x) is calculated by the Fourier transformation and stored as data. This can then be compared with reference spectra. In addition it is also possible to filter the background, which is advantageous for the signal/noise ratio S/N. This procedure was first used in astronomy in the 50s to read more..

  • Page - 191

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 185 indicated with dashes. After the gas cell the light is once again reflected into the bottom part and focused on the detector via the right flip mirror and a further mirror. It produces a reference beam which is used to direct the interferometer. Both flip mirrors can be used for reference measurements and read more..

  • Page - 192

    186 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition interest dircted into an optical cavity between couple mirrors and measuring the decay rate of light. The faster the light decays the more of what is being monitored is present in the sample gas. The light bounces back and forth and some actually travels as much as 10 km. read more..

  • Page - 193

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 187 absorption spectrometry (AAS). Publications such as (Chakrabati et al. 1981) con- cerned themselves with the emerging problems. Please refer to (Robinson 1990) for general information about AAS. The principle of the AAS consists of the evaporation of suitable liquids con- taining the analytes and the subsequent read more..

  • Page - 194

    188 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition Illustration P7.3.3.2-2: Analyst 800 AAS of the firm PerkinElmer. Description: Monochromator: wavelength range 190-870 nm, grating area 64 x 72 mm, re- ciprocal linear dispersion 1.6 nm/mm, spectral bandwidths 0.2, 0.7 and 2.0 nm. Burner system: Alignment of flame in the light beam is read more..

  • Page - 195

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 189 – There is very little cross sensitivity for accompanying components and the elec- tro-chemical measurements are substance specific. – Faraday’s Laws (around 1830) apply. – a) The electrically deposited quantities of a substance are proportional to the amount of electricity Qelectr, which has flowed through read more..

  • Page - 196

    190 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition Each O2 molecule binds four electrons. According to the definition 6.24 · 10 18 electrons = 1 Coulomb C, 1 A = 1 C · s –1. Considering the gas flow QV and the temperature T one obtains according to Faraday’s Laws. [] [] [] 1 VO2 Qml min C ppm I A 0.0784 TK − ⋅⋅ read more..

  • Page - 197

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 191 phosphorous pentoxide and contains two separate spiral platinum coils which form the electrodes. The P2O5 is a well-known desiccant and is an electric conductor when it absorbs H2O. The mechanism is similar to the electrolysis described in section 3.2.2, here too the H2O breaks down into gaseous O2 at the anode read more..

  • Page - 198

    192 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition Description: The electrode wires extend from one end of the element and pass through to the outside of the cell body. They are connected to a pair of terminals that protrude from both sides of the cell. An electrical check on it across the elec- trode terminals, prior to the application of read more..

  • Page - 199

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 193 After moisture addition, the main stream of gas enters the housing of the electro- lytic cell where part of the flow passes through the cell itself, hereafter called the sample flow. The remainder of the flow is split off at the element’s entrance to form the so-called bypass flow, which is designed to read more..

  • Page - 200

    194 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition – The normal PTB works according to the principle of the coulometric generator. Here an electrolytic dissociation of the water takes place. The dissociation products H2 and O2 as well as the carrier gas are dried intensively and then re- combined to vapour catalytically. The amount of vapour read more..

  • Page - 201

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 195 Explanation: The Ohm resistances are R1 for the pore layer, R2 between the pore base and the aluminium, R0 for the total oxide layer. Capacities are C0 be- tween the layer of gold and aluminium, C1 between the pore base and aluminium. Water vapour penetrates through the gold film and forms a layer in read more..

  • Page - 202

    196 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition 7.3.5.2 Laser Absorption Spectrometry A measurement of the moisture content is possible with the FTIR, which has al- ready been dealt with. The development of adjustable lasers for the IR range led to new possibilities for the molecular absorption spectrometry, without it being nec- essary to read more..

  • Page - 203

    7.3 Instrumental Analysis 197 bon dioxide or by the evaporation of a solvent, and also because of the time taken to produce an observable layer of condensate, often lead to an underestimation of the moisture content. The modern, automatic cooled mirror sensor addresses these deficiencies and also provides an instrument that is rugged and read more..

  • Page - 204

    198 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition lead to a shifting of its own frequency, (Wiederhold 1997) and (van Haltern 2003) . Mostly resins are used for this purpose, but also well known are gelatines, calcium oxide and phosphorous oxide. In recent years the actual measurement has been carried out mainly using the reference procedure, read more..

  • Page - 205

    7.4 Chemical Absolute Methods 199 several m³ of gas. The oil remaining in the paper used to be dissolved with CCl4 which is no longer used today because of its carcinogenic effect. At the present time the determination takes place with a dispersive IR spectrometer. The detec- tion limit was a few mg · m –3. When read more..

  • Page - 206

    200 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition The significance of chemical absolute methods is decreasing and they are being replaced by methods of instrumental analysis. Nevertheless there are various ana- lytical tasks, for which they are still necessary. The reasons for this are as follows: – The analyses can usually be achieved with the read more..

  • Page - 207

    7.5 Particle Measurement 201 This led to the development of clean room technology, including particle meas- urement, and was then also extended to the gases being used. In section 3.4 it was shown that particles up to a diameter of 0.5 μm c an be kept hovering at room temperature by Brown’s molecular movement, thus they are read more..

  • Page - 208

    202 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition contamination. Due to the necessary measuring effort and the required temporal delay between measurement and evaluation this method is however not suitable for process control. To measure the purity of both the room and the gases being used optical parti- cle counting instruments have established read more..

  • Page - 209

    7.6 Automation of Complex Systems 203 connected and opened manually, involve a predominantly automatic purging of the gas paths, distribution of the gas flows to the individual analysis instruments, measurement taking the statistical conditions into consideration (t-table) and com- bining of the results in one single protocol. In some cases read more..

  • Page - 210

    204 7 Analysis of Purity and Composition 7.7 Testing Relevance to Application Technology In 1967 the author visited the light bulb factory in the Warschauer Straße i n East Berlin and examined the internal supply of pure N2. The delivered N2 had the quality 3.0 and was re-purified using nickel catalysts and a molecular sieve. The read more..

  • Page - 211

    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 H. Schön, Handbook of Purified Gases, 205 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-32599-4_8 8 Handling It is advisable to differentiate between storage, moving the cylinders and with- drawing the gas in the filling station. In some cases there are different legal regu- lations which take into consideration the read more..

  • Page - 212

    206 8 Handling Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS which contains the most important tips for transport and use. – Gas cylinders must be protected from being heated by radiators. The recom- mended minimum distance is 0.5 m. It is permissable to use open flames to warm up the pressurised gas cylinder. If this is necessary then read more..

  • Page - 213

    8.2 Fittings and Equipment for Gas Withdrawal 207 8.2 Fittings and Equipment for Gas Withdrawal Large manufacturers of technical gases normally provide their customers with a comprehensive range of equipment to withdraw gases from pressurised gas con- tainers, usually including: – Manifolds for withdrawing gases flowing of 12 to read more..

  • Page - 214

    208 8 Handling Example E8.2-2: Principle of a pressure regulator and its rinsing Illustration P8.2-2: Single-stage pressure regulator type DIM for all pure gases except O2 of company Air Liquide. Maximum inlet pressure 240 bar, adjustable output pressure 0.3 to 3 bar (g), maximum flow rate 5 m 3/h. Description: read more..

  • Page - 215

    8.2 Fittings and Equipment for Gas Withdrawal 209 V1 C-V high pressure purging gas DM off gas/vent/ vacuum application V3 V2 Illustration P8.2-3: Switching of a pressure regulator DM with high pressure purging. De- scription: V1: High pressure valve for the inlet of the purging gas. C-V: Check valve (no re- turn valve) V2: Low pressure valve read more..

  • Page - 216

    210 8 Handling Illustration P82-4 : G90 Gas Cylinder Cabinet from firm Asecos GmbH / Germany. – Other fittings are valves, pressure measuring equipment, flexible pipes, spiral connections, seals and fittings which will not be listed here because they have been at least partly dealt with in chapter 4. 8.3 Gas Mixtures read more..

  • Page - 217

    8.3 Gas Mixtures at the User 211 The principle is shown in Illustration P8.3-1 bellow and was taken from docu- ments provided by the company Bronkhorst HI-TEC B.V. in the Netherlands. As can be seen in the illustration, a small portion of the flow (QM) runs through a par- allel tube containing the sensor. This read more..

  • Page - 218

    212 8 Handling – Reproducibility: < 0.1% of the final value. – Regulator stability: < ± 0.1% of the final value (for 1 l · m in -1 N2). – Time constant: 1 – 2 s. – Pressure sensitivity: 0.1% per bar (for N2), which means that small pressure fluctuations have no significant effect. – Temperature read more..

  • Page - 219

    8.4 Purification at the “Point of Use” 213 8.4 Purification at the “Point of Use” There are two reasons for needing to carry out a further purification at the “point of use”. – With regard to individual accompanying components the available gas is not sufficiently pure for the purpose intended. – There are read more..

  • Page - 220

    214 8 Handling Table T8.4-2: Purifier from the construction series Mono Torr of SAES Pure Gas, Inc. in San Luis Obisco, USA. Each purifier has a particle filter at the gas discharge. THC = total hydro carbons. Gas Impurities removed Designation Product Rare gases H2O, O2, H2, CO, CO2, N2, THC MT-R N2 H2O, O2, H2, CO, read more..

  • Page - 221

    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 H. Schön, Handbook of Purified Gases, 215 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-32599-4_9 9 Data Sheets Data sheets are intended to provide an overview. They have mainly been compiled from data from the specialty gas catalogues of the firms (Air Liquide 2000) , (Linde AG 1999) and (Messer read more..

  • Page - 222

    216 9 Data Sheets – Class 2: Gases: • Division 2.1: Flammable gases • Division 2.2: Non-flammable, non-toxic gases • Division 2.3: Toxic gases – Class 3: Flammable liquids – Class 5: Oxidizing Agents • Division 5.1: Oxidizing Agents – Class 6: Toxic and Infectious Substances • Division 6.1: Toxic read more..

