Encyclopedia of Energy Engineering and Technology - 3 Volume Set

The distinguished authorities share a wealth of knowledge on approximately 190 topics.This encyclopedia will be a valuable tool in assisting energy engineers to reach their potential.


Barney L. Capehart


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  • Barney L. Capehart   
  • 1708 Pages   
  • 12 Feb 2015
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    Encyclopedia ofEnergy Engineeringand TechnologyVolume 1DK503X_FM.indd 16/5/07 12:58:37 PM© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC read more..

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    Encyclopedias from Taylor & Francis Group Agriculture Titles Dekker Agropedia Collection (Eight Volume Set) ISBN: 0-8247-2194-2 13-Digit ISBN: 978-0-8247-2194-7 Encyclopedia of Agricultural, Food, and Biological Engineering Edited by Dennis R. Heldman ISBN: 0-8247-0938-1 13-Digit ISBN: 978-0-8247-0938-9 Encyclopedia of Animal Science Edited by Wilson G. Pond and Alan Bell ISBN: 0-8247-5496-4 13-Digit ISBN: 978-0-8247-5496-9 Encyclopedia of Pest Management Edited by David Pimentel ISBN: read more..

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    Encyclopedia ofEnergy Engineeringand TechnologyEdited byBarney L. CapehartUniversity of FloridaGainesville, USACRC Press is an imprint of theTaylor & Francis Group, an informa businessBoca Raton London New YorkVolume 1, 2 and 3© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC read more..

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    CRC PressTaylor & Francis Group6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300Boca Raton, FL 33487‑2742© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, except as noted on the opening page of the entry. All rights reserved. CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa businessNo claim to original U.S. Government worksPrinted in the United States of America on acid‑free paper10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1International Standard Book Number‑13: 978‑0‑8493‑3653‑9 (Hardcover)This book read more..

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    In memory of my mother and fatherandfor my grandchildren Hannah and Easton.May their energy future be efficient and sustainable.© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC read more..

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    Editorial Advisory BoardBarney L. Capehart, EditorDepartment of Industrial and Systems Engineering,University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.Mr. Larry B. BarrettPresident, Barrett Consulting Associates, ColoradoSprings, Colorado, U.S.A.Dr. Sanford V. BergFormer Director, Public Utility Research Center,University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.Dr. David L. Block, Director EmeritusFlorida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, Florida, U.S.A.Dr. Marilyn A. BrownDirector, Energy Efficiency, read more..

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    Dr. Stephen A. Roosa, CEM, CIAQP, CMVP,CBEP, CDSM, MBAPerformance Engineer, Energy Systems Group, Inc.,Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.A.Dr. Wayne H. SmithInterim Dean for Research and Interim Director,Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Universityof Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.Prof. James S. TulenkoLaboratory for Development of Advanced NuclearFuels and Materials, University of Florida,Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.Dr. Dan TurnerDirector, Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas read more..

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    ContributorsBill Allemon / North American Energy Efficiency, Ford Land, Dearborn,Michigan, U.S.A.Paul J. Allen / Reedy Creek Energy Services, Walt Disney World Co., Lake Buena Vista, Florida, U.S.A.Fatouh Al-Ragom / Building and Energy Technologies Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research,Safat, KuwaitKalyan Annamalai / Department of Mechanical Engineering, College Station, Texas, U.S.A.John Archibald / American Solar Inc., Annandale, Virginia, U.S.A.SenthilArumugam / Enerquip, read more..

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    James Call / James Call Engineering, PLLC, Larchmont, New York, U.S.A.Norm Campbell / Energy Systems Group, Newburgh, Indiana, U.S.A.Barney L. Capehart / DepartmentofIndustrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida College ofEngineering, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.Lynne C. Capehart / Consultant and Technical Writing Specialist, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.Cristia´nCa´rdenas-Lailhacar / DepartmentofIndustrial and SystemsEngineering, University of Florida,Gainesville, Florida, read more..

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    Geoffrey J. Gilg / Pepco Energy Services, Inc., Arlington, Virginia, U.S.A.Bill Gnerre / IntervalData Systems, Inc., Watertown, Massachusetts, U.S.A.Fredric S. Goldner / Energy Management and Research Associates, East Meadow, New York, U.S.A.Dan Golomb / DepartmentofEnvironmental, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences,University of Massachusetts—Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts, U.S.A.John Van Gorp / Power Monitoring and Control, Schneider Electric, Saanichton, British Columbia, CanadaAlex E. S. Green / read more..

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    Mingsheng Liu / Architectural EngineeringProgram, Director, Energy Systems Laboratory, PeterKiewitInstitute, University of Nebraska—Lincoln, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.A.Robert Bruce Lung / Resource Dynamics Corporation, Vienna, Virginia, U.S.A.Alfred J. Lutz / AJL Resources, LLC, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.David MacPhaul / CH2M HILL,Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.Richard J. Marceau / University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario, CanadaRudolf Marloth / Department of Mechanical read more..

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    Mark A. Peterson / Sustainable Success LLC, Clementon, New Jersey, U.S.A.Mary Ann Piette / Commercial BuildingSystemsGroup, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley,California, U.S.A.WendellA.Porter / University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.Soyuz Priyadarsan / Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, U.S.A.Sam Prudhomme / Bay Controls, LLC, Maumee,Ohio, U.S.A.Jianwei Qi / Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, read more..

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    Alberto Traverso / Dipartimento di MacchineSistemi Energetici eTrasporti, Thermochemical Power Group,Universita` di Genova, Genova, ItalyDouglas E. Tripp / CanadianInstitute for Energy Training, Rockwood, Ontario, CanadaJames S. Tulenko / Laboratory for Development of Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials, University ofFlorida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.W. D. Turner / Director, Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A& MUniversity, College Station, Texas, U.S.A.Wayne C. Turner / Industrial read more..

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    ContentsactionGoTo:20,Topical actionGoTo:20,Table actionGoTo:20,of actionGoTo:20,Contents actionGoTo:20,.. actionGoTo:20,... actionGoTo:20,... actionGoTo:20,.... actionGoTo:20,.... actionGoTo:20,.... actionGoTo:20,... actionGoTo:20,.... actionGoTo:20,.... actionGoTo:20,.... actionGoTo:20,... actionGoTo:20,.... actionGoTo:20,.... actionGoTo:20,.... actionGoTo:20,....actionGoTo:20,xxiactionGoTo:28,Foreword actionGoTo:28,.. actionGoTo:28,... actionGoTo:28,.... actionGoTo:28,.... actionGoTo:28,.... read more..

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    Compressed Air Storageand Distribution /Thomas F. Taranto .. ... .... .... .... ... ...226Compressed Air Systems /Diane Schaub .... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... ...236Compressed Air Systems: Optimization /R.Scot Foss .. ... .... ... .... .... .... ... ...241Cooling Towers /Ruth Mossad .... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... ...246Data Collection: PreparingEnergy Managers and Technicians /Athula Kulatunga .. ... ...255Daylighting /William Ross McCluney ... .... ... read more..

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    Volume 2actionGoToR:Energy actionGoToR:Starww actionGoToR:Portfolio actionGoToR:Managerand actionGoToR:Building actionGoToR:LabelingProgram /Bill AllemonactionGoToR:.. actionGoToR:... actionGoToR:.... actionGoToR:.573Energy Use: U.S. Overview /Dwight K. French ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .580Energy Use: U.S. Transportation /Kevin C. Coates .... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .588Energy: Global and Historical Background /Milivoje M. Kostic... ... .... .... .... .... read more..

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    LEED-CIand LEED-CS: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design forCommercialInteriorsand Coreand Shell /Nick Stecky.... ... .... .... .... ... ...937LEED-NC: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design forNew Construction /Stephen A. Roosa ... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... ...947Life Cycle Costing: Electric PowerProjects /Ujjwal Bhattacharjee .. .... .... .... ... ...953Life Cycle Costing: Energy Projects /Sandra B. McCardell .. ... ... .... .... .... ... ...967Lighting Controls read more..

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    Savings andOptimization: Chemical Process Industry /Jeffery P. Perl andRobert W. Peters ... .... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .1302Six SigmaMethods: Measurement and Verification /Carla Fair-WrightandMichael R. Dorrington ... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .1310Solar Heating and Air Conditioning: Case Study /Eric Oliver, K. Baker,M. Babcock,and John Archibald... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .1317Solar Thermal read more..

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    Topical Table of ContentsI. Energy, Energy Sources, and Energy UseEnergy: Historical and Technical BackgroundEnergy Conservation / Ibrahim Dincer and Adnan Midilli .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .444Energy Efficiency: Developing Countries / U. Atikol and H. M. Gu¨ven .. ... .... .... .... .498Energy Use: U.S. Overview / Dwight K. French ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .580Energy Use: U.S. Transportation / Kevin C. Coates .... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .588Energy: Global read more..

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    I. Energy, Energy Sources, and Energy Use (cont’d.)Derived Energy (cont’d.)Energy StorageCompressed Air Energy Storage(CAES) / David E. Perkins.. ... ... .... .... .... ... ...214Pumped StorageHydroelectricity / Jill S. Tietjen .. ... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... ...1207Fuel CellsFuel Cells: Intermediate and High Temperature / XianguoLiand GholamrezaKarimi ... ...733Fuel Cells: Low Temperature / XianguoLi ... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... ...744II. Principles of Energy read more..

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    III. Utilities, Suppliers of Energy, and Utility RegulationElectric Supply SystemElectricPowerTransmission Systems / Jack Casazza ... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .356ElectricSupply System: Generation / Jill S. Tietjen .... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .374Independent PowerProducers / Hemmat Safwat ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .854Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC):Coal- andBiomass-Based / Ashok D. Rao .. ... .... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... read more..

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    IV. Facilities and Users of Energy (cont’d.)Building Envelope (cont’d.)Window Films: Solar-Controland Insulating / SteveDeBusk .... ... .... .... .... ... ...1630Window Films: Spectrally Selective versus Conventional Applied / Marty Watts .... ... ...1637Windows: Shading Devices / SvetlanaJ.Olbina .. .... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... ...1641Compressed Air SystemsCompressed Air Control Systems / Bill Allemon, Rick Avery,and Sam Prudhomme ... ... ...207Compressed Air Leak Detection and read more..

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    Industrial FacilitiesCombinedHeat and Power(CHP):Integration with IndustrialProcesses / James A. Clark .... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .175Drying Operations: Agricultural and Forestry Products / Guangnan Chen .. ... .... .... .332Drying Operations: Industrial / Christopher G.J. Baker .. ... .... ... .... .... .... .... .338Energy Conservation: Industrial Processes / Harvey E. Diamond .. ... .... .... .... .... .458Energy Conservation: Lean Manufacturing / Bohdan W. read more..

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    V. Energy ManagementCommissioningCommissioning: Existing Buildings / David E. Claridge, Mingsheng Liu, and W. D. Turner ...179Commissioning: New Buildings / Janey Kaster ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... ...188Commissioning: Retrocommissioning / Stephany L. Cull .... .... ... .... .... .... ... ...200Energy Auditing and BenchmarkingAuditing:Improved Accuracy / Barney L. Capehart and Lynne C. Capehart .... .... ... ...69Auditing:User-Friendly Reports / Lynne C. Capehart.. .... .... ... read more..

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    Measurement and Verification of Energy SavingsInternational PerformanceMeasurement and Verification Protocol(IPMVP) / James P. Waltz .... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .919Measurement and Verification / Stephen A. Roosa .. ... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .1050Measurements in Energy Management:Best Practices and SoftwareTools / Peter Barhydtand Mark Menezes .. .... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .1056Six SigmaMethods: Measurement and read more..

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    VII. Transportation and Other Energy Uses (cont’d.)TransportationAircraft Energy Use / K. E. Ohrn .. .... .... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... ...24Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Gasoline, Hybrid-Electric, and Hydrogen-FueledVehicles / Robert E. Uhrig.... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... ...787Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Plug-In Configuration / Robert E. Uhrig andVernon P. Roan .. ...847Maglev (Magnetic Levitation) / Kevin C. Coates .. .... .... .... ... .... .... .... read more..