  • Page - 223

    9.1 Classification and Limiting Values 217 The CAS No. is an internationally common registration number for the un- equivocal identification of chemical substances which has been allocated by the Chemical Society of America, a private scientific organisation. The threshold limit value for the concentration at the workplace which has been read more..

  • Page - 224

    218 9 Data Sheets chemicals and the need to develop national programs to ensure their safe use, transport and disposal, it was recognised that an internationally-harmonized ap- proach to classification and labelling would provide the foundation for such pro- grams. The new system, which was called “Globally Harmonized System of Clas- sification and read more..

  • Page - 225

    9.2 Physical-Technical Data 219 Table 9.2-1: Literature used for the physical-technical data the appropriate number [x] has been provided in the data sheets. Number Reference Title [1] (L´Air Liquide 1976) Encyclopedie des Gaz [2] (Kühn u. Birett 2005–07) Merkblätter g efährliche Arbeitsstoffe [3] (Messer Griesheim 1989) Gase-Handbuch read more..

  • Page - 226

    220 9 Data Sheets The following notes and conversions will facilitate the use of the physical- technical data. – 1 bar = 14.404 psi (9.2-1) – read more..

  • Page - 227

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 221 1,1,2,2- Tetrafluoro- ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene* inhibited, TFE, Perfluoroethylene, R1114 00116-14-3 109 1,1,2,3,4,4-Hexafluroro- 1,3-Butadiene Hexafluoro-1,3-Butadiene*, Sifren46, Perfluorobutadiene-1,3 00685-63-2 056 1,1-Difluoroethane* Ethylene fluoride, R152a, Algofrene Type 67 00075-37-6 088 1,2-Dichloro-1,1,2,2- tetrafluoroethane read more..

  • Page - 228

    222 9 Data Sheets Acetene Ethylene*, Olefiant gas, R1150, Bicar- burretted hydrogen, Etherin, Elayl, Ethene 00074-85-1 035 Acetylene* Ethine, Ethyne, Narcylene, Carbide gas, Dissousgas 00074-86-2 073 Aethylis chloridum Ethyl chloride*, Chlorethane , Muriatic ether, Kelene, Narcotile, Chelen ,Ether chloratus, R160 00075-00-3 017 AHF Hydrogen read more..

  • Page - 229

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 223 Bivinyl 1,3-Butadiene*, stabilized, Buta-1,3- diene, Divinyl, alpha-gamma-Butadiene, Erythrene, Pyrrolylene, Vinylethylene 00106-99-0 006 Boroethane Diborane*, Diboron hexahydride 19287-45-7 046 Boron trichloride* Trichloro borane 10294-34-5 002 Boron trifluoride* Trifluoroborane 07637-07-2 003 Boron trimethyl read more..

  • Page - 230

    224 9 Data Sheets Carbon dichloride oxide Phosgene*, Carbonyl chloride, Carbon oxychloride, Chloroformyl chloride, Diphosgene 00075-44-5 042 Carbonyl chloride Phosgene*, Carbon oxychloride, Chloro- formyl chloride, Carbon dichloride oxide, Diphosgene 00075-44-5 042 Carbonyl sulfide* Carbon oxide sulfide, Oxycarbonsulfide 00463-58-1 062 Celphos Phosphine*, read more..

  • Page - 231

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 225 cis-2-Butene* cis-2-Butylene, cis-But-2-ene, High-boiling Butene-2, (Z)-2-Butene 00590-18-1 010 cis-2-Butylene cis-2-Butene*, cis-But-2-ene, High-boiling Butene-2, (Z)-2-Butene 00590-18-1 010 cis-But-2-ene cis-2-Butene*, cis-2-Butylene, High-boiling Butene-2, (Z)-2-Butene 00590-18-1 010 Cryofluorane Dichlorotetrafluoroethane*, R114, read more..

  • Page - 232

    226 9 Data Sheets Difluoromonochloro- ethane* 1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, Chlorodi- fluoroethane, R142b, alpha- Cloroethylidene fluoride 00075-68-3 085 Difluoromonochloro- methane Chlorodifluoromethane*, R22 00075-45-6 016 Dihlorsilicane Dichlorosilane*, Silicon chloride hydride 04109-96-0 048 Dihydrogen Hydrogen*, Hydrogenium, Protium 07782-39-0 075 Dihydrogen read more..

  • Page - 233

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 227 Dowfume Methyl bromide*, Bromomethane, R40B1, Halon 1001, Rotox, Zytox, Pestmaster, Methogas 00074-83-9 084 Elayl Ethylene*, Acetene, Olefiant gas, R1150, Bicarburretted hydrogen, Etherin, Ethene 00074-85-1 035 Elegas Sulfur hexafluoride*, Sulphur hexafluoride 02551-62-4 053 Erythrene 1,3-Butadiene*, stabilized, read more..

  • Page - 234

    228 9 Data Sheets Ethylethyne 1-Butyne* inhibited, Ethylacetylene, But-1-yne 00107-00-6 013 Ethylhexafluoride Hexafluoroethane*, Perfluoroethane, R116 00076-16-4 055 Ethyne Acetylene*, Ethin, Narcylen, Carbide gas, Dissousgas 00074-86-2 073 Exhaust gas Carbon monoxide*, Monoxide of Carbon, Carbon oxide, , Flue gas 00630-08-0 078 F3N Nitrogen read more..

  • Page - 235

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 229 Halon 1301 Bromotrifluoromethane*, Bromofluoro- form, R13B1, Trifluoromono- bromomethane 00075-63-8 004 HBR Hydrogen bromide*, Hydro bromide acid – anhydrous 10035-10-6 005 Heavy Hydrogen Deuterium*, Diplogen, Hydrogen-D2 07782-39-0 076 Helium, compressed* R704, Helium-4 07440-59-7 067 Helium-4 Helium, compressed*, R704 read more..

  • Page - 236

    230 9 Data Sheets Hydrogen-D2 Deuterium*, Heavy Hydrogen, Diplogen 07782-39-0 076 Hydrogenium Hydrogen*, Dihydrogen, Protium 07782-39-0 075 Hydrogen sulfide* Dihydrogen monosulfide, Sulphuretted hydrogen 07783-06-4 045 Hydroselenic acid, anhydrous Hydrogen selenide, anhydrous*, Selenium hydride, Selane 07783-07-5 065 Hyperoxia Oxygen*, Oxygenium read more..

  • Page - 237

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 231 Methoxyethane Ethyl methyl ether*, Methyl ethyl ether, Ethoxymethane 00540-67-0 101 Methoxyethylene Vinyl methyl ether* stabilized, Methyl vinyl ether 00107-25-5 063 Methyamine* anhydrous Aminomethane, Mercurialin, Metha- namine, R630 00074-89-5 031 Methyl bromide* Bromomethane, R40B1, Halon 1001, Dowfume, Rotox, Zytox, read more..

  • Page - 238

    232 9 Data Sheets Muriatic ether Ethyl chloride*, Chlorethane, Kelene, Narcotile, Aethylis chloridum, Chelen, Ether chloratus, R160 00075-00-3 017 N,N-Dimethyl- methanamine Trimethylamine*anhydrous, TMA 00075-50-3 111 Narcotile Ethyl chloride*, Chlorethane, Muriatic ether, Kelene, Aethylis chloridum, Chelen, Ether chloratis, R160 00075-00-3 017 Narcylen read more..

  • Page - 239

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 233 Oxalonitril Cyanogen*, Dicyanogen, Ethane dinitril, Prussite, 00460-19-5 083 Oxirane Ethylene oxide*, 1,2-Epoxyethane, Oxacyclopropane 00075-21-8 040 Oxybismethane Dimethyl ether*, Methyl ether, Methoxy methane, Methyl oxide, Wood ether, 00115-10-6 066 Oxycarbonsulfide Carbonyl sulfide*, Carbon oxide sulfide read more..

  • Page - 240

    234 9 Data Sheets Propane* Dimethyl methane, Ethyl methyl, R290, Propyl hydrid, Liquefied Petroleum Gas(#) 00074-98-6 036 Propene* Propylene, Methyl ethylene, R1270, 1-Propene, Methylethene 00115-07-1 037 Propine Methylacetylene*, Allylene, Propyne, 1-Propyne 00074-99-7 106 Propyl hydrid Propane*, Dimethyl methane, Ethyl methyl, R290, Liquefied Petroleum read more..

  • Page - 241

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 235 R124a 1-Chloro-1,1,2,2-tertrafluoroethane 00354-25-6 114 R125 Pentafluoroethane*, 1,1,1,2,2- Penta- fluoroethane 00354-33-6 029 R1270 Propene*, Propylene, Methyl ethylene, 1-Propene, Methylethene 00115-07-1 037 R12B1 Bromochlorodifluoromethane*, Monochlorodifluoromonobromomethane, Halon 1211, Chlorodifluoro- bromomethane 00353-59-3 095 read more..

  • Page - 242

    236 9 Data Sheets R40B1 Methyl bromide*, Bromomethane, Halon 1001, Dowfume, Rotox, Zytox, Pestmaster, Methogas 00074-83-9 084 R41 Fluoromethane*, Methyl fluoride 00593-53-3 033 R50 Methane (compressed)*, Methyl hydride, Hydrogen bicarbide 00074-82-8 072 R600 Butane*; n-Butane, Diethyl, Methylethyl- methane 00106-97-8 007 R600a Isobutane*, read more..

  • Page - 243

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 237 Spirits of salt Hydrogen Chloride*, Muriatic Acid 07647-01-0 041 Stibine* Antimony trihydride, Hydrogen antimonide 07803-52-3 094 Sulfur dioxide liquefied* Sulphurous anhydride, R764, Fermen- ticide liquid 07446-09-5 044 Sulfur hexafluoride* Sulphur hexafluoride, Elegas 02551-62-4 053 Sulfur tetrafluoride* read more..