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    ForewordThe Association of Energy Engineers (AEE) is proud to be asponsor of the Encyclopedia of Energy Engineeringand Technology, Three-Volume Set,edited by Dr. Barney L. Capehart. In 2007 AEE is celebrating its 30thanniversary and it is afitting tributethat the Encyclopedia of Energy Engineering and Technology is published atthis time. AEE defined the energy engineering profession and this comprehensive work detailsthe core elementsfor success in this field.Dr. Capehart has performed read more..

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    © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC read more..

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    PrefaceEnergy engineers and technologists have made efficient and cost effective devices for many years which providethe energy services society wants and expects. From air conditionerstowaste fuels, energy engineersandtechnologists continue to make our lives comfortable and affordable using limited resourcesinefficient andrenewable ways.Over 300 researchers and practitioners, through 190 entries, provide ready access to the basic principlesandapplications of energy engineering,aswell as read more..

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    authors for their outstanding efforts to identify major topics of interest for thisproject, and to write interesting andeducational articlesbased on their areas of expertise. Many of the authors also served adual function of bothwriting their own articles, and reviewing the submissions of other authors. Another important group of people werethose on the Editorial Board who helped submit topics, organizational ideas, and lists of potential authors for theencyclopedia. This Board was agreathelp in read more..

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    Common Energy AbbreviationsThe following abbreviations were provided by the Energy Information Administration’sNational Energy InformationCenter. TheEnergy Information Administration is astatisticalagencyofthe U.S. Department of Energy.ACalternating currentAFUDCallowance for funds used during constructionAFValternative-fuelvehicleAGAAmerican Gas AssociationANSIAmerican National Standards InstituteAPIAmerican Petroleum InstituteASTMAmerican Society for Testing and read more..

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    FERCFederal Energy Regulatory CommissionFGDflue-gas desulfurizationF.O.Bfree on boardFPCFederal Power CommissionFRSFinancialReportingSystemgalgallonGDPgross domestic productGNPgross nationalproductGVWgross vehicle weightGWgigawattGWegigawatt-electricGWhgigawatthourGWPglobal warming potentialHCFChydrochlorofluorocarbonHDDheating degree-daysHFChydrofluorocarbonHIDhigh-intensity dischargeHTGRhigh temperature gas-cooled reactorHVACheating,ventilation, and air-conditioningIEAInternational Energy read more..

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    NARUCNational Association of Regulatory Utility CommissionersNERCNorth AmericanElectric Reliability CouncilNGLnatural gas liquidsNGPANatural Gas Policy Act of 1978NGPLnatural gas plant liquidsNGVnatural gas vehicleNOAANational Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationNOPRNoticeofProposed RulemakingNOxnitrogenoxidesNRECANational Rural Electric Cooperative AssociationNUGnonutility generatorNURENational Uranium Resource EvaluationNYMEXNew York Mercantile ExchangeO3OzoneO&Moperation and read more..

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    TWTerawattU3O8Uranium oxideUF6uranium hexaflourideULCCultra large crude carrierUMTRAUranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978USACEU.S. Army Corps of Engineers (sometimes shortenedtoUSCE in EIA tables)USBRUnited States Bureau of ReclamationVVoltVAWTvertical-axis wind turbineVINvehicle identification numberVLCCvery large crude carrierVMTvehicle milestraveledVOCvolatile organic compoundWwattWACOGweighted average cost of gasWhwatt hourWTIWest Texas Intermediatexxxvi© 2007 by Taylor read more..

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    Thermal Metric and Other Conversion FactorsThe following tables appeared in the January 2007 issue of the Energy Information Administration’s MonthlyEnergyReview.The Energy Information Administrationisa statistical agencyofthe U.S. Department of Energy.Table 1 Metric Conversion FactorsThese metric conversion factorscan be used to calculate the metric-unitequivalents of values expressed in U.S. Customaryunits. For example, 500 short tons are the equivalent of 453.6 metric tons (500 short tons ! read more..

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    Notes: † Spaces have been inserted after every third digit to the right of the decimalfor ease of reading. † Most metric unitsbelong to the International System of Units (SI), and the liter, hectare,and metric ton are acceptedfor use with the SI units.For more information about the SI units, see actionURI(http://physics.nist.gov):http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/index.html.Web Page: actionURI(http://www.eia.doe.gov):http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/append_b.html.Sources: † GeneralServices read more..

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    About the EditorDr. Barney L. Capehart is aProfessor Emeritus of Industrial and Systems Engineering at the University of Florida,Gainesville, Florida. He has BS and Master’s degrees in Electrical Engineering and aPh.D. in Systems Engineering. Hetaught at the University of Florida from 1968 until 2000, where he taught awide variety of courses in energy systemsanalysis, energy efficiency and computer simulation. For the last 25–30 years, energy systems analysis has been his mainarea of read more..

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    Encyclopedia ofEnergyEngineering and TechnologyFirst EditionVolume 1Pages 1through 572Acc Energy ServAccAudBeneClimCoalCommCompDayDemDryElecElecEmEnergyConEnergy EffServEOEE —1/5/2007—06:53—VELU—Volume_title_page_vol-1—XML Taylor &Francis Encyclopedias© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC read more..

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    Accounting: Facility EnergyUseDouglas E. TrippCanadian Institute for Energy Training, Rockwood, Ontario, CanadaAbstractEnergy Accounting is the management technique that quantitatively monitors energy consumption, relatesconsumption to key independent variables such as production and weather, and assesses energyperformance or efficiency over time and against relevant benchmarks. The successful practice of energyaccounting is predicated on the identification of the right kinds of data to be read more..

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    4. Provide abasis for energy budgetsaspart of theoverall budgetingprocess.5. Identify unaccounted for energy waste.6. Identify opportunities for performance improve-ment and evaluatethe impact of performanceimprovement measures.7. Optimize energy purchase practices.[3]Energy Accounting and Energy ManagementWhile many definitions of energy management are used,one that capturesthe essence of this organizational activityis:The judicious and effective use of energy to maximizeprofits read more..

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    squarefoot per HDD. As well, other embedded functionssuch as graphing, regression, averaging, and others, can behelpful for analysis and presentation of results.Energy Accounting SoftwareAs the energy accounting system becomes more sophis-ticated and complex,orinthe case of larger or multi-siteorganizations, commercial energy accounting softwarepackages are available.These packages makeiteasier toinput data, carry out analysis, and generate reports. Theyalso typically incorporate weatherand read more..

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    Forfuels,datashouldberecordedinphysicallymeasurable units (cubic feet, gallons, etc.) rather thandollarsthat can fluctuate over time (e.g., via utility ratechanges, product price changes). Where two differentenergy sources feed thermal energy data intothe samesystem,itmay be necessary to convertthem to acommonunit. In aspreadsheet program, units can be converted asneededafter the quantities are entered in their originalunits.In addition to energy use data, data on the factors thatinfluence read more..

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    Working DefinitionsBy definition, MT&Risthe activitythat uses informationon energyconsumption as abasis forcontrolandmanaging consumption downward. The three componentactivities are distinct yet inter-related:† Monitoring is the regular collection of information onenergy use. Its purposeistoestablish abasisofmanagement control, to determinewhen and whyenergy consumption is deviating from an establishedpattern, and to serve as abasisfor taking managementaction where necessary. read more..

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    Similar models can be produced for buildings, in whichcase degree-days rather than production may be theindependent variable.In addition to providing abasis for the reduction ofenergy waste,the energyperformance model also providesthe means of determining the energy budget for aprojectedlevel of industrial activityorprojected weather conditionsin afuture period.Cumulative SumThe comparison of actual and theoretical or predictedenergy consumption uses is calledcumulative sum read more..

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    Problems with Energy Performance IndicatorsEspecially in the industrial sector, energy performance isoften expressed in terms of an energy intensity indicator,as discussedin“Energy Monitoing”. The energy per-formance modelresulting from Monitoring analysis makesit evident that there are serious limitations to energyintensity indicators in providing an accurate measureofperformance, as Fig. 3illustrates.As illustrated, it is possible to look at aperformance point(1) in terms of its energy read more..

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    Government Publishing Centre, Ottawa, Canada, 1989;ISBN 0-662-14152-0, 1.6. California Energy Commission, Energy Accounting: AKeyTool in Managing Energy Costs,January 2000, P400-00-001B; 13–14.7. California Energy Commission, Energy Accounting: AKeyTool in Managing Energy Costs,January 2000, P400-00-001B; 15–17.8. California Energy Commission, Energy Accounting: AKeyTool in Managing Energy Costs,January 2000, P400-00-001B; A-1–A-3.9. Enbridge Gas Distribution. Energy Accounting Guide read more..

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    Air Emissions Reductions from EnergyEfficiencyBruce K. ColburnEPS Capital Corp., Villanova, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.AbstractEnergy efficiency has become apopular buzz phrase in the 21st century, but in addition to the pureeconomic cash savings that can be affected from implementing such work there is also the potential for acleaner environment. Since becoming operational in February 2005, the Kyoto Treaty calls for areductionin greenhouse gases (GHG) from all developed countries according to read more..

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    temperature as the CO2 concentration increases whileFig. 2showsthe noticeable rise in both CO2 and COconcentrations in the atmosphere.Overall, energy cost reduction is the best solution forreducing GHG air emissions because it provides the onlymechanism that allows auser to invest capital and reap adirect economic return on that investmentwhile simul-taneouslyreceiving CO2 reductions due to reductions inconsumption of electricity and fossil fuels. All otherapproaches seem to rely on investing in read more..

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    reduced if the input fossil fuel is pure hydrogen, H2.Hydrogen is clean combustion(effectivelynoCO2formation) comparedtonatural gas (let alone other fossilfuels) and the result of combustion is almost pure watervapor.Thisisbecause when pure hydrogen is burnedintheatmosphere, there is notanaccompanying carbonmolecule to recombine. Issues of CO2 tend not to bepresent to the same extent (although there is atmosphericrecombination). Therefore, scientists have notedthat ifautomobiles ran on hydrogen, read more..

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    will find that if they wanttoexpand production, they willeither have to implement major energy efficiency upgradeprogramsona scale not seen previously or they will haveto pay dearly for CO2 reductions implemented by them andpay someone for credits through afreemarket where thehighest bidderwins. Recent data suggests that in Britain, atonnes of CO2 credit may go for about 20 V,orabout$25 USD, which is about fivetimesthe estimated valueafew years ago—and the carbon crunch has yet to read more..

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    now tend to be focused on howmuch human interventioncan impact the reduction in global warming and at whatrate. In July 2005, theWisconsin Public ServiceCommission of the UnitedStates (the state regulatingbody for electricutilities) redefined and allowed energyefficiency investments by the electric utilities to equalfooting with investments in generation, transmission, anddistribution. This is apparently the first utility-regulatingbody to recognize legally that reducing kWh or kW hasjust as read more..

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    rational nationalplan despite of the United State’srefusalto ratify the KyotoTreaty.In the United States, aprogram with RECs (RenewableEnergy Credits)isone way to reap additional financialbenefit out of arenewable electrical energyproductionproject—the RECs can be sold as certificates proving thatthe recipient has obtainedrenewable (and hence GHG-free) generation. Thestate of Pennsylvania has gone evenfurther and identified energy efficiency results in terms ofan “Alternate Energy read more..

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    and captures the resulting CO2 at the sourcebefore it canbe emittedtothe atmosphere.ThisCO2 wouldbesequestered as asolid material and then injected into theocean bottom,and the resulting H2 would be using for fuelto generateelectricity without generation of CO2 in theexhaust. This would be the first industrial scaledemon-stration of sequestration. Themostcommon methodavailable presently is to plant more forest area and letthe carbon dioxide released from normal combustion beabsorbed over time read more..

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    assisting the economics of aproject. The difficulty in suchacase as thisisthat the avoidance of kWh purchasesbecomes part of the “savings,” butthosesavings comefrom elsewhere,even though, with strict measurement andverification protocols, the truebenefits can be documentedand certified. It alsoshowshow anet sale price of $10/T ofCO2 could dramatically affect the paybackofanindustrialproject in India, and yet that price is less than half of thecurrently expected price in the EU as of fall read more..

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    yearsofGHG benefits and then using that moneytoreducethe net capital cost, there is adramatic impact on theeconomic viabilityofthe ECM, going from about 4.9yearssimplepayout to 4.0 years, pullingthe project intothe minimum range for selection. So, considering that theGHG credit only createdabout a6%increase in annualequivalent, the economicbenefit is multipliedmanytimesover, if one can plan for 15 years into the future of reliableoperation. It is the long-term years of multiplier that read more..

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    Air Quality: Indoor Environment and EnergyEfficiencyShirley J. HansenHansen Associates, Inc., Gig Harbor,Washington, U.S.A.AbstractIn the days following the oil embargo of 1973, it became common practice to cover outside air intakes. Thiswas just one of many actions taken by the uninformed in the hope of reducing energy consumption. Many ofthese measures, unfortunately, had anegative impact on the quality of the indoor air. Out of such ignorancecame an assumption that energy efficiency (EE) read more..

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    opening the windowsisthe only measureneededfor theair to get better “naturally.” In the interest of both IAQ andEE, acareful look at abroader range of options is needed.THE “FRESH-AIR”OPTIONIf the air outside containsmore contaminants than theinside air does, an outside-air solution may not be theanswer. Fresh,natural air sounds wholesome, and it seemsto be an attractive option. However, that natural air can beheavilypolluted.Whensteppingoutside theUnitedAirlines terminal at O’Hare read more..

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    moment,all those airbornecontaminants as abright neon-orangeliquid flowing out of apipe in an occupied area.Would hosing it down each morningbeconsidered to be asatisfactory solution? We have gained false confidence indilution because the air pollutants cannot be seen—thatdoes notmean they are less of aproblem or that dilution isnecessarily the solution.The problem may not have been eliminated by reducinglevels of concentration. There is still alot that we do notknow about chronic read more..

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    With alittle regression analysis, we ought to be able tobuild astraight-line relationship: the moreenergy efficientabuilding becomes the greater absenteeism and lostproductivity become.As the virtues of tight buildings are weighed, it is easyto forget that those creaky, decrepit old leaky buildingswere full of unconditioned, unfiltered,uncontrolledbreezes. Drafty buildingswerejustasapt to causediscomfort as fresh air was.More than adecade ago, JosephJ.Romm’s excellentarticle “Lean and read more..

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    testing, which typicallyfindsonlyone-half of theremainingproblems. To summarize,80% of IAQproblemsare detected through arelatively simple walk-through; 10% are resolvedthrough sophisticated, expens-ive testing; and nearly 10% remain unresolved.When considered from the EE perspective,a U.S.Department of Energy study conducted by The SyneticsGroup (TSG)[5] reported that up to 80% of the savings inan EE program comes from the energy-efficient practicesof the O&Mstaff. What bitter irony!Tosave read more..

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    with atight building—provided that atight building is welldesigned andwellmaintained. Tightbuildings morereadily reveal professional errors. Tight buildings areless forgiving of poor maintenance. Awell-designed, well-maintained tight building, however,can provideEEandquality indoorair.If our ultimate goal is to produce acomfortable,productive indoorenvironment as cost effectivelyaspossible, EE andIAQ are on the sameside.Goodmanagers and effective EE consultants need to havecommand of both if read more..

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    Aircraft EnergyUseK. E. OhrnCypress Digital Ltd., Vancouver,British Columbia, CanadaAbstractThe aviation industry consumes arelatively small amount of the world’s fossil fuels. It has asolid record ofreducing its consumption and is driven to do so by the large economic impact of fuel costs on the industry.Fuel consumption has been reduced by constant change and improvement in engine and airframetechnology, materials, operations planning, aircraft operation, and maintenance practices.There are read more..

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    number of tons of available aircraft capacity multipliedbythe number of kilometers thesetons are flown. Thismeasure isolates fuel efficiency discussions of technologyand infrastructure from more complexdiscussions con-cerning fuel usage per passenger-kilometer, which is moreof amarket-driven measure. Airlines have severalnontechnological paths to pursue in obtaining the mostrevenue for their fuel dollar.These include keeping aircraftas full as possible, matching aircraft type and schedule read more..

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    Jet FuelsJet fuel is an outputderived from atmospheric distillation,catalytic cracking, and, in some cases, hydro treatingsections of the refinery. This dependsonthe compositionof the input crude oil. Thefinal product is ablendofdistilled kerosene, which is often upgraded to removeimpurities, and heavier hydro and catalytically crackeddistillates.[7,9]The fuel grade (or type)iscontrolled through strictspecifications by AmericanSociety forTesting andMaterials(ASTM) International, the military, read more..

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    aircraft, drag comes from several sources, but the largestare: induced drag, aby-product of lift,and parasitic drag,which is caused by the air friction and turbulence over theexterior surfacesofthe aircraft, as the aircraft moves airout of its way, and by antennae, landing gear, and so on.Induced drag has astrong relationship to weight: lessweight means less lift is required. Induced drag alsodependsonthe design of the wing and its airfoil (wingcross-section) andthe angleofattack of read more..

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    Fuel QuantityExtra fuel, while comforting to passengers and crew,requiresextra fuel burn due to the weight of this extra fuel.Abetter strategy is to accurately plan the flight to carrythecorrect amount of fuel and reserves. Elements of thisstrategy are to:† Determine the accuratepayload and use aircraft weightby tail number if possible.† Plan the fuel load as requiredfor safety and regulatoryrequirements, with optimum choice of an alternateairport, careful consideration of the rules that read more..

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    Very High Frequency (VHF),and High Frequency(HF) ground stations used by airlines and businessaircraft operators. Satellite servicesuse fourInmarsat-3 satellites andconstitute aglobalresource for appropriately-equipped aircraft, withthe exception of polar regions.The data are analyzed to determine overallfuelconsumption and provide feedback on the success of flightplanning and deterioration, if any, of the fuel efficiency ofeach engine.This data usually provides the basis for engine read more..

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    In 1995,the industry begantrialsofFutureAirNavigation System1 (FANS1) equipment and procedures.This equipment delivers routine ATC information to andfrom the cockpit via data link, and reduces the use ofvoice communications, which is acriticalbottleneck for airtraffic controllers. The industry is moving towardimprov-ing arrival and departuresequencing and enroute spacingand increasing flexibility for airline-preferred routing.Eventually, the industry would like to see asingleintegrated read more..

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    Alternative EnergyTechnologies: Price EffectsMichael M. Ohadi*ThePetroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, United Arab EmiratesJianweiQiDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland,U.S.A.AbstractThe world is now facing the reality that fossil fuels are afinite resource that will be exhausted someday, thatglobal consumption is outpacing the discovery and exploitation of new reserves, and that the globalenvironment is worsening due to increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) read more..

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    main ways: direct combustion, electric power generation,conversion to gas for use as fuel or chemical feedstock,and conversion to liquid fuels. There are abundant biomassresources, including trees and grasses, starch and oil seeds,sawdust,wood waste,agricultural residues, food-proces-sing waste,paper,and municipal solid waste (MSW).Biomass energy commonly referstobothtraditionalbiomassand modern biomass.Traditional Biomass:traditional biomassischemicalenergy directlyconverted through combustion read more..

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    report, five quads of bioethanol would be neededtoprovide 45% of the fuel used in gasoline vehicles,[4] whichwould use current cropland and grassland to produce63%of bioethanol—as shown in Table 1.The EIA reports that of the 10.38 MBPD of motor fuelconsumed by motor vehicles in the UnitedStates in 1999,0.28 MBPD (2.7%)was comprised of alternative orreplacement fuels. More than 90% of this consisted ofmethyl-tertiary butyl ester (MTBE)(0.2 MBPD)andethanol (0.06 MBPD) blended with gasoline. read more..

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    the EIA. TheUnited States has the capacity to producemuch more biodiesel, and its outputisprojected to growby 1.8% per year.[9]United States farms and fields have yielded somehomegrownenergy choices, like biodiesel and ethanol, butit is still hard for them to competewith fossil fuel, with itsrelatively low prices and robustinfrastructure, in themarket. Currently, asubsidy is offered by the Departmentof Agriculture’s Commodity CreditCorporation for thepromotion and production of biodiesel. read more..

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    worldwide interest in wind turbine generators. The rapidprogress in wind turbine technology has refinedold ideasand introduced new ways of converting wind energy intousefulpower.Manyofthese approaches have beendemonstrated in “wind farms” or “wind power plants”(groups of turbines), which feed electricity into the utilitygrid in the United States and Europe. Since the 1970s, windenergy has expanded its role in electricity generation. Theworldwide installedcapacity of grid-connected read more..

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    and couldpower cars,trucks, buses,and othervehicles, aswell as homes, offices, and factories.Hydrogen has thepotentialtofueltransportationvehicleswithzeroemissions, provide process heat for industrialprocesses,supply domestic heat through cogeneration, help produceelectricity for centralized or distributed powersystems,andprovide astorage medium forelectricity fromrenewableenergysources. Some envision an entireeconomy based on hydrogen in the future.[14] At present,most of the world’s read more..

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    Asmall amount is shipped by rail car or barge. Hydrogenhas alsolong been used in the space program as apropellant for the space shuttle and in the on-board fuelcells that provide theshuttle’selectric power.Newcombustion equipment is being designed specifically forhydrogen in turbinesand engines, and vehicles withhydrogen internal combustion engines have been demon-strated. Also being tested is the combustion of hydrogen–natural gas blends to improvethe yield of natural gasreforming in an read more..

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    fuel cell power systemswill be required to achieve thesamelevel of durability and reliability of currentenginesoverthe full rangeofvehicle operatingconditions at 408C–808C(i.e.,5000 hlifespanorabout 150,000 milesequivalent). Stationary fuel cellsmust achieve greater than 40,000 hofreliableoperation at K35 to 408Ctomeet market requirements.Fuel cell componentdegradation andfailuremechanisms are not well understood. The cycle lifeof hydride storage systemsalsoneeds to be evaluated inreal-world read more..

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    performance has shown asteady improvement over thepast 10–15 years: one quarter of the world’s reactors haveload factorsofmore than 90% and almost two-thirds dobetter than 75%, comparedtoabout aquarter of them in1990.Nuclear poweristhe only mature, noncarbon electricitygeneration technologythat can significantly contribute tothe long-term, globallysustainable energy mix. Besidesproviding electricity, nuclear energy contributes to anumber of policy goals, including achieving read more..

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    the top of the reactor directly to the turbine. Currently,more than 90 of these are operating throughout the world.AdvancedGas-Cooled Reactors (AGRs) are the secondgeneration of Britishgas-cooled reactors, using graphitemoderatorsand carbon dioxide as coolant.The fuel isuranium oxide pellets, enrichedto2.5%–3.5%, in stainlesssteel tubes. The carbon dioxide circulates through the core,reaching6508C, and then past steam generator tubesoutside the core, but still inside the concreteand read more..

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    current light-water reactor technology is that the thermalefficiency that can be achieved is limited to the achievedmaximum temperature of 3508C. The PBMRisdesignedto achieve at least 9008C, which will give athermalefficiency of up to 44%. This translates into roughly one-third more output than aconventional PWR.The firstPBMRiscurrently planned for commercial operation inSouth Africa by around2010.Future NuclearPower TechnologyGeneration I–III reactorsrecycle plutonium (and read more..

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    significant waystomeeting future energy demands, theseissues, real or perceived, mustbeaddressed.Nuclear Safety.The InternationalNuclearSafetyAdvisoryGroup (INSAG) has suggested requiring thatfuture nuclear plants be safer by afactor of 10 than thetargets set for existing reactors (i.e., targetsof10K5/yearfor core damage and 10K6/year for large radioactivereleases for future plants).[20]There are four primary goalsfor safety issues in nuclearenergy development:† Thefirst is reactivity read more..

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    with its long-term storage;furtheranceofnonproliferationaims, namely that nuclear materials cannot be easilyacquired or readily converted for nonpeaceful purposes;and improved efficiency in resource use. Table 4givesexamples of recent work in innovative nuclear fuel cycles.Although no large-scale programsoninnovative nuclearfuel cyclesare being implementedatpresent,somecountries are investigating the necessarysteps for changein the current situation.Experiencewith both storage and transport read more..

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    hydro, and geothermal power, were the predominantsources of energyused by mankind.Can the renewableresourcesthat sustained early civilization be harvestedmore cost effectively to meet asignificant portion of themuch higherdemands of today’s society?Many regions of the world are rich in renewableresources. Winds in the UnitedStates contain energyequivalent to 40 timesthe amount of energy the nationuses. The totalsunlightfallingonthe countryisequivalent to 500timesAmerica’s energy demand. read more..