  • Page - 244

    238 9 Data Sheets trans-2-Butylene* trans-2-Butylene, trans-But-2-ene, beta-Butylene, Low boiling Butene-2, (E)-2-Butene 00624-64-6 011 trans-2-Butylene trans-2-Butene*, trans-But-2-ene, beta-Butylene, Low-boiling Butene-2, (E)-2-Butene 00624-64-6 011 trans-But-2-ene trans-2-Butene*, trans-2-Butylene, beta-Butylene, Low- boiling Butene-2, (E)-2-Butene 00624-64-6 011 read more..

  • Page - 245

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 239 Vinyl bromide, stabi- lized* Monobromoethylene, R1140B1, Bro- moethene 00593-60-2 096 Vinyl chloride* Chlorethene, R1140, Ethylene monochlo- ride 00075-01-4 018 Vinyl fluoride* Fluoroethylene, R1141 00075-02-5 103 Vinyl methyl ether* stabi- lized Methyl vinyl ether, Methoxyethylene 00107-25-5 063 Vinylethylene 1,3-Butadiene*, read more..

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    240 9 Data Sheets read more..

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    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 241 read more..

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    242 9 Data Sheets read more..

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    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 243 read more..

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    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 245 read more..

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    246 9 Data Sheets read more..

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    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 247 1,3-Butadiene, stabilized C4H6 DS006.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [15] 54.092 g/mol Triple Point at 0.69 mbar, [3], -108.91 0C (= -164.04 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion, [24] 147.62 kJ/kg (= 63.48 BTU/lb) Boiling Point read more..

  • Page - 254

    248 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS009.0 Date: 06-02-08 Name: 1-Butene Chemical Formula: C4H8 Synonyms: 1-Buthylene, alpha-Buthylene, read more..

  • Page - 255

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 249 1-Butene C4H8 DS009.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 56.108 g/mol read more..

  • Page - 256

    250 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS013.00 Date: 07-02-04 Name: 1-Butyne, inhibited read more..

  • Page - 257

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 251 1-Butyne, inhibited C4H6 DS013.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 54.092 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at read more..

  • Page - 258

    252 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS073.0 Date: 06-01-06 Name: Acetylene Chemical Formula: read more..

  • Page - 259

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 253 Acetylene C2H2 DS073.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] 26.038 read more..

  • Page - 260

    254 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS038.0 Date: 06-03-03 Name: Allene read more..

  • Page - 261

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 255 Allene C3H4 DS038.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] read more..

  • Page - 262

    256 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS074.0 Date: 07-09-10 Name: Ammonia, anhydrous read more..

  • Page - 263

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 257 Ammonia NH3 DS074.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass 17.031 g/mol Triple Point at 60.7 mbar, [5] -77.74 0C (= -107.93 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [24] read more..

  • Page - 264

    258 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS068.0 Date: 08-03-19 Name:Argon, compressed Chemical Formula: Ar Synonyms: R740 Properties: Compressed, non liquefied gas, non flammable, non-toxic, read more..

  • Page - 265

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 259 Argon, compressed Ar DS068.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 39.948 g/mol Triple Point at 0.689 bar, [28] -189.37 0C (=-308.87 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [24] read more..

  • Page - 266

    260 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS001.0 Date: 07-09-12 Name: Arsine Chemical Formula: AsH3 Synonyms: Arsenic read more..

  • Page - 267

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 261 Arsine AsH3 DS001.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [24] 77.945 g/mol Triple Point at 29,84 mbar, [28] -116.95 0C (= -178.51 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [10] read more..

  • Page - 268

    262 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS002.0 Date: 07-06-27 Name: Boron trichloride Chemical Formula: BCl3 Synonyms: Trichloro borane Properties: Low pressure read more..

  • Page - 269

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 263 Boron trichloride BCl3 DS002.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] 117.169 g/mol Triple Point at 37.3 mbar,[28] -107 0C (= -160.6 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp, [10] read more..

  • Page - 270

    264 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS003.0 Date: 07-06-28 Name: Boron trifluoride Chemical Formula: BF3 Synonyms: Trifluoroborane Properties: High pressure read more..

  • Page - 271

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 265 Boron trifluoride BF3 DS003.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] 67.806 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [24] -127.1 0C (= -196.78 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp, [10] read more..

  • Page - 272

    266 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS095.0 Date: 07-06-16 Name:Bromochlorodifluoromethane Chemical Formula: Synonyms: Monochlorodifluoromonobromomethane CBrClF2 R12B1, read more..

  • Page - 273

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 267 Bromochlorodifluoromethane CBrClF2 DS095.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 165.365 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] -159,50 0C (= -255,10 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp kJ/kg (= BTU/lb) Boiling Point Tbp read more..

  • Page - 274

    268 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS004.0 Date: 07-06-19 Name: Bromotrifluoromethane Chemical Formula: CBrF3 Synonyms: R13B1, Halon 1301, Trifluoromonobromomethane read more..

  • Page - 275

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 269 Bromotrifluoromethane CHBrF3 DS004.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 148.910 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] -168 0C (= -270.4 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp kJ/kg (= BTU/lb) Boiling Point Tbp read more..

  • Page - 276

    270 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS007.0 Date: 06-02-07 Name: Butane Chemical Formula: C4H10 Synonyms: n-Butane, Diethyl, R600, read more..

  • Page - 277

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 271 Butane C4H10 DS007.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 58,123 g/mol Triple Point at 0.004 mbar, [5], [10] -138.36 0C (= -217.05 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion, [10] read more..

  • Page - 278

    272 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS082.0 Date: 08-04-05 Name: Carbon dioxide Chemical Formula: read more..

  • Page - 279

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 273 Carbon dioxide CO2 DS082.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 44.010 g/mol Triple read more..

  • Page - 280

    274 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS078.0 Date: 08-04-03 Name: Carbon monoxide Chemical Formula: read more..

  • Page - 281

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 275 Carbon monoxide CO DS078.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 28.010 g/mol Triple Point at read more..

  • Page - 282

    276 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS062.0 Date: 08-06-27 Name: Carbonyl sulfide Chemical Formula: read more..

  • Page - 283

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 277 Carbonyl sulfide COS DS062.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] 60.076 g/mol Melting read more..

  • Page - 284

    278 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS015.0 Date: 07-09-14 Name: Chlorine read more..

  • Page - 285

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 279 Chlorine Cl2 DS015.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] read more..

  • Page - 286

    280 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS064.0 Date: 08-01-30 Name: Chlorine Trifluoride read more..

  • Page - 287

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 281 Chlorine Trifluoride ClF3 DS064.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] read more..

  • Page - 288

    282 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS016.0 Date: 07-06-13 Name:Chlorodifluoromethane Chemical Formula: read more..

  • Page - 289

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 283 Chlorodifluoromethane CHClF2 DS016.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 86.468 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] read more..

  • Page - 290

    284 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS086.0 Date: 07-06-08 Name:Chloropentafluoroethane Chemical read more..

  • Page - 291

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 285 Chloropentafluoroethane C2ClF5 DS086.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 154.467 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] read more..

  • Page - 292

    286 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS114.0 Date: 08-06-07 Name: 1-Chloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane Chem. read more..

  • Page - 293

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 287 1-Chloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane(R124a) C2HClF4 DS114.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 136.476 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] -117 0C (=-178.6 0F) Enthalpy of read more..

  • Page - 294

    288 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS115.0 Date: 08-02-11 Name: 2-Chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane Chem. Formula: read more..

  • Page - 295

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 289 2-Chloro-1,1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane(R124) C2HClF4 DS115.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 136.476 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] -117 0C (= -178.6 0F) Enthalpy read more..

  • Page - 296

    290 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS098.0 Date: 07-06-09 Name: Chlorotrifluoroethane Chemical Formula: C2H2ClF3 Synonyms: 1-Chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane, R133a, read more..

  • Page - 297

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 291 Chlorotrifluoroethane C2H2ClF3 DS098.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [12] 118.48 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [3] -105.45 0C (= -157.81 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp kJ/kg (= BTU/lb) Boiling Point read more..

  • Page - 298

    292 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS020.0 Date: 07-06-14 Name:Chlorotrifluoromethane Chemical Formula: CClF3 Synonyms: Trifluorochloromethane, R13 Properties: High read more..

  • Page - 299

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 293 Chlorotrifluoromethane CClF3 DS020.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 104.459 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] -181.15 0C (= -294.07 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp kJ/kg (= BTU/lb) Boiling Point read more..

  • Page - 300

    294 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS010.0 Date: 06-02-10 Name: cis-2-Butene read more..

  • Page - 301

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 295 cis-2-Butene C4H8 DS010.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 56.108 g/mol Triple read more..

  • Page - 302

    296 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS087.0 Date: 07-02-15 Name: Cyanogen read more..

  • Page - 303

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 297 Cyanogen (CN)2 DS087.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [15] 52.035 g/mol read more..

  • Page - 304

    298 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS097.0 Date: 07-09-16 Name: Cyanogen chloride, inhibited read more..

  • Page - 305

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 299 Cyanogen chloride CClN DS097.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass,[28] 27,0256 g/mol , Triple Point at read more..

  • Page - 306

    300 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS113.0 Date: 06-07-25 Name: Cyclobutane read more..

  • Page - 307

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 301 Cyclobutane C4H8 DS113.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 56.108 g/mol read more..

  • Page - 308

    302 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS014.0 Date: 06-07-24 Name: Cyclopropane read more..

  • Page - 309

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 303 Cyclopropane C3H6 DS014.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 42.081 g/mol Melting read more..

  • Page - 310

    304 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS076.0 Date: 08-02-07 Name: Deuterium read more..

  • Page - 311

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 305 Deuterium D2 DS076.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] read more..

  • Page - 312

    306 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS046.0 Date: 08-01-15 Name: Diborane Chemical Formula: B2H6 Synonyms: Boroethane, read more..

  • Page - 313

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 307 Diborane B2H6 DS046.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] 27.67 read more..

  • Page - 314

    308 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS021.0 Date: 07-06-14 Name:Dichlorodifluoromethane Chem. Formula: read more..

  • Page - 315

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 309 Dichlorodifluoromethane CCl2F2 DS021.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 120.913 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] read more..

  • Page - 316

    310 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS022.0 Date: 07-06-15 Name:Dichlorofluoromethane* Chem. Formula: CHCl2F read more..

  • Page - 317

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 311 Dichlorofluoromethane CHCl2F DS022.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 102.923 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] read more..

  • Page - 318

    312 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS085.0 Date: 07-06-12 Name: Difluoromonochloroethane Chemical Formula: Synonyms: 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, R142b, C2H3ClF2 read more..

  • Page - 319

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 313 Difluoromonochloroethane C2H3ClF2 DS085.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 100.495 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] -130.8 0C (= -203.44 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp, [10] read more..

  • Page - 320

    314 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS100.0 Date: 07-06-16 Name: Dichlorotetrafluoroethane Chem. Formula: Synonyms: 1,2-Dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, read more..

  • Page - 321

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 315 read more..

  • Page - 322

    316 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet 048.0 Date: 08-01-22 Name: Dichlorosilane read more..

  • Page - 323

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 317 Dichlorosilane SiH2Cl2 DS048.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] 101.007 g/mol Melting Point Tmp read more..

  • Page - 324

    318 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS085.0 Date: 07-06-12 Name: Difluoromonochloroethane* read more..

  • Page - 325

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 319 Difluoromonochloroethane C2H3ClF2 DS085.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 100.495 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] read more..

  • Page - 326

    320 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS032.0 Date: 07-02-03 Name: Dimethylamine, anhydrous Chem. Formula: read more..

  • Page - 327

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 321 Dimethylamine, anhydrous C2H7N DS032.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 45.084 g/mol Triple Point at 1 mbar, [10] read more..

  • Page - 328

    322 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS066.0 Date: 06-03-04 Name: Dimethyl ether read more..

  • Page - 329

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 323 Dimethyl ether C2H6O DS066.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 46.069 g/mol Melting read more..

  • Page - 330

    324 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS092.0 Date: 07-07-20 Name: Dimethyl silane read more..

  • Page - 331

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 325 Dimethyl silane C2H8Si DS092.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [28] 60.171 g/mol Melting read more..

  • Page - 332

    326 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS083.0 Date: 08-04-17 Name: Dinitrogen oxide read more..

  • Page - 333

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 327 Dinitrogen oxide N2O DS083.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 44.013 g/mol Triple Point read more..

  • Page - 334

    328 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS049.0 Date: 07-07-22 Name: Disilane read more..

  • Page - 335

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 329 Disilane Si2H6 DS049.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] read more..

  • Page - 336

    330 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS034.0 Date: 09-03-06 Name: Ethane read more..

  • Page - 337

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 331 Ethane C2H6 DS034.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] read more..

  • Page - 338

    332 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS017.0 Date: 07-05-30 Name: Ethyl chloride read more..

  • Page - 339

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 333 Ethyl chloride C2H5Cl DS017.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 64.514 g/mol Melting Point read more..

  • Page - 340

    334 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS101.0 Date: 06-03-20 Name: Ethyl methyl ether read more..

  • Page - 341

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 335 Ethyl methyl ether C3H8O DS101.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 60.096 g/mol Melting Point Tmp read more..

  • Page - 342

    336 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS039.9 Date: 07-02-03 Name: Ethylamine read more..

  • Page - 343

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 337 Ethylamine C2H7N DS039.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 45.084 g/mol Triple Point at read more..

  • Page - 344

    338 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS035.0 Date: 06-03-18 Name: Ethylene read more..

  • Page - 345

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 339 Ethylene C2H4 DS035.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] read more..

  • Page - 346

    340 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS040.0 Date: 08-04-14 Name: Ethylene oxide read more..

  • Page - 347

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 341 Ethylene oxide C2H4O DS040.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] 44.053 g/mol Melting Point read more..

  • Page - 348

    342 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS051.0 Date: 08-02-22 Name: Fluorine read more..

  • Page - 349

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 343 Fluorine F2 DS051.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] read more..

  • Page - 350

    344 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS102.0 Date: 07-02-21 Name: Fluoroethane read more..

  • Page - 351

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 345 Fluoroethane C2H5F DS102.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 48.060 g/mol Melting read more..

  • Page - 352

    346 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS033.0 Date: 07-02-23 Name: Fluoromethane read more..

  • Page - 353

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 347 Fluoromethane CH3F DS033.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 34.033 g/mol Melting read more..

  • Page - 354

    348 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS058.0 Date: 08-03-05 Name: Germanium Tetrafluoride Chem. Formula: read more..

  • Page - 355

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 349 Germanium Tetrafluoride GeF4 DS058.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [6] 148.59 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 4.0 bar, [2] read more..

  • Page - 356

    350 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS059.0 Date: 09-03-29 Name: Germanium Tetrahydride Chemical Form.: read more..

  • Page - 357

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 351 Germanium Tetrahydride GeH4 DS059.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] 76.642 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [2] read more..

  • Page - 358

    352 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS067.0 Date: 08-03-21 Name: Helium, compressed Chemical Formula: He2 Synonyms: R704, He-4 read more..

  • Page - 359

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 353 read more..

  • Page - 360

    354 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS104.0 Date: 07-02-25 Name: Heptafluoropropane Chemical Formula: C3HF7 Synonyms: 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane, R227 read more..

  • Page - 361

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 355 Heptafluoropropane C3HF7 DS104.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 170,03 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [18] -131 0C (= -203.8 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp kJ/kg (= BTU/lb) read more..

  • Page - 362

    356 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS056.0 Date: 07-03-01 Name:Hexafluoro-1,3-Butadiene Chemical Formula: C4F6 Synonyms: 1,1,2,3,4,4-Hexafluoro-1,3-Butadiene, Sifren46, read more..

  • Page - 363

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 357 Hexafluoro-1,3-Butadiene C4F6 DS056.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [17,*] 162.03 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [*] -130 0C (= -202 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp kJ/kg (= BTU/lb) Boiling Point Tbp at read more..

  • Page - 364

    358 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS055.0 Date: 07-02-26 Name: Hexafluoroethane Chemical Formula: C2F6 Synonyms: Perfluoroethane, Ethylhexafluoride, R116 read more..

  • Page - 365

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 359 Hexafluoroethane C2F6 DS055.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 138.012 g/mol Triple Point at 0.265 bar, [5] -100.10 0C (= -148.18 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [24] read more..

  • Page - 366

    360 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS116.0 Date: 07-02-27 Name: Hexafluoropropylene Chemical Formula: C3F6 Synonyms: 1,1,2,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-1-propene, Perfluoropropene, HFP, read more..

  • Page - 367

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 361 read more..

  • Page - 368

    362 9 Data Sheets 1 12 H read more..

  • Page - 369

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 363 Hydrogen H2 DS075.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [3] 2.0158 g/mol Triple Point, [3] ortho para 13.957 K read more..

  • Page - 370

    364 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS005.0 Date: 07-06-26 Name: Hydrogen bromide Chemical Formula: HBr Synonyms: Hydro bromide acid-anhydrous, HBR Properties: Low pressure read more..

  • Page - 371

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 365 Hydrogen bromide HBr DS005.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 80.912 g/mol Triple Point at 0.299 bar, [10, 28] -86.81 0C (= -124.26 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp, [10] read more..

  • Page - 372

    366 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS041.0 Date: 08-01-02 Name: Hydrogen chloride anhydrous Chem. Formula: HCl Synonyms: Hydrochloric Acid gas, Spirits of salt, Muriatic Acid Properties: read more..

  • Page - 373

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 367 read more..

  • Page - 374

    368 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS112.0 Date: 08-01-08 Name: Hydrogen cyanide, stabilized Chem. Formula: HCN Synonyms: Hydrovyanic acid(anhydrous), Formonitrile, Prussic acid (anhydrous) read more..

  • Page - 375

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 369 Hydrogen cyanide, stabilized HCN DS112.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [28] 27.0256 g/mol , Triple Point at 0.187 bar, [24] -13.24 0C (=+8.17 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [24] read more..

  • Page - 376

    370 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS060.0 Date: 08-02-29 Name: Hydrogen fluoride, anhydrous Chemical Formula: Synonyms: Hydrofluoric acid gas, Fluorhydric acid gas, AHF read more..

  • Page - 377

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 371 Hydrogen fluoride, anhydrous HF DS060.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 20.006 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [24] -83.36 0C (= -118.05 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [24] read more..

  • Page - 378

    372 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS090.0 Date: 08-04-07 Name:Hydrogen iodide, anhydrous Chemical Formula: HI Synonyms: hydriodic acid anhydrous, Properties: High pressure liquefied gas, non flammable, read more..

  • Page - 379

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 373 Hydrogen iodide, anhydrous HI DS090.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 127.912 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] -50.77 0C (= -59.39 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [24] read more..

  • Page - 380

    374 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS065.0 Date: 08-07-16 Name: Hydrogen selenide, anhydrous Chemical Formula: Synonyms: Selenium hydride, Hydroselenic acid, anhydrous H2Se read more..

  • Page - 381

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 375 Hydrogen selenide H2Se DS065.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 80.976 g/mol Triple Point at 0.2738 bar, [3] -65.73 0C (= -86.31 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , read more..

  • Page - 382

    376 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS045.0 Date: 08-07-11 Name: Hydrogen sulphide Chemical Formula: H2S Synonyms: Dihydrogen monosulphide, Sulphuretted hydrogen H2-S Properties: Low pressure liquefied read more..

  • Page - 383

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 377 Hydrogen sulphide H2S DS045.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5,9] 34.082 g/mol Triple Point at 0.227 bar, [5, 10] -85.53 0C (= -121.95 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [24] read more..

  • Page - 384

    378 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS008.0 Date: 06-02-20 Name: Isobutane Chemical Formula: C4H10 Synonyms: i-Butane, i-Methyl ethyl read more..