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    market for themasminipower plantsfor use in factories,offices, retail stores,homes, and automobiles.However,despitethe significant benefits of alter-native energy sources, according to the recent AEO2004forecast, which assumes the world’s oil supply peak willnot occur before2025, petroleum products are predictedto dominate energy useinthe transportationsector.Energy demand for transportation is projected to growfrom 26.8 quadrillion Btu in 2002 to 41.2 quadrillion Btuin 2025 (Fig. read more..

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    betweencontinuing demand growth and declining pro-duction couldbearoundthe equivalent of 50 billionbarrelsofoil (145 MBPD) by 2050, or almost twicethecurrent conventional oil production. Although thereisconsiderable uncertainty, the report suggested that theUnited States should start transportation’s energy tran-sition immediately because the time needed to fullyimplement anew vehicle technology in all vehicles on theroad will be 30 yearsormore, and fully implementing anew fuel will take even read more..

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    Table 6 Comparisons of gasoline and alternative transport fuelsGasolineBiodiesel (B20)Compressednatural gas(CNG)Ethanol (E85)HydrogenChemicalstructureC4–C12Methyl esters ofC16–C18 fattyacidsCH4CH3CH2OHH2Main fuel sourceCrude oilSoy bean oil,waste cookingoil, animal fats,and rapeseed oilUndergroundreservesCorn, grains, oragricultural wasteNatural gas,methanol, andother energysourcesEnergy contentper gallon109,000–125,000 Btu117,000–120,000 Btu(compared todiesel #2)33,000–38,000 Btu read more..

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    theworld community.The recently rising prices ofconventionalsources of energygivethe strongesteconomicargumentinfavor of the expanded market ofrenewable energy sooner rather than later. The evolution ofany new energy technology will take along time (morethan 20 years) to be well accepted and established in themarket. Energy substitution will begin in earnest when thecosts of energy production by alternative methods arelower than the prevailingprices of conventional sourcesand when consumers are read more..

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    11. DOE. Solar Energy Technologies Program—Multi-YearTechnical Plan 2003–2007 and Beyond, Report No: DOE/GO-102004-1775, 2004.12. Web site for the European Wind Energy Association, actionURI(http://www.ewea.org):http://actionURI(http://www.ewea.org):www.ewea.org/ (accessed May 19, 2004).13. Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L. Arial Wind Resource Assess-ment of the United States. In Alternative Fuels and theEnvironment;Lewis Publishers: Boca Raton, FL, 1994;[Chapter 17].14. DOE. Strategic Plan for read more..

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    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard62.1-2004Leonard A. DamianoDavid S. DouganEBTRON, Inc., Loris, South Carolina, U.S.A.AbstractAmerican National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating and Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Standard 62.1-2004 is ashort but often misunderstood documentoutlining ventilation requirements intended to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ) for newbuildings or those with major renovations. Because of the rate-based nature of both read more..

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    DefinitionsSection 3addresses the definitionofterms used within theStandard.Noteworthyisthe Standard’s definition of“acceptable IAQ,” which is defined as:.air in which there are no known contaminants at harmfulconcentrations as determined by cognizant authorities andwith which asubstantial majority (80% or more) of thepeople exposed do not express dissatisfaction.[1]This means that 62.1, like all ASHRAE Standards,assumes that one out of fiveoccupants (20%)might notbe satisfied with read more..

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    that result from changesinwind and stack pressures,which often exceeds 0.5 in. WG [125 Pa]. Therefore,providing the minimumoutdoor airflow defined inSection 6‘effectively’ requiresadynamiccontrolalternative for compliance—possibly the use of perma-nent devices capable of maintaining outdoor airflowrates.Not mentioning airflow measurement is analogous toignoring the requirementfor temperaturemeasuringdevices to maintaincontinuoustemperature control.Becausemany systems, especially read more..

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    Stack and wind effects can cause large regions, such asentire levels or fac¸ades, to be negatively pressurized.[6]Abuilding that is excessively pressurized may causedamage to thestructuralintegrity of thebuildingenvelope.[6]Notingthe proliferationofmold in buildings, theASHRAE board issued Minimizing Indoor MoldThroughManagement of Moisture in BuildingSystems in June2005, statingthat sound moisture management should takeprecedence over energy cost savings.[7] This PositionPaper outlines read more..

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    ‘Building pressure’ is accomplished by creating apressurization flow. Anything that changesthe pressur-ization flowwillresult in fluctuations in buildingpressure.The pressurization flow is generally influencedby the HVAC system by controlling the volumetricdifferential of either the intake/relief air or the supply/return air. Heating ventilation air conditioning systemcontrolstrategiesthatignorethese relationshipsorpoorly implement them are widely known to haveinherent pressurization read more..

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    First, we must calculate outdoor airflow requirementsfor the zone (Voz), as detailed in Sections 6.2.2.1–6.2.2.3,whichcan be summarized with theircorrespondingequations and reference numbers below:Calculate breathingzone outdoor airflow:Vbz Z RpPz C RaAzð1ÞDetermine zone air distribution effectiveness:Ez Z Table 6-2Calculate zone outdoor airflow at diffusers:Voz Z Vbz=Ezð2Þ100%OutdoorAirYesYesNoProvide filterswith MERV ≥ 6.Doesoutdoor airmeet NAAQS forPM10??NoMorezones on read more..

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    Then, determinethe outdoor airflow requirements forthe system (Vot)and calculate minimum outdoor air intakeflow. We are giventhree general system types to choosefrom:Singlezone systems:Vot Z Vozð3Þ100% OA systems:Vot ZXall zonesVozð4ÞandMultiplezone recirculating systemsOutside Air Intake:Vot Z Vou=Evð8ÞIn Multizone recirculation systems (Vou and Ev), thevariables neededtosolvefor Vot are determined inSections 6.2.5.1–6.2.5.4 and summarized below, but willbe examined in moredetail read more..

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    The new 62.1 User’s Manual is really very well done. Itwill improvethe readers’ understanding of the Standardand provide needed design guidance with its examples.However, it does makeanumber of assertions that willleaveyou scratching your head. Here is one excerpt fromthe appendix on CO2:This appendix describes how CO2 concentration may beused to control the occupant component of the ventilationrate (see actionGoTo:101,Ref. actionGoTo:101,6, pp. A–1).This is areal problem for read more..

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    As an example, if the supply air distribution system islocatedclose to the return air, ashort circuitisgenerallycreated. TheStandard requiresdesigners to use azone airdistribution effectiveness(Ev)of0.5, which essentiallydoubles the amount of outdoor air required. In contrast tothis example, asystem with aceiling supplyand aceilingreturn has azone distribution effectivenessof1.0 duringcooling and 0.8 during heating.Therefore, the outdoor airsetpointmust be reset seasonally or the read more..

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    canbestatistically exceeded by boxeswithoutameasurement device.[2] Accurate airflow measuringdevices having atotal installed accuracy better than5% of reading at maximum system turndown should beinstalled in the supplyducts for critical zones.Increased precision allows terminal box selection foroptimum energy performanceaswell as improved soundperformance. Accordingly, arecently proposed ASHRAETC1.4Research Work Statement claims that usingVAVbox sensors and controllers allowing “a read more..

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    There is no indication in the Standard of how toimplement Dynamic Reset with CO2,which was left to beaddressedbythe User’s Manual.The User’s Manualincludedanappendix intendedtoaddress the continuingquestions by users and designers: “Howcan we applyCO2measurements to DCV and comply with the VRP ofStandard 62.1?” To this end, theappendixhedgedsufficiently to avoid answering this question directly,underscoring the potential problemsinapplying DCV andsimultaneously employingoutdoor airflow read more..

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    within areasonable time after installation. See Sections4.3, 5.2.3, 5.17.4 and 6.3.2 regarding assumptions thatshould be detailed in the documentation.[1]Within Section5.2.3, Ventilation AirDistributionrequiresusto:.specify minimum requirements for air balance testing orreference applicable national standards for measurementand balancing airflow.[1]Providingpermanentlyinstalled instrumentsandcontrols that result in and verify compliance withASHRAE Standard 62.1 is perhaps one of the bestreasons read more..

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    This apparent contradiction with Section 8.4.1.7 willlikely be examined by theASHRAE SSPC62.1committee in the near future. Permanent outdoor airflowmeasuring stations would provide continuous verifica-tionand thenecessary controlinputstomaintainventilation requirements, automaticallyminimizingintake rates for energy usage and preventingothercontrol inputsfrom causing amaximum intake limitfrom being exceeded.CONCLUSIONSAmerican Society of Heating and Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers read more..

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    Auditing: Facility EnergyUseWarren M. HeffingtonIndustrial Assessment Center,Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University,College Station, Texas, U.S.A.AbstractThis entry discusses the energy audit and assessment processes, including the analysis of utility data,walk-through assessments, detailed assessments, and the reporting of results. This article will also provide abrief history of energy auditing, as well as alook toward the future.INTRODUCTIONEnergy assessments are read more..

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    implementation costs. Walkthroughs and detailed assess-ments may be subdivided into projects requiring littlecapitaland capital intensive projects. These low-capitalprojects are sometimes tasks that employees such asmaintenance personnel shouldbeaccomplishing as part oftheir regular duties, sometimes known as maintenance andoperation(M&O)opportunities,. ASHRAE designates theassessments and projects by levels: Level I—WalkthroughAssessment, Level II—EnergySurvey and Analysis, andLevel read more..

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    previous energy assessments. Plant personnel shouldalsobe asked about any in-house studies to save energy, reducewaste, and increase productivity that may have beenundertaken.Detailed AssessmentsThe goal of detailed assessmentsistogather accuratetechnical data that will allow the assessment team toprepare aformal,technical reportdescribing projectsthat can be implemented in the facility to contain costs.Theeffectiveness of cost saving projects generallydependsoncalculation of reductions in read more..

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    includinginformation about breaks in operation such aslunch and information about holidays.Technical andphysicaldatauseful in identifyingprojects, calculating savings, designing conceptual pro-jects or management procedures to capture the savings,estimating implementation costs, andcomposing thefacility description may be obtainedinany phase of theassessment process. Some information will have beenobtainedprior to the walkthrough assessment visit,butduring the walkthrough,additional information read more..

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    placed energy-efficient retrofits in public buildings in thestate of Texas pioneered this approach.[8]Each project should refer to the plant description for thelocation of systems and for information about equipment;similarly, it should refer to the energy consumption sectionwhenthat area is important to the recommendation.Assessment recommendations are an acceptable placeto show the environmental effect of each recommendationby calculating the carbon equivalent, or NOx,reductiondue to read more..

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    and is the consumption of energy in abilling perioddivided by the peak demand and the number of operatinghours in the billing period).Inthiscase, the computed loadfactor can be comparedtounity, which would representthe best possibleuse of the plant’s equipment duringoperatinghours.Commonly, no plantorsystem actuallyachieves unity, so aproduction load factor of 75 or 85%may be considered good. As adiagnostic tool, if theproduction load factor exceeds unity, and nothing in theplant should be read more..

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    Auditing: Improved AccuracyBarney L. CapehartDepartment of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida College ofEngineering, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.Lynne C. CapehartConsultant and Technical Writing Specialist, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractAfrequent criticism of the quality and accuracy of energy audits is that they overestimate the savingspotential for many customers. This entry discusses several problem areas that can potentially result inover-optimistic savings read more..

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    facility. Then we list the equipment and estimateits energyconsumption and demand using data gathered at thefacility such as nameplate ratings of the equipment andoperatinghours. We develop our energy balance by majorequipment categories such as lighting, motors, heating,ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC), air compressors,etc. We also have acategory called miscellaneous toaccount for loads that we did not individually survey, suchas copiers, electric typewriters, computers, and other read more..

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    With data on the horsepower, efficiency, load factor, andruntimes of motors we can construct adetailed table ofmotor energy and demands to use in our balances.Motorload factorswill be discussedfurther in alater section.Air CompressorsAir compressorsare aspecial case of motor use with mostof the same problems. Some help is available in thiscategorybecause someair compressors have instrumentsshowing the load factor and some have runtime indicatorsfor hours of use. Otherwise, use of two minidata read more..