  • Page - 385

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 379 Isobutane C4H10 DS008.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 58.123 g/mol Triple Point at 0.05 mbar, [5, 10] -159.61 0C (= 255.3 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion , [10] read more..

  • Page - 386

    380 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS012.0 Date: 06-02-12 Name: Isobutene Chemical Formula: C4H8 Synonyms: Isobuthylene, 2-Methylpropene, read more..

  • Page - 387

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 381 Isobutene C4H8 DS012.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 56.108 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] -140.34 0C (= -220.61 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp, [24] read more..

  • Page - 388

    382 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS070.0 Date: 08-03-28 Name: Krypton, compressed Chemical Formula: Kr Synonyms: Properties: Compressed gas, non flammable, non-toxic, colourless, odourless, extremely read more..

  • Page - 389

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 383 read more..

  • Page - 390

    384 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS077.0 Date: 08-03-31 Name: Methane, compressed Chemical Formula: CH4 Synonyms: Methyl hydride, Natural gas, Hydrogen bicarbide, R50, Properties:Non-liquefied, read more..

  • Page - 391

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 385 Methane,compressed CH4 DS077.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 16.043 g/mol Triple Point at 0.117 bar, [3] -182.47 0C (= -296.45 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [24] 58.65 read more..

  • Page - 392

    386 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS106.0 Date: 06-03-02 Name: Methylacetylene Chemical Formula: C3H4 Synonyms: Allylene, Propine, Propyne, 1-Propyne H3C-C read more..

  • Page - 393

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 387 Methylacetylene C3H4 DS106.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 40.065 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] -102.65 0C (= -152.77 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp kJ/kg (= read more..

  • Page - 394

    388 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS031.01 Date: 07-02-03 Name:Methylamine anhydrous Chemical Formula: CH5N Synonyms: Aminomethane, Mercuralin, Methanamine, R630 H3C- NH2 read more..

  • Page - 395

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 389 Methylamine anhydrous CH5N DS031.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 31.057 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar*, [5] -93.46 0C (= -136.23 0F) Enthalpy of read more..

  • Page - 396

    390 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS084.0 Date: 07-06-24 Name: Methyl bromide Chemical Formula: CH3Br Synonyms: Bromomethane, R40B1, Halon 1001, Dowfume, read more..

  • Page - 397

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 391 Methyl bromide CH3Br DS084.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] 94.939 g/mol Triple Point at 0.2 mbar, [28] -93.7 0C (= -136.66 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [10] read more..

  • Page - 398

    392 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS019.0 Date: 07-06-03 Name: Methyl chloride Chemical Formula: CH3Cl Synonyms: Chloromethane, R40 read more..

  • Page - 399

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 393 Methyl chloride CH3Cl DS019.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 50.488 g/mol Triple Point at 8.7 mbar, [5] -97.71 0C (= -143.88 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp, [10] read more..

  • Page - 400

    394 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS061.0 Date: 07-02-04 Name: Methyl mercaptane Chemical Formula: CH4S Synonyms: Methanethiol, Methylsulhydrate read more..

  • Page - 401

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 395 Methyl mercaptan CH4S DS061.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 48.109 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] -122.97 0C (= -189.35 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp, [10] read more..

  • Page - 402

    396 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS091.0 Date: 07-07-17 Name: Methyl silane Chemical Formula: CH6Si Synonyms: Silicoethane read more..

  • Page - 403

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 397 Methyl silane CH6Si DS091.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [21] 46.145 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [21] -156.4 0C (= -249.52 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at read more..

  • Page - 404

    398 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS069.0 Date: 08-03-25 Name: Neon, compressed Chemical Formula: Ne Synonyms: Properties: Compressed gas, non flammable, non-toxic, colourless, odourless, read more..

  • Page - 405

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 399 Neon, compressed Ne DS069.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 20.180 g/mol Triple Point at 0.433 bar, [5] -248.59 0C (= -415.46 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [24] read more..

  • Page - 406

    400 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS079.0 Date: 08-07-29 Name:Nitric oxide Chemical Formula: NO Synonyms: Nitrogen monoxide, Mononitrogen monoxide Properties: Low pressure liquefied gas, non flammable, read more..

  • Page - 407

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 401 Nitric oxide NO DS079.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 30.006 g/mol Triple Point at 0.219 bar, [5, 10] -163.64 0C (= -262.55 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , read more..

  • Page - 408

    402 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS072.0 Date: 08-07-20 Name:Nitrogen, compressed Chemical Formula: N2 Synonyms: Nitrogen gas, Nitrogenium, R728 Properties:Non-liquefied, compressed gas, non flammable, non read more..

  • Page - 409

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 403 Nitrogen, compressed N2 DS072.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 28.014 g/mol Triple Point at 0.1253 bar, [5, 10] -210.00 0C (=-346 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [24] read more..

  • Page - 410

    404 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS080.0 Date: 08-07-25 Name: Nitrogen dioxide, liquified Chemical Formula: Synonyms: Dinitrogen tetraoxide, nitrogen peroxide NO2 ( N2O4 ) read more..

  • Page - 411

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 405 Nitrogen dioxide, liqufied NO2 DS080.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass,[5, 1] 46.006 ( 92.011 ) g/mol Triple Point at 0.186 bar, [5, 10] -11.20 0C (= + 11.84 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , read more..

  • Page - 412

    406 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS057.0 Date: 07-07-14 Name: Nitrogen trifluoride Chemical Formula: NF3 Synonyms: Perfluoroammonia, Trifluoroammonia, Trifluoroamine, read more..

  • Page - 413

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 407 Nitrogen trifluoride NF3 DS057.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 71.002 g/mol Triple Point at 1.85 mbar, [28] -207.14 0C (= -340.85 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp, [24] read more..

  • Page - 414

    408 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS027.0 Date: 07-03-03 Name: Octafluorocyclobutane* Chemical Formula: C4F8 Synonyms: Perfluorocyclobutane, RC318, Cyclooctafluorobutane (CF2)4 Properties: Low read more..

  • Page - 415

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 409 Octafluorocyclobutane C4F8 DS027.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 200.031 g/mol Triple Point at 0.191 bar, [5] - 40.19 0C (= - 40.34 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [24] read more..

  • Page - 416

    410 9 Data Sheets read more..

  • Page - 417

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 411 Octafluorotetrahydrofuran C4F8O DS105.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [17] 216.03 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar*, Triple Point 0C (= 0F) read more..

  • Page - 418

    412 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS081.0 Date: 08-06-29 Name: Oxygen* Chemical Formula: O2 Synonyms: Oxygenium, Dioxygen, Hyperoxia Properties:Non-liquefied, compressed gas, non flammable, colourless, odourless, with read more..

  • Page - 419

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 413 Oxygen O2 DS081.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 31.999 g/mol , Triple Point at 1.52 mbar, [5, 10] -218.79 0C (= -361.82 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [24] read more..

  • Page - 420

    414 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS029.0 Date: 07-03-08 Name: Pentafluoroethane Chemical Formula: C2HF5 Synonyms: 1,1,1,2,2-Pentafluoroethane, R125 read more..

  • Page - 421

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 415 Pentafluoroethane C2HF5 DS029.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 120.022 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] -103 0C (= -153.4 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp kJ/kg (= BTU/lb) read more..

  • Page - 422

    416 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS028.0 Date: 07-03-05 Name: Perfluoropropane Chemical Formula: C3F8 Synonyms: Octafluoropropane, R218 read more..

  • Page - 423

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 417 Perfluoropropane C3F8 DS028.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 188.020 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [10,22] -183 0C (= -297.4 0F) Triple point at ? bar , [28] -148.3 0C (= -234.94 0F) Enthalpy of read more..

  • Page - 424

    418 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS042.0 Date: 08-04-08 Name: Phosgene Chemical Formula: COCl2 Synonyms: Carbonyl chloride, Carbon oxychloride, Chloroformyl chloride, read more..

  • Page - 425

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 419 read more..

  • Page - 426

    420 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS043.0 Date: 08-04-10 Name: Phosphine Chemical Formula: PH3 Synonyms: hydrogen phosphide, Celphos, Delicia, Detia gas EX-B, read more..

  • Page - 427

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 421 Phosphine PH3 DS043.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 33.998 g/mol Triple Point at 3.6 mbar, [10] -133.78 0C (= -208.8 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [24] read more..

  • Page - 428

    422 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS036.0 Date: 06-02-21 Name: Propane Chemical Formula: C3H8 Synonyms: Dimethyl methane, Ethyl methyl, read more..

  • Page - 429

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 423 Propane C3H8 DS036.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 44.097 g/mol Triple Point at 3 x 10-6 mbar, [5, 10] -187.68 0C (= -305.82 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion , [10] read more..

  • Page - 430

    424 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS037.0 Date: 06-03-02 Name: Propene Chemical Formula: C3H6 Synonyms: Propylene, Methyl ethylene, read more..

  • Page - 431

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 425 Propene C3H6 DS037.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 42,081 g/mol Triple Point at 4 x 10-6 mbar, [5,10] -185.26 0C (= 301.47 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion, [10] read more..

  • Page - 432

    426 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS047.0 Date: 07-07-24 Name: Silane Chemical Formula: SiH4 Synonyms: Monosilane, Silicane, Silicon read more..

  • Page - 433

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 427 Silane SiH4 DS047.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] 32.117 g/mol Triple Point at less than 1 mbar, [10] -186.4 0C (= -303.52 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [10] read more..

  • Page - 434

    428 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet MS050.0 Date: 07-07-14 Name: Silicon tetrafluoride Chemical Formula: SiF4 Synonyms: Tetrafluorosilane, Silicon fluoride, Perfluorosilane, F4Si read more..

  • Page - 435

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 429 Silicon tetrafluoride SiF4 DS050.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] 104.079 g/mol Triple Point at 2.24 bar, [3, 6] -86.6 0C (= -124.24 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [24] read more..