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    electricity to compute the savings. Because the averagecost of electricity includes ademand component, usingthis average cost to compute the savings for companieswho operate on morethan one shift can overstate the dollarsavings. This is because the energy cost during the off-peak hours does notinclude ademand charge. Afairlyobvious exampleofthis type of problem occurs when theaverage cost of electricity is used to calculate savings frominstalling high-efficiency security lighting. In this read more..

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    if this error is repeated for all the motors for the entirefacility as well as all other measures that only reduce thedemand component during the off-peak hours, then thecumulative error in CS predictions can be substantial.Motor Load FactorsMany of us in the energy auditing business started offassuming that motors ran at full load or near full load andbased our energy consumption analysis and energy-savinganalysis on that premise. Most books and publications thatgive aformula for finding the read more..

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    For example, alarge ventilating fan that operates at fullload continuously without anytemperatureorotherfeedback may not use less energy with an efficient drivebelt because the fan may run faster as aresult of the drivebelt having lessslip. Similarly, apump which operatescontinuously to circulate water may not use less energywith an efficient drive belt. This is an area that needs somemonitoring and metering studies to check the actual results.Whether or not efficient drive belts result in read more..

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    ASD itself will not save any greatamount of energyormoney. Adding them in might double the cost of thebasicASD and double the paybacktime that may haveoriginally been envisioned.Similarly, for awater or other liquid flow application,the system piping or valving must be altered to remove anythrottling or bypass valves and afeedback sensormustbe installedtoallow the ASD to know whatspeed tooperate the pump motor. If several sensors are involved inthe application, aPLC may also be neededtocontrol read more..

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    Auditing: User-FriendlyReportsLynne C. CapehartConsultant and Technical Writing Specialist, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractEnergy audits do not save money and energy for companies unless the recommendations are implemented.Audit reports should be designed to encourage implementation, but often they impede it instead. In thisarticle, the author discusses her experience with writing industrial energy audit reports and suggests someways to make the reports more user-friendly. The goal in read more..

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    writing style. Instead,you should write your audit reportinclear, understandablelanguage. As noted above, yourreader may not have atechnical background. Even areaderwho does will not be offendedifthe report is easy to readand understand. Some specific suggestions are:Simplify your writing by using active voice. Technicalwriters use passive voice, saying “It is recommended...” or“It has been shown...” rather than “We recommend...” or“We have shown...” Passive voice allowsthe read more..

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    cost of electricity, and the calculation of the fraction of airconditioning load attributable to lighting.Be Accurate and ConsistentThe integrity of areport is grounded in its accuracy.Thisdoes not just pertain to the correctness of calculations.Clearly,inaccurate calculations will destroy areport’scredibility, but other problems can alsoundermine thevalue of yourreport.Be consistent throughout the report. Use the sameterminology so your reader is notconfused. Make sure thatyou use the same read more..

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    were cost-effective. Each energy management recommen-dation (or EMR)that was capsulized in the executivesummary was described in depthhere.Again, we tried to makethe EMRs user-friendly. To dothis, we put the narrative discussion at the beginning of therecommendation and left the technical calculations for thevery end. This way,weallowed the readers to decide forthemselves whetherthey wanted to wade through thespecificcalculations.Each EMRstarted with atable that summarized theenergy, demand, read more..

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    ACKNOWLEDGMENTAn earlier version of this article appeared in StrategicPlanning for Energy and the Environment, and it is usedwith permission from Fairmont Press.BIBLIOGRAPHY1. How to Write in Plain English, actionURI(http://www.plainenglish.co.uk):http://www.plainenglish.co.actionURI(http://www.plainenglish.co.uk):uk/plainenglishguide.html.2. AShort Course on Writing Technical Reports, read more..

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    Benefit Cost AnalysisFatouh Al-RagomBuilding and Energy Technologies Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research,Safat, KuwaitAbstractBenefit cost analysis is one of several methods utilized to evaluate the feasibility of capital investment. Thebenefit cost analysis calculates the present worth of all benefits, then calculates the present worth of all costsand takes the ratio of the two sums. This ratio is either known as abenefit/cost ratio, asavings/interest ratio,or read more..

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    as an aid to select the mosteconomically efficient set ofprojects from amongseveral available options that arecompeting for limited funding. Selecting an efficient set ofprojects will maximize aggregate net benefits or netsavings obtainable for the budget.[1] The BCR and the PIexaminecash flows, not accounting profits, and recognizethe time-value of money. While these ratios can beaccuratepredictors of economicefficiency, their accuracydependsonthe accuracy of cash flow read more..

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    boiler that has an efficiency of 65%with anew one that hasan efficiency of 85%. Assuming that the lifespan of theboiler is 10 years and the discount rate is 5%, evaluate ifthis investment is cost-effective or not. The boiler uses oiland consumes 6000 gallons/year at acost of $1.25 pergallon.This example comparesthe option of using anew boilerto the “do nothing” option of usingthe old boiler.Accordingly, due to the higherefficiency of the newboiler,annual operational costs will be read more..

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    decreasesbenefitsorsavings) will affect the relativerankings of competing independent projects, andthereby influence investment decisions.[1]† Biasing effects, detrimental to economicefficiency, canresult from certainformulationsofthe BCR and SIRratios. As an example, when comparing competingprojects that differ significantly in their maintenancecosts, placing maintenance costs in the denominatorwith investmentcosts tends to bias the final selectionaway from projects with relatively high read more..

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    Alternatives Band F, with atotal cost of $14,420, can beselected.Example 3Acompany has amaximum of $1.5 million to invest inretrofitting old buildingstoreducetheir energy consump-tion. After evaluating numerous projects, only thosethatare listed in actionGoTo:123,Table actionGoTo:123,3 were selected to analyze. Unfortu-nately, to undertake all theseprojects atotal fund of $2.215million is required. Accordingly, adecision hastobemadeto stay within the budget constraint.The projects in Table 4are read more..

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    BiomassAlbertoTraversoDipartimento di Macchine Sistemi Energetici eTrasporti, Thermochemical Power Group,Universita` di Genova, Genova,ItalyAbstractThis entry deals with biomass as an energy source. Different types of biomass are described from the energyperspective, focusing on those more interesting for energy application. The main energy conversiontechnologies available are outlined, as well as the properties of their main products. Finally, an overviewover the benefits that come from read more..

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    The mostimportant property of biomassfeedstockswith regard to combustion—and to the other thermo-chemical processes—is the moisture content, whichinfluences the energy content of the fuel. Wood,justafter falling, has atypical 55% water content and LHV ofapproximately7.1 MJ/kg; logwood after 2–3 yearsofair-drying maypresent20% watercontentand LHVof 14.4 MJ/kg; pellets show aquite constant humiditycontent of about 8% with LHV equal to 17 MJ/kg.MECHANICAL PROCESSESFOR ENERGYDENSIFICATIONSome read more..

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    BIOMASS COMBUSTIONThe burning of wood and othersolid biomass is the oldestenergy technology used by man.Combustion is awell-established commercial technology with applications inmost industrializedand developing countries,anddevelopment is concentrated on resolving environmentalproblems, improving the overall performancewith multi-fuel operation, and increasing the efficiency of the powerand heat cycles (CHP).The devices used for direct combustion of solid bio-mass fuels range from small read more..

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    fluidized bed boilersachieve efficiencies over 90%while flue gas emissions are lower than for conven-tional grate combustion duetolower combustiontemperatures.† Indirectcofiring.Biomass is first gasified and the fuelgas is cofiredinthe main boiler.Sometimesthe gas hasto be cooled and cleaned, which is more challengingand implies higheroperation costs.† Parallel combustion.The biomassisburnt in aseparateboiler for steam generation. The steam is used in apower plant together with the read more..

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    value in the order of 4–7 MJ/m3,which is exploitableforboiler,engine, and turbine operation, but due to its lowenergy density,itisnot suitable for pipeline transportation.If pure oxygen is used, the syngas high heating valuealmost doubles (approximately10–18 MJ/m3 high heatingvalue), hence such asyngas is suitable for limited pipe-line distribution as well as for conversion to liquid fuels(e.g., methanol and gasoline). However, the most commontechnology is the air gasification because it read more..

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    compatible with existing diesel engines only if blendedwith conventional diesel fuel at rates not higherthan5%–10%involume. Higher rates may lead to emissionand engine durability problems.† Bioethanolisethanol produced from biomassorthebiodegradable fraction of waste. Bioethanolcan beproduced from any biological feedstock that containsappreciable amounts of sugar or othermatter that canbe converted into sugar, such as starch or cellulose.Also, ligno-cellulosic materials (wood and straw) read more..

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    concerned with the conversion of biomassinto usefulfuels for transportation, such as biodiesel, bioethanol,biomethanol, and others. All of them can effectivelycontribute to thetransition to amoresustainabletransportation system at zero GHG emissions.Biomass represents aviable option for greenenergyresourcesofthe 21st century.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe author wishes to thankProfessor A. F. MassardooftheUniversity of Genoa for the invaluable help during the lastyears of research activity.REFERENCES1. read more..

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    Boilers and Boiler Control SystemsEric PeterschmidtHoneywell Building Solutions, Honeywell, Golden Valley,Minnesota, U.S.A.Michael TaylorHoneywell Building Solutions, Honeywell, St. Louis Park, Minnesota, U.S.A.AbstractMany commercial and industrial facilities use boilers to produce steam or hot water for space heating or forprocess heating. Boilers are typically major users of energy, and any person involved in energymanagement needs to know how aboiler works and how the performance of aboiler read more..

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    Modular boilers are small,hot water boilersrated from200,000to900,000 Btu/h input. These boilersareavailable with gross efficiencies of 85% or higher. actionGoTo:134,Fig. actionGoTo:134,3shows the features of atypical modular boiler.Theseboilersare often used in tandem to provide hot water forspace heating and/or domestic hot water.For example, ifthe designed heating load were 2million Btu/h, four600,000 Btu/h(input) modular boilers might be used. Ifthe load were 25% or lessona particular day, read more..

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    boiler’s input rate. Input ratings are usually shown on theboiler’s (or burner’s) nameplate. The terms bhp (boilerhorse power),EDR (equivalent direct radiation), andpounds per hour (of steam) indicatethe boiler’s outputrate.Gross efficiency of the boiler is the output(steam orwater heat content and volume) divided by the fuel input(measured by afuelmeter at steady-statefiringconditions). The combustion efficiency, as indicated byflue gas conditions, does not take into account read more..

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    thefuel. It does not account forexcessheating ofcombustion air, or losses from leaks or the boiler jacket,among otherfactors.For oil-fired boilers, the oil burners are usually of theatomizing variety, that is, they provide afine spray of oil.Several types of these oil burners exist:–Gun type burners sprayoil into aswirlingair supply.–Horizontal, rotary burners use aspinning cup to whirloil and air into the furnace.–Steam- or air-atomizing burners use high pressured airor 25 psig steam to read more..

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    Unless alow-limitfor water temperature is used, hotwater boiler burners are not controlledtoprovide watertemperatures based on outdoor temperatures, because theresetschedules require water temperatures to be suppliedbelowthe dewpoint temperature of the flue gas. Someboilersrequire incoming water temperatures to be above1408Fbeforegoing to high-fire.Inthis case, if abuilding isusinga hot water system and the boiler is locked into low-fire because the incoming water is too cold, the systemmay read more..

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    safeguardcontrol generally goes through aseries ofoperations similar to the following.–Purge the firebox of unburned fuel vapor (prepurge).–Light the pilot.–Verify that the pilot is lit.–Open the main fuel valve.–Verify that the flame is present as soon as fuel isintroduced.–Cut offthe fuel supply promptly if the flame fails.–Purge the firebox of any unburned fuel after eachon-cycle (post-purge).The key to any flame safeguard system is areliable andfast means of detecting the read more..

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    The DualBoiler Plant Control examplein actionGoTo:139,Fig. actionGoTo:139,12 is adual boiler plant with high-fire/low-fire controlled boilers.Aminimum incoming water temperature of 1458Fisrequiredprior to high-fire, water flowmust be maintainedwhenthe boiler is enabled, and asecondary hot water resetschedule of 1108Fwater at 558FOAtemperature and1808Fwater at 58FOAtemperature. These concepts adaptwell for single- or multiple-boiler systems.Fig. 10 Combustion controls with flame safeguard read more..

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    FunctionalDescriptionItem no.Function1On/off/auto function forsecondary pumping system2On/off/auto function forheating system3Selects the lead boiler4Heating system start point (OAtemperature)5, 6On/off/auto function forprimary pumpsItem no.Function7, 8Off/auto function for boilers9Heating system stop point (OAtemperature)10, 11Operator information12–14Valve modulates to preventincoming water from droppingbelow the low-limit setpoint(1458F)Fig. 12 Dual boiler plant control read more..

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    Item no.Function15–18Secondary water setpoint resetfrom OA19, 20Valve modulates to preventincoming water from droppingbelow the low-limit setpoint(1458F)21–23Operator information24Icon, selects the Boiler SystemControl dynamic display (asseen in Fig. 13)25, 26Software signal selectionfunctions, allows valve tocontrol secondary HWtemperature, subject to boilerlow-limits27OA reset valve control PIDFeatures1. Full flow through operating boilers2. Minimum temperaturelimit on read more..

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    plant shall be disabled anytime the OA temperature rises to658Ffor greater than 1min and after May 1.Anytime the boiler plant is enabled, the leadboiler’sprimary pump shall start and, as flow is proven, the boilershall fire under its factorycontrols to maintain1808F. Ifthe lead boiler’s status does not change to “on,” or if flowis not provenwithin 5min,the lag boiler shall be enabled.During boiler operation, athree-wayblending valveshall position to place the boiler flow in read more..

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    BIBLIOGRAPHY1. Boilers and Fired Systems. Chapter 5in Energy ManagementHandbook,5th Ed., Turner, W.C., Ed., Fairmont Press:Lilburn, GA, 2006.2. Petchers, N. Boilers. Combined Heating, Cooling, and PowerHandbook;Fairmont Press: Lilburn, GA, 2003; (Chapter 7).3. Boilers, Chapter 27, ASHRAE Handbook of HVAC Sytems andEquipment;American Society of Heating, Air Conditioning,and Refrigerating Engineers: Atlanta, GA, 2004.4. Heselton Ken, Boiler Operators Handbook,Fairmont Press:Lilburn, GA.5. Harry read more..

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    Building Automation Systems (BAS): Direct Digital ControlPaul J. AllenReedyCreek Energy Services, Walt Disney World Co., Lake Buena Vista, Florida, U.S.A.Rich RemkeCommercial Systems and Services, Carrier Corporation, Syracuse, New York, U.S.A.AbstractThis chapter is designed to help energy managers understand some of the fundamental concepts of BuildingAutomation Systems (BAS). ABAS is used to control energy consuming equipment—primarily forheating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) read more..

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    CONTROLLER-LEVELHARDWAREAND SOFTWAREController HardwareBuilding automation systemscontrollersare used toprovide the inputs, outputs, and global functions requiredto control the mechanical and electrical equipment. MostBAS manufacturersprovide avarietyofcontrollerstailored to suit the specific need. Shown below is alistof the most common BAS controllers.Communicationsinterface:Provides thecommuni-cation interface between the operator workstation andthe lower-tier controller network. On apolling read more..

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    Controller Communications NetworkThe BAS controllernetwork varies depending on themanufacturer. Several of the mostcommon BAS controllernetworks used today include RS-485, Ethernet, attachedresource computer network(ARCNET), and LonWorks.RS-485.This network type was developed in 1983 bytheElectronicIndustries Association(EIA) andtheTelecommunicationsIndustryAssociation (TIA). TheEIA once labeled all its standards with the prefix “RS”(recommended standard). An RS-485 network is ahalf-duplex, read more..

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    Server Hardware and SoftwareServers provide scalability, centralized globalfunctions,data warehousing, multiuseraccess, and protocol trans-lations for amidsize to large BAS.Servers have becomemoreprominent in the BAS architecture as the need hasgrowntointegratemultivendor systems, publishandanalyze data over an intranet or extranet, and provide multi-user access to the BAS. While havinga central server on adistributed BAS may seem contradictory, in reality, aserverdoes not take awayfrom the read more..

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    processes. The key to justifying the costs associated withnetworking aBAS is that it can be done at areasonablecost and is relatively simple to implement and operate.Thereare threemain strategies availablewhenupgrading aBAS from astandalone system to anet-work-based system:1. Remove the existing BAS and replace it with anewnetwork-based BAS.2. Update the existing BAS with the same manufac-turer’s latest network-based system.3. Install aBAS interface productthat networks withan existingBAS.The read more..

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    madebydifferent manufacturers, so that alighting controlpanel can receive aphotocell input from arooftop buildingcontroller or avariable-frequency drive can communicatean alarm on the BAS when afailure occurs.The future will require aBAS to connecttoenterprise-levelsystems, not just building-level systems. This iswhere M2M and Web services come into play.Webservices can be thought of as plug-insallowing aBAS tocommunicate with aWeb-based system or server. Anexample of thiswould be time read more..

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    Corporation, AppleComputer, Sun Microsystems, andothers, they can still be custom solutions tailored to aspecific accounting, maintenance management,orenergyprocurement system. For Web services to become main-stream in the BAS world, common serviceswillneed to becreatedthat can be used by all BAS vendors. In addition,for Web services to be implemented properly in facilities,the skill set for BAS programmers and installers will needto include XMLand abasicunderstanding of IP. If read more..

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    Building Geometry: EnergyUse Effect*GeoffreyJ.GilgPepco Energy Services, Inc., Arlington, Virginia, U.S.A.Francisco L. ValentinePremier Energy Services, LLC, Columbia, Maryland, U.S.A.AbstractEnergy service companies (ESCOs) use the energy use index (EUI) as atool to evaluate abuilding’s potentialfor reduction in energy use. Select Energy Services, Inc. (SESI) has found that consideration of buildinggeometry is useful in evaluating abuilding’s potential for energy use reduction. Building read more..

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    BUILDING GEOMETRYBuilding geometry is an important factor to consider fromadesign standpoint. It influences heat loss, heat gains,infiltration, and solargains which influence the heatingand cooling load.Typically, the more wall (includingwindows) area available, the higher the heating andcooling loads. The first 10–15 ft from the exterior wall isconsidered theperimeterzone. Theperimeterzoneheating/cooling load is constantly changing because it isunder the influence of the weathervia the read more..

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    such as orientation, location, and geometry to be changedwith akeystroke. Aschedule of model assumptions isprovided in Appendix A.RESULTSAfter conducting thebuildingloadand energyusesimulations, afactor has emergedthat explains why abuilding uses moreorless energy per square foot thananother. This factor takes into account differences inbuilding geometry when evaluating energy use reductionpotential. This geometric ratio (GR) is defined as the ratioof gross perimeter wall area (Awall)togross read more..

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    retrofits, and roof insulation upgrades may have alargerEUI impact in building with lower GRs. This is becausethe percentage of contribution of outdoor air, lighting, androof conduction to the total building load is typicallyhigher for buildings with lower GRs.CONCLUSIONSAt the conclusion of the calculations and simulations usingTracew and PowerDOEw,SESI believesthat it has, at leastin small part, contributedtoa better understandingofbuilding geometry and its impact on heating and read more..

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    System typeGas unitheatersGas unitheatersGas unitheatersWindow percentage(of wall area)202020Occupancy(people/1000 ft2)555Ventilation(ft3/min/ft2)0.050.050.05Lighting load(W/ft2)1.5 W1.51.5Equipment load(W/ft2)0.25 W0.250.25ExamplesParameterModel#1-Building AModel#2-Building BModel #2Length!width (ft)See Fig. 2See Fig. 3100!80Number of floors332Orientation(long side)15 Southof due east15 Southof due east75System typeVAVw/hotwaterreheatVAVw/hotwaterreheatVAVw/hotwaterreheatWindow percentage(of read more..

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    Building System SimulationEssam Omar Assem1Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, Arab Organizations Headquarters Building,Shuwaikh, KuwaitAbstractThis entry addresses the topic of building energy system simulation and touches on its importance, benefits,and relevance to the research, architecture, and engineering communities. The entry first gives anillustration of the different energy flow paths that occur in buildings and then describes the main features ofthe approaches that have read more..

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    † The process of plant interaction with building zonesaffects their thermal comfort and can be causedbytheaction of athermostat sensing and monitoring thezone’s air condition. The thermostat setting can beinfluenced by the building occupants or by the action ofan automatic control mechanism.† Control processes are causedbythe response of aplant system to dynamically changing internal con-ditions. The plantresponse is influenced by the streamof signals constantly being fed back to the read more..

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    first-generation models related to quantifyingtransientheat conduction through multilayered constructions wasovercomebysecond-generation models, anumber ofnew problems emerged. These problems include the needfor fast, powerfulcomputers; an extensive input data setto define building geometry; and moreappropriate userinterfaces.In recent years, numerical methods in third-generationmodels have played an increasingly important role in theanalysisofheat transfer problems. Numerical methods canbe read more..

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    † Building system simulation are used extensively todevelop codes and standards for energy conservationin different classes of buildings.THE SIMULATION PROCESSIn anyBSS program, thewhole process can berepresented by threemainstages:modeldefinition,simulation, and result analysis and interpretation, asindicated in Fig. 2. Dependingonthe level of detail, thebuilding first has to be described in amanner that isacceptable to the program. The early versions of theDOE-2,[5] for example, read more..

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    † Shading devices.Theycould be used on an opaquesurface(wallsorroof)and transparentsurfaces(windows and glassdoors).† Transparent surfaces.Their size, geometry, and opticalproperties (visible transmittance, solar transmittance,absorptance, and U-value) for both exterior and interiorsurfaces.† Plant.Thisisthe system used to maintainthe internalenvironment of abuilding at acertaintemperature andhumidity, such as the HVAC system.† Infiltration.Thisrelates to the uncontrolled bidirec-tional read more..

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    blinds were open in the dayroom and that afixed infiltrationrate of one air change per hour prevailed. Shading analysiswas performed to take intoaccount any obstructions andoverhangs. The resulting temperatures are shown in Fig. 3.As indicated, the thermal stresses in the dayroom aresignificant. In reality, it is unlikely that fixed infiltration willoccur,because this will depend on manyfactors, such as themagnitude of open windows, cracks, vents, and so on, aswell as changesinpressures and read more..

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    heating2%cooling64%Lighting andequipment34 %Components distribution ofannual energy consumption.Wire-frame representation of eachfloor in the villa.Basementfloor9:00 h11:00 h16:00hPeak load components.Shading analysis for the assembled villa.internal load5%Ventilationandoccupants(latent)28%15:00hSecondfloorFirstfloorGroundfloorVentilation(sensible)20%surface flux(opaque andtransparent)47%Fig. 5 The different stages required, with detailed building energy analysis programs.Source: From read more..

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    actionGoTo:160,Fig. actionGoTo:160,4 shows that for the case with no control,thedayroom temperatureislower than thedining-roomtemperature when there is no solar radiation. The dayroomtemperature increases duringthe day to alevel slightlyhigherthan the dining-room temperature. Heating takesplacewhenthe dayroom and dining-room temperaturesfall below 218C. Adrop in the dayroom’supper-leveltemperature occursinmidmorning because that is whentheextraction fan is activated by read more..

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    2. Ben-Nakhi, A. Development of an integrated dynamicthermal bridging assessment environment. Energy Buildings2003, 35 (4), 375–382.3. Clarke, J.A. The energy kernel system. Energy Buildings1988, 10 (3), 259–266.4. Crawley, D.B., et al. Energy plus: an update. Proceedings ofSimBuild 2004 in Boulder, Colorado. International BuildingPerformance Simulation Association: Boulder, Colorado,United States, August 4–6, 2004.5. DOE-2 DOE-2 Engineers Manual Version 2.1A;NationalTechnical Information read more..

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    Carbon SequestrationNathan E. HultmanScience, Technology,and International Affairs, GeorgetownUniversity,Washington, D.C.,U.S.A.AbstractCarbon dioxide (CO2), abyproduct of hydrocarbon combustion and anatural emission from biomassburning, respiration, or decay, is amajor greenhouse gas and contributor to anthropogenic climate change.Carbon sequestration describes the processes by which carbon can be either removed from the atmosphere(as CO2)and stored, or separated from fuels or flue gases and read more..