  • Page - 436

    430 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS044.0 Date: 07-07-09 Name:Sulfur dioxide, liquefied Chemical Formula: SO2 Synonyms: Sulphurous anhydride, Fermenticide liquid, R764 Properties: Low read more..

  • Page - 437

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 431 Sulfur dioxide, liquefied SO2 DS044.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 64.065 g/mol Triple Point at 16.8 mbar, [28] -75.48 0C (= -104.44 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp, [10] read more..

  • Page - 438

    432 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS053.0 Date: 07-07-10 Name: Sulfur hexafluoride Chemical Formula: SF6 Synonyms: Sulphur hexafluoride, Elegas Properties: read more..

  • Page - 439

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 433 Sulfur hexafluoride SF6 DS053.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 146.056 g/mol Triple Point at 2.24 bar, [5, 10] -50,7 0C (= -59.62 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp, [10] read more..

  • Page - 440

    434 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS107.0 Date: 07-07-11 Name: Sulfur tetrafluoride Chemical Formula: SF4 Synonyms: Tetrafluorosulfurane, Sulphur tetrafluoride Properties: Low pressure read more..

  • Page - 441

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 435 Sulfur tetrafluoride SF4 DS107.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 108.060 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] -125 0C (= -193 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp kJ/kg (= read more..

  • Page - 442

    436 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS108.0 Date: 07-07-15 Name: Sulfuryl fluoride Chemical Formula: SO2F2 Synonyms: Sulphuric oxyfluoride, Sulphuryl difluoride, Vikane read more..

  • Page - 443

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 437 Sulfuryl fluoride SO2F2 DS108.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] 102.062 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [24] -137.33 0C (= -212.48 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp, [24] read more..

  • Page - 444

    438 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS094.0 Date: 07-09-11 Name: Stibine Chemical Formula: SbH3 Synonyms: Antimony trihydride, Hydrogen read more..

  • Page - 445

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 439 Stibine SbH3 DS094.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [28] 124,774 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [28] -88.45 0C (= -127.21 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp read more..

  • Page - 446

    440 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS026.0 Date: 07-03-09 Name: Tetrafluoroethane Chemical Formula: C2H2F4 Synonyms: 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, R134a read more..

  • Page - 447

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 441 Tetrafluoroethane C2H2F4 DS026.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 105.032 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] -101 0C (= -149.8 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp kJ/kg (= BTU/lb) read more..

  • Page - 448

    442 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS109.0 Date: 07-03-11 Name: Tetrafluoroethylene, inhibited Chem. Formula: C2F4 Synonyms: 1,1,2,2-Tetrafluoroethylene, TFE, read more..

  • Page - 449

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 443 Tetrafluoroethylene inhibited C2F4 DS109.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 100.016 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, * [24] -131.15 0C (= -104.15 0F) Triple Point at 0.01168 bar [28] -132.25 0C (= -104.25 0F) read more..

  • Page - 450

    444 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS025.0 Date: 07-03-13 Name: Tetrafluoromethane* Chemical Formula: CF4 Synonyms: Carbon tetrafluoride, R14, Perfluoromethane, read more..

  • Page - 451

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 445 Tetrafluoromethane CF4 DS025.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 88.005 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [5] -183.60 0C (= -298.48 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [10] read more..

  • Page - 452

    446 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS011.0 Date: 06-02-11 Name: trans-2-Butene Chemical Formula: C4H8 Synonyms: trans-2-Buthylen, trans-But-2-ene, read more..

  • Page - 453

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 447 trans-2-Butene C4H8 DS011.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 56.108 g/mol Triple Point at 0.54 mbar, [10] -105.57 0C (= -158.03 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion, [24] read more..

  • Page - 454

    448 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS099.0 Date: 07-06-10 Name: Trifluorochloroethylene, inhibited Chem. Formula: Synonyms: Chlorotrifluoroethene, R1113, CTFE, Trithene C2ClF3 read more..

  • Page - 455

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 449 Trifluorochloroethylene,inhibited C2ClF3 DS099.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] 116.47 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [10] -158.10 0C (= -252.58 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp [10] 27.72 kJ/kg (= 11.92 BTU/lb) [24] 47.68 kJ/kg (= 20.5 BTU/lb) Boiling Point read more..

  • Page - 456

    450 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS110.0 Date: 07-02-04 Name:Trimethylamine anhydrous Chem. Formula: C3H9N Synonyms: N,N-Dimethylmethanamine, TMA read more..

  • Page - 457

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 451 read more..

  • Page - 458

    452 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS111.0 Date: 08-07-29 Name: Trimethylboron Chem. Formula: BC3H9 Synonyms: Boron trimethyl, Trimethylborane, TMB B(CH3)3 Properties: read more..

  • Page - 459

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 453 Trimethylboron BCl3H9 DS111.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [21] 55.916 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [*] -161.5 0C (= -258.7 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp Boiling Point Tbp at 1.013 bar, [*] -20.2 0C (= -4.36 0F) Enthalpy of read more..

  • Page - 460

    454 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS052.0 Date: 07-07-16 Name: Trimethylsilane Chemical Formula: SiC3H10 Synonyms: read more..

  • Page - 461

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 455 Trimethylsilane SiC3H10 DS052.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [28] 74.198 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [24] -135.89 0C (= -212.6 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp kJ/kg (= read more..

  • Page - 462

    456 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS054.0 Date: 07-07-13 Name: Tungsten hexafluoride Chem. Formula: WF6 Synonyms: Wolfram hexafluoride, F6W, Hexafluorotungsten Properties: Low read more..

  • Page - 463

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 457 Tungsten hexafluoride WF6 DS054.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] 297.830 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [24] -0.5 0C (= +31.1 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp, [24] read more..

  • Page - 464

    458 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS096.0 Date: 07-06-20 Name:Vinyl bromide, stabilized Chem. Formula: C2H3Br Synonyms: Bromoethene, R1140B1, Monobromoethylene H2C=CHBr Properties: Low read more..

  • Page - 465

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 459 Vinyl bromide, stabilized C2H3Br DS096.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [10] 106.955 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [24] -137.8 0C (= -216.04 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp, [24] read more..

  • Page - 466

    460 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS018.0 Date: 07-06-01 Name: Vinyl chloride, stabilized Chem. Formula: C2H3Cl Synonyms: Chloroethene, R1140, Ethylene monochloride H2C=CHCl Properties: read more..

  • Page - 467

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 461 Vinyl chloride, stabilized C2H3Cl DS018.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [10] 62.499 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [10] -153.10 0C (= -243.58 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp , [10] read more..

  • Page - 468

    462 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS103.0 Date: 07-02-22 Name: Vinyl fluoride, stabilized Chem. Formula: C2H3F Synonyms: Fluoroethylene, R1141 read more..

  • Page - 469

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 463 Vinyl fluoride, stabilized C2H3F DS103.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [24] 46.044 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [13] -160.5 0C (= -256.9 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp read more..

  • Page - 470

    464 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS063.0 Date: 07-02-04 Name:Vinyl methyl ether, stabilized Chem. Formula:C3H6O Synonyms: Methyl vinyl ether, Methoxyethylene H3C-O-CH=CH2 read more..

  • Page - 471

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 465 Vinyl methyl ether, stabilized C3H6O DS063.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [11] 58.080 g/mol Melting Point Tmp at 1.013 bar, [10] -122 0C (= -187.6 0F) Enthalpy of Fusion at Tmp, [10] read more..

  • Page - 472

    466 9 Data Sheets H.Schön: Handbook of Purified Gases Data Sheet DS071.0 Date: 08-02-29 Name: Xenon, Chemical Formula: Xe Synonyms: Xenon, compressed Properties:High read more..

  • Page - 473

    9.3 Synonyms and Data Sheets 467 Xenon Xe DS071.0 Physical Data: Molar Mass, [5] 131.290 g/mol Triple Point at 0.816 bar, [5] -11.90 0C (=-169.42 0F) Enthalpy of read more..

  • Page - 474

    10 Appendix 10.1 Important Physical Constants Table T10.1-1: Constants Designation Symbol (in this book) Numerical value Unit Avogadro constant kAvogadro 6.022137 · 10 23 parts • mol –1 Boltzmann constant kBoltzmann 1.38066 · 10 –23 J · K –1 Unit charge (electron) −1.602177 · 10 –19 C (Coulomb) Faraday constant read more..

  • Page - 475

    470 10 Appendix Table T10.2-2: Decimal multiples and submultiples of SI units Decimal multiple Prefix Symbol Decimal multiple Prefix Symbol 10 deca da 10 –1 deci d 10 2 hecto h 10 –2 centi c 10 3 kilo k 10 –3 milli m 10 6 mega M 10 –6 micro μ 10 9 giga G 10 –9 nano n 10 12 tera T 10 read more..

  • Page - 476

    10.3 Pressure Units 471 10.3 Pressure Units Table T10.3-1: Conversion of pressure units common in Anglo-Saxon countries. Pa bar psi inch Hg inch H2O pdl · in –2 tonf · in –2 Pa 1 10 –5 1.4504 · 10 –4 2.9528 · 10 –4 4.0146 · 10 –3 4.6666 · 10 –3 6.4750 · 10 –8 bar 10− 5 1 14.504 read more..

  • Page - 477

    472 10 Appendix 10.4 Material Data on the Vapour-Pressure Curve The data were taken from the Handbook of Gases by (Messer Griesheim 1989) . If interim values are needed then a linear interpolation is only suitable for approxi- mations, as according to Eq. (2.2.2-5) the decadal logarithm of the vapour pressure pD is a function of read more..

  • Page - 478

    10.4 Material Data on the Vapour-Pressure Curve 473 Table T10.4-1: (continued) 106.00 5.092 1.270 25.81 144.5 108.00 5.846 1.255 29.42 142.3 110.00 6.678 1.240 33.42 140.0 112.00 7.591 1.255 37.82 137.6 114.00 8.592 1.210 42.66 135.1 116.00 9.683 1.194 47.99 132.5 118.00 10.87 1.177 53.84 129.7 120.00 12.16 1.160 60.27 126.8 122.00 13.55 1.143 67.33 123.7 read more..