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    stations, oil refineries, petrochemical and gas reprocessingplants, and steel and cement works.[1]Separation and CaptureCarbon capture requires an industrialsource of CO2;different industrialprocesses create streams with differentCO2 concentrations.The technologies applied to capturethe CO2 will therefore vary accordingtothe specificcapture process.[2–4] Capture techniques can target one ofthree sources:† Post-combustion flue gases.† Pre-combustion capture from gasification from read more..

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    intermediate steps to purify the synthesisfuel and convertthe byproduct CO into CO2.Gasification resultsinsynthesis gasthat contains35%–60% CO2 (by volume) at high pressure (over 20bar). Whilecurrentinstallationsfeedthisresultingmixture into the gas turbines, the CO2 can also beseparated from the gas before combustion.The higherpressure and concentration give aCO2 partial pressure ofup to 50 times greater than in the post-combustion captureof flue gases, which enables another type of read more..

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    benefit alongwith its placement in areservoir. This benefitcan be used to offset capture costs.Coal deposits that are not economically viable becauseof their geologic characteristicsprovide another storageoption. CO2 pumped into these unmineable coal seamswill adsorb onto the coal surface.Moreover, since the coalsurface prefers to adsorb CO2 to methane, injectingCO2into coal seams will liberate any coal bedmethane(CBM)that can then be extracted andsold.This enhancedmethanerecovery is currently read more..

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    approaches to CCS and the early stages of developmentmake preciseestimates of cost difficult,but currenttechnology spans about $25–$85/t CO2.BIOLOGICAL SEQUESTRATION: ENHANCINGNATURAL CARBON SINKSThe previous sections have described processesbywhichCO2 could be technologically captured and then stored.Photosynthesisprovides an alternateroute to capture andstore carbon. Enhancing this biological process is there-fore an alternative method of achieving lower atmosphericCO2 concentrations by read more..

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    Yet these opportunities are not infinite and additionaloptions will be necessary to address rising globalemis-sions. Thus, the highercosts of current technologicalapproaches are likelytodrop with increasing deploymentand changing market rates for carbon.Possible developmentsinclude advanced CO2 capturetechniques focusing on membranes,ionic (organicsalt)liquids,and microporous metalorganic frameworks.Several alternative,but still experimental,sequestrationapproaches have alsobeen suggested. read more..

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    Career Advancement and Assessment in EnergyEngineeringAlbert ThumannAssociation of Energy Engineers, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.AbstractThe Association of Energy Engineers (AEE) has helped define the profession of energy engineering throughcontinuing education programs and journals. Association of Energy Engineers provides many networkingopportunities through local chapters. This entry details continuing education programs available throughAEE, the salary structure of energy professionals, and read more..

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    1. Please input your base salary (to the nearest$10,000) as of January 1, 2004, to January 1, 2005(exclude bonus, overtime,fees, and income fromsecondary employment).Average Annual Salary: $85,625.00.2. Please inputyouradditionalincome(to thenearest $1000) from primary job, such as bonus,overtime, and fees as of January 1, 2004 toJanuary 1, 2005.Average Annual Bonus Amount:$14,274.07.3. Areyou agraduate from a4-yearaccreditedcollege?4. Do you have apost-graduate degreefrom anaccredited read more..

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    7. Becauseyou have assumed energy managementresponsibilities at your company, are you:A Receiving significantlyhigher compensationthan before?B Receiving higher visibility?C In abetter position for advancement?8. Is your company currently:9. How many years of experience do you have?10. How manyofthose yearshave you been involvedin energy management?11. How manyyearshave you been amemberoftheAssociation of Energy Engineers?12. Please identify thelocationwhere youareemployed.PROFESSIONAL read more..

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    managersingovernment and the privatesector need toknow.The Certified Energy Manager represents a“who’swho” of energy management.Since 1982, more than 6400individuals have gained the status of CEM.The Certified Business Energy Professional (BEP)program awards special recognition to thosebusiness/marketingand energy professionals who have demon-strated ahigh level of competence and ethical fitness forbusiness/marketing and energy management-related dis-ciplines, as well as laws governing read more..

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    both are reviewed by the governing board of the specificprogram.CONTINUINGEDUCATION PROGRAMSOFFERED BY AREAThe AEE offersa wide range of training options. Eachtraining option offersContinuing Education Units (CEUs),which are important for documenting courses successfullycompleted (one CEU equalsten professionaldevelopmenthours [pdh]). In addition, acertificateofparticipation isawarded.In 2005, 27 states required CEUs as aprerequisite forrenewal of professionalengineering licenses.Programs read more..

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    natural gas production history showsthat new wells arebeing depletedmore quickly all the time; the currentdecline rate is 28% per year. Although this is partiallydue to growing demand, it is also due to the fact that thelarge fields of natural gas are all aging and in terminaldecline. Newer natural gas fields tend to be smaller andare produced (and depleted) quickly in the effort tomaintain overall production levels.Production fromwells drilled in 2003 has been declining at arate of23% per read more..

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    Climate Policy: InternationalNathan E. HultmanScience, Technology,and International Affairs, GeorgetownUniversity,Washington, D.C.,U.S.A.AbstractClimate change is along-term problem. Policy to address climate change faces the challenge of motivatingcollective action on global public goods in aworld with no single international authority. Internationalagreements can nevertheless aim to (1) reduce greenhouse gas emissions, possibly through an internationalemissions trading system (ETS) like that read more..

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    Alternatively, agovernmentallyset price on theexternality couldallow producers more flexibility. Thisprice can be set directly as atax (for example, $10 per tonof carbon dioxide (CO2)), or indirectly by setting atotalemissions limit and allowing entities to trade the rights toemit. These methods—taxes, emissions trading, or ahybrid of the two—cangreatly reduce the total cost ofcompliance with theenvironmental target. Emissionstradingsystems comeintwo forms: in abaseline-and-credit (or read more..

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    comprehensive Assessment Reports every5–6 years thatdescribe the current state of expert understandingonclimate, as well as smaller, targeted reports when they arerequested by the internationalcommunity.THE U.N. FRAMEWORK CONVENTIONON CLIMATE CHANGEThe first international treatytoaddress climatechange wasthe United Nations Framework Convention on ClimateChange (UNFCCC), which entered into force in 1994 andhas been ratified by 186 countries, including the UnitedStates.[15] Having emergedfrom read more..

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    more significant treatycalling for binding targets andtimetables, eventually agreeingonthe Kyoto Protocol tothe UNFCCC. Maintaining the principle of the BerlinMandate,delegates rejected language that requiredparticipation by developing countries, thus damping U.S.enthusiasm. Nevertheless, the Kyoto Protocol entered intoforce in 2005, having been ratified by EU countries,Canada, Japan,Russia, and mostdeveloping countries.The UnitedStates and Australia are currently not Partiestothe Protocol. read more..

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    partially separate from this pool since it cannot be banked,or held from one commitment period to the next.Other ProvisionsThe allowance assignmentsand flexibility mechanisms arethe mostsignificant elements of the Kyoto Protocol and itsassociated rules. Other noteworthy commitments includeminimizing impacts on developing countries—primarilythrough funding and technology transfer—and establish-ingexpert teams to develop monitoring,accounting,reporting, and review procedures.The UNFCCC, read more..

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    institutional innovation and GHG market development inthe near term.The most likely interim solution, therefore, will consistof multiple, overlapping regimes that link domestic-levelemissionsreductionsintoone or more internationalmarkets.[29] In this model, the United States could,forexample, institute aunilateraldomestic program thataddressesemissions and then allow Kyoto credits to beadmissible for complianceasthe EU has done. Additionalagreements governing,for example, technology standardsor read more..

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    Coal Production in the U.S.RichardF.BonskowskiFred FremeWilliam D. WatsonOffice of Coal, Nuclear,Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration, U.S.Department of Energy,Washington, D.C., U.S.A.AbstractU.S. coal production is historically important. Coal is now used principally as afuel for electricitygeneration and other industrial processes. Coal mining practices and technologies have become moreproductive due to geographic changes in mining areas and increased mine sizes read more..

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    U.S. production, from just over 60 mmst in 1973 to549 mmst in 2003. This growth was accomplished throughthe deployment of long-distance coal haulage in unit trains(of more than 100 railcars moving coal only, to asingledestination) and the exploitation of scale economies in theform of immense western surface coal mines. AverageU.S. minesizein2003 at 0.814mmstper year farexceeded the average mine sizein1973 of 0.126 mmstper year.The largest U.S. mine, the North AntelopeRochelle Complex in Wyoming, read more..

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    Table 1 Historical coal production by type of mining and by coal rank, selected years (production in millions of short tons)Type of miningYearUndergroundSurfaceaU.S. coalproductionBituminous coalproductionbSubbituminouscoal productionLigniteproductionAnthracite read more..

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    exposedrock at the location where overburdenbecomes too thick foreconomical excavation).Augermininguses alarge-diameter drill to excavateasuccession of holes within the plane of the coalbed, recovering the drilled coal.Highwall mininguses remote-controlled cutting machines, known ashighwall miners—or undergroundminingmachines, knownasthin-seam miners—tomineout successive broad channels of coal from the seamleft in place at the highwall.—Mountaintop Removal (MTR) Mining—An adap-tation of read more..

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    Average productivity growth rates, 1983–2003SurfaceMines5mmst orgreaterOthersurfaceminesLongwallminesOtherundergoundmines5.0%/year3.1%/year5.7%/year2.9%/yearIn the periods 1983–1993and 1993–2003, large-scalesurface technology and longwall technology saw aboutequal gainsinproductivity, decadeover decade (Fig. 2). Incontrast, othertechnologies saw decelerating gains inproductivity. For abroader discussion, see the “CoalMining Productivity” section below.The fourth important trend was read more..

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    Table 2 Production and productivity at U.S. coal mines, selected yearsItem1973198319932003Production(thousand short tons)United StatesUndergroundSurface598,568300,080298,491782,091a300,379a481,713a945,424351,053594,3711,071,753352,785718,968Appalachian regionUndergroundSurface381,629239,636141,993377,952230,191147,761409,718257,433152,285376,775244,468132,307Interior regionUndergroundSurface156,41256,060100,352173,40749,437123,970167,17456,065111,109146,27652,17394,103Western read more..

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    discussed earlier, coal production and mine size grew intandem with shifts to more surface miningand towardtheWest.Keenprice competition motivatedproductivityimprovements accomplished through increased mine sizeand production.Appalachian productivity (Table 2) did not increasebetween1973 and 1983, primarily because of productivitydeclines in surface mining. Between 1983and 2003, bothsurface and underground mininginAppalachia improved.The annual average percentage increaseinproductivity read more..

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    droppedfrom the top U.S. coal-producing region to secondplace, as western coal filled rising coal demand. In 1973,Appalachian production was 381.6 mmst. Production was378.0 mmst in 1983, 409.7 mmst in 1993, and only 376.8by 2003. The split betweensurface and undergroundmininginthe Appalachian region also has been relativelystable.Coal production in theInteriorregionalsohaschangedlittle over the course of 30 years. Interiorproduction was 156.4 mmst in 1973, 173.4 mmst in1983, 167.2 mmst in 1993, read more..

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    the noise and moving machinery. New roof boltersarehighly automated and shield the operator. Advances sincethe 1980s in distancing the operator from the working coalface also came with the accelerated use of highwall miners,which employ video or sensor-aided monitors to give theoperator effective remote control of mining for distancesapproaching 1000 ft. Robotic miningisexpected to grow.Scaled-down longwall machines are now beingtestedthinner than 4ft, and robotic cutting tools have been read more..

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    identified, equated to 1% of U.S. production.[12] By 1983,the shares were at least 21 and 63%.[13,14] The term “atleast” acknowledges that the 1973 statistics covered allmines with at least 1000short tons of annual coalproduction; whereas the 1983 survey“supplement”cover-ing prep plants was limited to larger mines, with at least100,000 short tons of production.Coal washingcan produce largevolumes of waste.In2002, about 25% of the raw coal processed throughpreparation plants was read more..

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    Table 3 Historical U.S. coal prices at the mine or source, by coal rank, selected years (prices in dollars per short ton, expressed in nominal dollars and in inflation-adjusted year-2000dollars)Average price U.S. coalsalesAverage price ofbituminous coalaAverage price ofsubbituminous coalAverage price of ligniteAverage price of anthraciteYearNominal($)Real ($)Nominal($)Real ($)Nominal($)Real ($)Nominal($)Real ($)Nominal($)Real read more..