  • Page - 479

    474 10 Appendix Table T10.4-3: Ethane T in [K] pD in [bar] ϕ fl in [kg · l –1] ϕ gasf in [kg·m –3] ΔH vap [J · g –1] 90.348 1.131 · 10 –5 0.6519 4.556 · 10 –5 595.6 95.00 3.622 · 10 –5 0.6466 1.379 · 10 –4 590.5 100.00 1.109 · 10 –4 0.6411 4.014 · 10 –4 584.9 read more..

  • Page - 480

    10.4 Material Data on the Vapour-Pressure Curve 475 Table T10.4-4: Ethene T in [K] pD in [bar] ϕ fl in [kg · l –1] ϕ gasf in [kg·m –3] ΔH vap [J · g –1] 103.986 1.213 · 10 –3 0.6549 3.999 · 10 –5 568.0 105.00 1.449 · 10 –3 0.6544 4.658 · 10 –3 566.6 110.00 3.304 · 10 –3 read more..

  • Page - 481

    476 10 Appendix Table T10.4-5: Helium-4 T in [K] pD in [bar] ϕ fl in [kg · l –1] ϕ gasf in [kg·m –3] ΔH vap [J · g –1] 2.177 5.035 · 10 –2 0.1462 1.177 2.20 5.326 · 10 –2 0.1441 1.235 22.22 2.30 6.717 · 10 –2 0.1458 1.503 22.33 2.40 8.337 · 10 –2 0.1453 1.805 22.47 2.50 read more..

  • Page - 482

    10.4 Material Data on the Vapour-Pressure Curve 477 Table T10.4-7: i-Butane T in [K] pD in [bar] ϕ fl in [kg · l –1] ϕ gasf in [kg·m –3] ΔH vap [J · g –1] 113.55 1.948 · 10 –7 0.7417 1.199 · 10 –6 484.6 120.00 9.564 · 10 –7 0.7351 5.572 · 10 –6 479.2 130.00 8.016 · 10 read more..

  • Page - 483

    478 10 Appendix Table T10.4-8: Carbon dioxide T in [K] pD in [bar] ϕ fl in [kg · l –1] ϕ gasf in [kg·m –3] ΔH vap [J · g –1] 216.58 5.180 1.1784 14.042 344.23 218.00 5.508 1.1734 14.840 342.88 220.00 5.996 1.1662 16.034 340.73 222.00 6.515 1.1590 17.315 338.27 224.00 7.068 1.1516 18.686 335.59 226.00 7.654 1.1442 read more..

  • Page - 484

    10.4 Material Data on the Vapour-Pressure Curve 479 Table T10.4-9: Carbon monoxide T in [K] pD in [bar] ϕ fl in [kg · l –1] ϕ gasf in [kg · m –3] ΔH vap [J · g –1] 68.127 01540 0.84731 0.769 232.56 70.000 0.2100 0.83981 1.023 230.33 72.000 0.2866 0.83171 1.362 227.87 74.000 0.3839 0.82356 1.783 read more..

  • Page - 485

    480 10 Appendix Table T10.4-10: Krypton T in [K] pD in [bar] ϕ fl in [kg · l –1] ϕ gasf in [kg · m –3] ΔH vap [J · g –1] 115.777 0.73055 2.442 6.5280 109.05 116.000 0.74439 2.440 6.6413 108.96 117.000 0.80901 2.433 7.1673 108.56 118.000 0.87786 2.426 7.7249 108.15 119.000 0.95112 2.418 8.3135 107.75 119.802 read more..

  • Page - 486

    10.4 Material Data on the Vapour-Pressure Curve 481 Table T10.4-11: (continued) 122.00 2.205 0.4070 3.720 489.9 124.00 2.523 0.4039 4.214 485.5 126.00 2.873 0.4008 4.756 481.0 128.00 3.258 0.3976 5.348 476.4 130.00 3.681 0.3943 5.995 471.5 132.00 4.142 0.3910 6.700 466.5 134.00 4.645 0.3877 7.466 461.3 136.00 5.191 0.3842 8.297 456.0 138.00 5.783 read more..

  • Page - 487

    482 10 Appendix Table T10.4-12: Neon T in [K] pD in [bar] ϕ fl in [kg · l –1] ϕ gasf in [kg · m –3] ΔH vap [J · g –1] 24.562 0.4338 1.2491 4.409 89.1422 25 0.5089 1.2420 5.101 88.6114 26 0.7165 1.2257 6.968 87.3735 27 0.9831 1.2089 9.309 86.0731 27.100 1.01325 1.2071 9.569 85.9393 28 read more..

  • Page - 488

    10.4 Material Data on the Vapour-Pressure Curve 483 Table T10.4-13: (continued) 122.00 2.205 0.4070 3.720 489.9 124.00 2.523 0.4039 4.214 485.5 126.00 2.873 0.4008 4.756 481.0 128.00 3.258 0.3976 5.348 476.4 130.00 3.681 0.3943 5.995 471.5 132.00 4.142 0.3910 6.700 466.5 134.00 4.645 0.3877 7.466 461.3 136.00 5.191 0.3842 8.297 456.0 138.00 5.783 read more..

  • Page - 489

    484 10 Appendix Table T10.4-14: Propene T in [K] pD in [bar] ϕ fl in [kg · l –1] ϕ gasf in [kg · m –3] ΔH vap [J · g –1] 87.89 9.5402 · 10 –9 0.76884 5.4938 · 10 –8 569.23 90 2.0530 · 10 –8 0.76643 1.1545 · 10 –7 566.18 95 1.0871 · 10 –7 0.76067 5.7918 · 10 –7 read more..

  • Page - 490

    10.4 Material Data on the Vapour-Pressure Curve 485 Table T10.4-14: (continued) 315 17.225 0.47296 37.394 298.84 320 19.231 0.46261 42.351 286.60 325 21.404 0.45165 47.977 273.46 330 23.751 0.43996 54.407 259.27 335 26.284 0.42736 61.827 243.77 340 29.015 0.41360 70.505 226.7 345 31.956 0.39822 80.853 207.4 350 read more..

  • Page - 491

    486 10 Appendix Table T10.4-15: (continued) 118 9.085 0.9869 35.06 176.7 120 10.22 0.9739 39.39 173.2 122 11.46 0.9606 44.16 169.5 124 12.80 0.9468 49.40 165.7 126 14.25 0.9326 55.15 161.7 128 15.81 0.9178 61.49 157.4 130 17.49 0.9025 68.47 152.9 132 19.29 0.8864 76.18 148.1 134 21.23 0.8696 84.72 read more..

  • Page - 492

    10.4 Material Data on the Vapour-Pressure Curve 487 Table T10.4-16: (continued) 110 14.67 0.6201 62.43 134.3 112 16.45 0.6042 71.23 127.8 114 18.38 0.5872 81.37 120.6 116 20.46 0.5688 93.20 112.6 118 22.71 0.5484 107.3 103.6 120 25.13 0.5252 124.5 93.09 122 27.74 0.4971 146.6 80.34 124 30.55 0.4588 read more..

  • Page - 493

    488 10 Appendix Table T10.4-18: (continued) 22 1.632 6.873 · 10 –2 2.067 435.4 23 2.094 6.741 · 10 –2 2.606 427.2 24 2.642 6.600 · 10 –2 3.246 417.1 25 3.284 6.447 · 10 –2 4.006 404.7 26 4.029 6.280 · 10 –2 4.907 389.8 27 4.885 6.097 · 10 –2 5.982 371.9 28 5.861 5.892 · 10 –2 7.276 read more..

  • Page - 494

    10.5 Constants of the Vapour Pressure Equation 489 Table T10.5-1: (continued) Boron fluoride 193 285 1.4218 –1364.8 0 –3.273 · 10 –3 0 1.75 Boron trifluoride 173 260 5.1056 –889.6 0000 Bromochloro- difluoro- methane 178 283 3.97618 –940.155 –32.356 0 0 0 Bromo- methane 203 278 4.21313 –1044.42 –28.466 0 0 0 Bromotri- read more..

  • Page - 495

    490 10 Appendix Table T10.5-1: (continued) 1-Chloro- 2.2.2- trifluoroethane (133a) 223 323 4.80583 –1332.14 0 –3.37672 · 10 –4 3.54715 · 10 –7 0 Chlorotrifluoro ethene (R1113) 273 353 4.50683 –1101.41 0 0 0 0 Chlorine tri- fluoride 226 303 4.49191 –1096.92 –40.400 0 0 0 Chlorotrifluoro methane (R13) 134 298 7.8087 –1109.12 0 read more..

  • Page - 496

    10.5 Constants of the Vapour Pressure Equation 491 Table T10.5-1: (continued) Chlorosilane 156 396 60.96043 –2542.59 0 1.610 · 10 –2 0 –22.8033 1-Chloro- 2.2.2- trifluoroethane (133a) 223 323 4.80583 –1332.14 0 –3.37672 · 10 –4 3.54715 · 10 –7 0 Chlorotrifluoro ethene (R1113) 273 353 4.50683 –1101.41 0 0 0 0 Chlorine tri- read more..

  • Page - 497

    492 10 Appendix Table T10.5-1: (continued) Ethylamine (R631) 213 303 4.5110 –1137.30 –37.300 0 0 0 Ethene (R1150) 104 282 20.94610 –1096.210 0 2.859707 · 10 –3 5.662132 · 10 –6 –6.781872 Oxirane 273 303 4.784 –1355 0000 Fluorine 59 91 3.93021 –310.128 –5.9900 0 0 0 Fluoroethane (R161) 201 339 4.832 –1162 0000 read more..

  • Page - 498

    10.5 Constants of the Vapour Pressure Equation 493 Table T10.5-1: (continued) Octafluoro Propane (R218) 213 341 17.0010 –1435.89 0 2.82492 · 10 –3 0 –4.88280 Carbonyl Dichloride (phosgene) 244 343 4.686 –1315 0 0 0 0 Phosphine 243 313 3.13152 –639.649 0 2.01628 · 10 –3 0 0 Phosphorus pentafluoride 181 189 4.771 read more..

  • Page - 499

    494 10 Appendix 10.6 Compressibility Factor Table 10.6.-1: Real gas factors for compressed gases under the real pressure of 200 bar at temperatures between 0 and 30 °C. Gas 0 °C 10 °C 20 °C 30 °C Argon 0.913 0.930 0.944 0.956 Helium 1.106 1.102 1.098 1.094 Carbon monoxide 1.035 1.048 1.059 1.069 Krypton 0.656 0.689 read more..

  • Page - 500

    10.8 Student Fischer Factor (t Distribution) 495 Table T10.7-1: (continued) –58 0.01413 13.9443 11.20 –60 0.01081 10.6656 8.567 –62 0.008224 8.1168 6.519 –64 0.006227 6.1451 4.936 –66 0.004689 4.6277 3.717 –68 0.003512 3.4659 2.784 –70 0.002615 2.5812 2.073 –72 0.001937 1.9112 1.535 –74 0.001425 1.4067 1.130 –76 0.001043 1.0290 read more..

  • Page - 501

    496 10 Appendix Table 10.8-1: (continued) 12 1.21 1.78 2.18 3.05 13 1.20 1.77 2.16 3.01 14 1.20 1.76 2.14 2.98 15 1.20 1.75 2.13 2.95 16 1.19 1.75 2.12 2.92 17 1.19 1.74 2.11 2.90 18 1.19 1.73 2.10 2.88 19 1.19 1.73 2.09 2.86 20 1.18 1.73 2.09 2.85 25 1.18 1.71 2.06 2.79 30 1.17 1.70 2.04 2.75 40 1.17 1.68 2.02 2.70 60 read more..

  • Page - 502

    10.9 C-t Values of Toxicity 497 Due to the physiological effect of chemical weapons. it is intended to produce not only an intake by inhaling (partially oral) but also by a percutaneous absorption. To quantify the biological and medical consequences of exposure to chemical weapons the so-called concentration time product c t value, also read more..

  • Page - 503

    498 10 Appendix Table T10.9-1: Inhalatory LC50 t values. Substance TLV [ppm] LC50/1h [ppm] LC50 t values in [mg · m –3 · min] VX 10 1) Soman 80 2) 35 −501 ) Sarin read more..

  • Page - 504

    10.10 Marking Gas Cylinders 499 – Precautionary labels shall be designed. attached and maintained so they are clearly visible and legible. Precautionary labels shall consist of two components: a) a diamond-shaped part or parts. i.e. a primary hazard label and – in cases where two or three kinds of hazard require identification – one or read more..

  • Page - 505

    500 10 Appendix Example E10.10.1-3: Belgium Illustration P10.10.1-3: Precautionary labels “hydrogen” and “Ammonia” of Praxair N.V. In North America (USA and Canada) Oxygen labels do not require 2 diamonds as in Europe. Example E10.10.1-4: Precautionary label “oxygen” in USA Illustration P10.10.1-4: Precautionary label read more..

  • Page - 506

    10.12 Cylinder Valve Outlets 501 10.12 Cylinder Valve Outlets 10.11 Gas Cylinders – Colour Coding Colour coding is covered in Europe by (EN 1089-3 1997) published in February 1997. Colour coding applies solely to the shoulder. or curved part. at the top of the cylinder and is used to identify the properties of the gas in read more..

  • Page - 507

    502 10 Appendix Example E10.12.1-1: German norm for valve connections up to 200 bar The construction measurements and the side thread connections of the cylinder valves are regulated in the (DIN 477-1 1990) for operating pressure up to 200 bar . Under normal circumstances conical threads are used as screw threads for con- read more..

  • Page - 508

    10.12 Cylinder Valve Outlets 503 10.12.2 Filling Pressure 300 Bar Towards the end of the 20th century increasing demands were made. – Introduction of an internationally valid standardisation of cylinder valve con- nections – To enable filling pressure up to 300 bar. The international norm (ISO/FDIS 5145 2002) was introduced which read more..

  • Page - 509

    504 10 Appendix Table T10.12-2: Side connections of bottle valves with operating pressure up to 300 bar. The nominal measurements of the conical screw threads are 28.8 and 19.8 mm. Number Thread Diameter graduation Gases and gas mixtures with their characteristics 54 W 30x2 15.9 / 20.1 Non-inflammable. non-toxic. non- oxidising read more..

  • Page - 510

    10.13 Initials for CFCs 505 Table T10.12-3: DIS connections. The diameter graduation shows only the admissible maximum values. Number Valve external thread *) Diameter gradu- ation in [mm] Gases allocated 632 d = 1.030“ = 26.162 mm 16.58 / 20.32 AsH3 . B2H6 . Si2H6 . GeH4 .PH3 . SiH4 . SiH(CH3)3 634 „ 16.94 / read more..

  • Page - 511

    506 10 Appendix d) The number of chlorine atoms (Cl) contained in the compound is calculated by deducting the sum of the fluorine and hydrogen atoms from the total amount of the atoms which can be bound by the carbon atoms. Table 10.13.1-1: Total number of bound atoms Unsaturated carbons Simple unsaturated and read more..

  • Page - 512

    10.13 Initials for CFCs 507 10.13.2 Azeotropic and Non-azeotropic Mixtures Azeotropic mixtures are allocated numbers in the series 500 and non-azeotropic mixtures are allocated numbers in the series 400. Example E10.12.2-1: – R500: R12 / R152a CCl2F2 + CF2 HCH3 – R401A: R22 /R152a / R124 CHClF2 +CHF2CH3 + read more..

  • Page - 513

    Symbols and Abbreviations Symbol, Abbreviation Content, Meaning λ wave length ν wave number α gas expansion coefficient β 2.virial coefficient γ 3.virial coefficient ε molar heat capacity ratio η dynamic viscosity coefficient λ thermal conductivity ν number of moles, amount of substance σ experimental standard deviation τ tube-friction factor ϕ read more..

  • Page - 514

    510 Symbols and Abbreviations ϕ G,Mol molar density of gas G ϕ G,p,T density of gas G at p and T ϕ G,STP density of gas G at STP δ Henry Henry coefficient of solubility ΔH vap enthalpy of vaporization ΔH Subl sublimation enthalpy δ Perm solubility coefficient by permeation δ techn. technical solubility coefficient a year A plane, area read more..

  • Page - 515

    Symbols and Abbreviations 511 D diffusion coefficient dCri critical pore diameter in adsorption dPor pore diameter of adsorbent DThermo thermal diffusion coefficient DM Pressur regulator DN Nominal diameter DOT Department of Transportation (USA) E energy (general) Em Root mean sqare energy of particle Average kinetic energy Epot Potential energy of a molecule or atom read more..

  • Page - 516

    512 Symbols and Abbreviations Henergy energy value Hheat heating value HC Hydrocarbon (=CnHm) I numerical subscript I electrical current Imv Impulse IC Ion chromatography ICP Inductively coupled plasma j numerical subscript k numerical subscript k constant (general) K, C capacity (general) KAM,G adsorption capacity, gas G, adsorbent AM kAvogadro Avogadro read more..

  • Page - 517

    Symbols and Abbreviations 513 MFC Mass flow controller MOP Maximum operating pressure(USA) (=pwork) n numerical subscript NDIR Nondispersive Infrared Spectrometry NIR Near Infrared Spectrometry OECD Orgnisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (EC) nparticle number of particles p pressure (absolute or gauge) P specific permeability pCri critical pressure (abs.) pplant read more..

  • Page - 518

    514 Symbols and Abbreviations r radius Ra roughness height Re Reynolds number RMS Root mean square (=vm) RSD Relative standard deviation R-V Control valve RG special gas constant, gas G RMol molar universal gas constant RMS resolution of mass spectrometer s length, path (general) S Entropy SCF Standard cubic foot (USA) S/N signal to noise ratio Si-V Safety read more..

  • Page - 519

    Symbols and Abbreviations 515 TTri temperature at the triple point U internal energy of a thermodynamic system UEL Upper explosion limit UV/VIS UV/visible spectrum Uelektr electrical voltage v velocity (general) V volume (general) V1, V2 Valve with number Va Valence number VIM International vocabulary of basics and terms in metrology VP Vacuum pump VG,Mol molar read more..

  • Page - 520

    Subject Index A absolute chemical methods 156 absorption 75 acid-base titration 200 activated carbon 60 adiabatic expansion 17, 25 ADR 205 adsorber 40 adsorption 16, 50 adsorption isotherm 52 Air separation plant 49 analytical error 121 APIMS 166 argentometry 200 atomic read more..

  • Page - 521

    518 Subject Index D Dalton 13 danger number 206 Data of the vapor pressure curve 18, 472 Davy 71 Decimal resolutions 471 deflagration 138 demister 77 desorption 56 detonation 138 diaphragm compressors 115 diaphragm pumps 96 Diaphragm rupture indicator 112 diaphragm valves read more..

  • Page - 522

    Subject Index 519 gravimetric method 90 Hagen Poisselle 95 Hagen-Poisseuille’s law 35 Hazard characteristic 215 Hazard symbols and warnings 215 hazardous material transport label 151 heat capacity 16, 26, 28 heat exchanger 97 heat of fusion 22 heat value 16 Henry coefficient 28 read more..

  • Page - 523

    520 Subject Index Molecular absorptions spectrometry 181 molecular diameter 51 molecular sieves 51 molecular weight 35 N NIST 156 NMI 156 noise 175 O Oil determination 198 oil pressure indicator 112 operating pressure 86 Ostwald 68 overflow valve 88 overhead product 47 oxygen read more..

  • Page - 524

    Subject Index 521 stability of gas mixtures 156 standard conditions 2 standard deviation 158 standard mixture 157 state function 12 statistical average 3 storage 205, 209 sublimation curve 18 surface quality 94 synthesis 16 T Technical rule (TRGS) 9 test pressure 87 thermal read more..

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