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    Coal at metallurgical coke plantsYearDelivered real price per short ton(in year 2000 dollars)1973$62.071983$90.941993$53.682003$47.77Industrial coal can be of any rank. It is coal used toproduceheat for steam or industrialprocesses. Typicalindustrial coal consumersinclude manufacturing plants,papermills,foodprocessors, andcementandlimestone products.Prices[21] tend to be higher than forcoal received at electricity producers, primarily read more..

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    19. AnnualSummary of Cost andQuality of Electric UtilityPlantFuel 1976;BureauofPower,Federal PowerCommission:Washington,DC, 1977; 12; Cost and QualityofFuels forElectric UtilityPlants1983,DOE/EIA-0191(83);EnergyInformationAdministration: Washington,DC, 1984;27;Electric PowerMonthly,EnergyInformation Administration:Washington,DC, 68; actionURI(http://www.eia.doe.gov):http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/actionURI(http://www.eia.doe.gov):epm/table4_1.html (accessedasTables4.1,October 2005).20. read more..

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    Coal Supplyinthe U.S.Jill S. TietjenTechnically Speaking, Inc., Greenwood Village, Colorado, U.S.A.AbstractThe United States has approximately 275 billion tons of coal resources in the ground, enough to last morethan 200 years at current rates of consumption. Coal ranks in the United States are (from lowest to highest)lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite. Estimated recoverable reserves of coal are located in 32states, and mining currently takes place in 26 of them. Coal is mined in read more..

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    Anthracite is the hardest coal (often referred to as hardcoal), is brittle,has ahigh luster, and gives offthe secondgreatestamount of heat when it burns (averaging12,500 Btu/lb). It is low in volatile matter and has ahighpercentage of fixed carbon. Anthracite accounts for asmallamount of the total coal resources in the United States. It isfound mainlyinPennsylvania and is generally used forspace heating.Since the 1980s, anthracite refuse or minewaste has been used to generate read more..

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    content.Mining primarily is found today in the IllinoisBasin states of Illinois, Indiana, and western Kentucky. Inthe Illinois Basin,mostcoal with lower chlorine contenthasalreadybeen mined, andmostofthe desirableremainingcoal will need to be mined in deep undergroundmines in the future. Bituminous coal depositsare found inother states in the region, including Michigan, Iowa,Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, andpart of Texas.Lignitesinthe Gulf Coast region are found in read more..

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    so that the surface on top of the pits can be reclaimed.When the area has been replanted, it can often be used forany purpose that could have occurred before the land wasmined: cropland;wildlife habitat; recreation; or offices,homes, and stores. In the case of mountaintop removalmining, which is used primarily in Appalachia, the surfaceon top of the coal is not restored to its original contour.There are several types of surface mines: area,contour,mountaintop removal, auger,and open pit. Area read more..

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    States. Industries and businesses also burn coal in theirown power plants to produceelectricity. Thecoal isburnedtoheat water to produce steam that turns turbinesand generators to produceelectricity.Industries across the UnitedStates use coal for heat andas achemical feedstock. Derivatives of coal,includingmethanol and ethylene, are used to makeplastics, tar,synthetic fibers, fertilizers, and medicine. The concreteand paper industriesalso burn coal. Altogether, industrialcustomers consumemore read more..

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    temperatures andthe fluxing propertiestoisolateimpurities madepossiblebyusing coke give steel thestrengthand flexibility requiredfor bridges, buildings, andautomobiles.Coal provides more than half of the electricity in thiscountry, as shown in Fig. 5, and in certain areasofthecountry accounts for about two-thirds of the fuel mix forelectric powergeneration. Natural gas use has increasedsignificantly in recent years, as newer generating facilitiesover the past decadewere almost read more..

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    REFERENCES1. Energy Information Administration. U.S. Coal Reserves:1997 Update. DOE/EIA-0529(97). Available at: actionURI(http://tonto.eia.doe.gov):http://tonto.actionURI(http://tonto.eia.doe.gov):eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/coal/052997.pdf (accessed August2006); Energy Information Administration. Energy Kid’sPage. Coal—A Fossil Fuel. Available at: actionURI(http://www.eia.doe.gov):www.eia.doe.gov/actionURI(http://www.eia.doe.gov):kids/energyfacts/sources/non-renewable/coal.html (accessedApril read more..

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    Coal-to-Liquid FuelsGraham ParkerBattelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,U.S. Department of Energy,Richland,Washington, U.S.A.AbstractAchemical process used for turning coal into liquid fuels that has the potential for producing hundreds ofthousands of barrels per day of hydrocarbon liquids and other byproducts—including electricity—isdescribed. The key to converting coal to liquids is the Fischer–Tropsch (FT) process, which was invented inGermany in the 1920s. This process is used read more..

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    The FT process involves the use of slurry-bubble-column (slurry phase)systemsusingeither cobalt-based(Co) or iron-based (Fe) catalysts.With these catalysts,two operating temperatures are available: low and high.For either catalyst, the FT process is exothermic. TheFT reaction vessels mustbeactively cooled to keepthem at optimal temperature for the reaction. The heatenergy released by the FT process is not at ahighenough temperature (2008C–3008C) to drive the pro-duction of syngas (the upstream read more..

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    Cobalt catalysts have the advantage of ahigherconversion rate and alonger life (over five years);however, Co catalysts are less tolerant to sulfur andthus the upstream cleaning processes after gasificationmustremove most of the sulfur from the syngas. Ingeneral, theCocatalysts aremorereactive forhydrogenation and therefore producelessunsaturatedhydrocarbonsand alcohols comparedtoiron catalysts.Processes have been developed to efficientlyand costeffectivelyreactivate/regenerate and read more..

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    can be achieved whenthe FT synthesis is optimizedtowardproductionofwax.Subsequently, the wax can beselectively post-processed (hydrocrackingsimilar toprocessesina refinery) to yield predominantly dieselfuel.The resulting FT fuels from either aFeorCocatalyst-based process are cleaner-burning than similar fuels fromcrude oil refining because manyofthe impurities areremoved during the synthesis. The resulting fuels arecolorless, odorless,and low in toxicity. Fischer–Tropschfuels can be used in read more..

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    10,000–12,000 bpd of ultra-lowsulfurFTdiesel fordistribution in Wyoming, California, and other Westernstates.Itisestimated that the facility will require about 3million tons per year of Wyoming Powder River Basincoal for every10,000 bpd of fuels production. The studyalso considered various levels of cogeneration of electricpowerfor saletothe localtransmission grid.[5]Fischer–Tropschprojects based on coal are currentlyunder development in Illinois,Kentucky, and Mississippi.The CTL read more..

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    SITING AND OPERATING CTL PLANTSThe development pathway for CTL plants is uncertain,giventhe myriad of choices of provenfull-scalegasification processes that must be integrated withunproven (on afull-scale) FT processesotherthan theSasol Ltd. Fischer–Tropsch process—which has only beenused in afullscaleplant with South African coal. AlthoughaCTL plant has the potential for producing tens ofthousands of barrelsofclean fuel (and other byproducts) inan environmentally-friendly process, there read more..

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    blending stock for gasolinerefining (road or pipelinetransport). Environmental issues related to increased coaltransport(noise, dust) wouldneed to be addressed by eachstate and community through which the trains would pass.AIR QUALITYACTL plant emitsfar fewer criteria pollutantsinto theatmosphere than even the best-controlled and mostefficientcoal combustion powerplant. Sulfur (as H2S) and mercury(aselemental mercuryand capturedinimpregnatedactivated carbon absorbent) are read more..

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    the permitting process should not be onerous. Permittingwould include addressing state and federal (EnvironmentalProtection Agency) requirements for both acombustionpower plant(power plantsiting)—given electricity isgenerated on-siteina combustion turbine,and achemicalplant (industrial siting)—given the gasificationand FTprocess are chemical processes. This includesnew sourceperformance standards and Clean Air Act requirements.Thesignificantsolid wastetobedisposedofisnontoxic, nonleachable read more..

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    † The dearth of industry/independent data on the long-term use of CTL/FT diesel fuel used in conventional(today’s) diesel engines, particularly in theU.S.transportation industry.† Environmental issues related to carbon capture andsequestration as well as inexperience with siting andoperating afull-scale CTL plant, including issuesrelated to “dirty coal” and the difficulty of siting ofrefineries.REFERENCES1. actionURI(http://www.sasol.com):www.sasol.com (accessed on March 2006).2. read more..

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    Cold Air Retrofit: Case Study*James P. WaltzEnergy Resource Associates, Inc., Livermore, California, U.S.A.AbstractThe first-cost focus of new construction can often result in buildings that do not work—particularly theHeating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems. This article presents an innovative cold airretrofit that corrected designed-in HVAC inadequacies in an office building. By utilizing cold air, theretrofit overcame insufficient airflow and insufficient cooling read more..

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    seen so far is about 30%, and we think even that is abitoptimistic. When you consider that the lighting systemheat gain can contribute as muchas40%–60% of the totalheat gain in an occupied space, this had adramatic effecton the calculated supplyair cfm. Add to thisthe fact thatthe HVACsystem was designed for a“shell” building andthe eventual tenant build-out did not employ return airtroffer lighting fixtures, you can start to get an idea of howmuchtrouble this building was in. But read more..

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    MAKINGTHE FIXUpon completion of the study, ERA was engaged toprepare final installationdocuments. This work wasperformed in collaboration with the owner’s selectedcontractor so as to achieve maximum integration of designconcepts and the contractor’s workingknowledge of thebuilding (the contractor had the service contract for thebuilding).Final selectionofequipmentwas made,simplifiedinstallation drawings were prepared,and theproject installedand put into operationover a90-dayperiod, read more..

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    Combined Heat and Power(CHP): Integration with IndustrialProcessesJames A. ClarkClark Energy,Inc., Broomall, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.AbstractThis entry discusses the integration of combined heat and power (CHP), otherwise known as cogeneration,with industrial processes. It builds on other entries in this encyclopedia that discuss the basics of CHP orcogeneration.INTRODUCTIONThis section discussesthe integration of CHP,also referredto as cogeneration, with industrial processes. Topicsdiscussed in read more..

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    Aprime difference between synchronous vs. inductiongeneratorsisthat the synchronous generator is self-excited. This means that the powerfor the magnet issuppliedbythe generator and its control system.Bycontrast, an induction generator is excitedbythe utility.When utility powerislost, the loss of excitation power willtheoretically shut down the induction generator. However,there is achancethat other electricsystem componentscould provide the excitation requiredtostart the generator.Therefore, in read more..

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    generation system was added. Exhaust gas was fed into asteam generator to producesteam directly at 100 psig.Asecondary heat exchanger was added after the steamgenerators in order to recover additional energy.The secondunique applicationwas aheat exchangerbeingadded to awater pulping tank.Water and paper pulpare added in one of the first steps of the paper-makingprocess. This water/pulp slurry was heated by directinjected steam originally. Water at 2008Fwas introducedto the tank via apiping read more..

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    as much, or more, gas usage as an 80% efficient boiler.Further discountswere offered for interruptible fuel rates,wherein acustomer agrees to reducetheir gas usage uponnotification from the gas company. Gas companies wereable to offer these interruptible discounts because theywere usingspare distributionpipecapacityduringnonwinter months. In the late 1990s, natural gas fuelprices began to abruptly increase. Many discount gas rateshave disappeared since then.FUTURECONSIDERATIONSIn the future, read more..

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    Commissioning: Existing BuildingsDavid E. ClaridgeDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Associate Director,Energy Systems Laboratory,TexasA& MUniversity,College Station, Texas, U.S.A.Mingsheng LiuArchitecturalEngineering Program,Director,Energy Systems Laboratory,Peter Kiewit Institute,University of Nebraska—Lincoln, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.A.W. D. TurnerDirector,Energy Systems Laboratory,Texas A& MUniversity,College Station,Texas, U.S.A.AbstractCommissioning an existing building is read more..

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    tested,and operatedinconformance with the design intent.Commissioning begins with planning and includesdesign,construction, start-up, acceptance, and training and can beapplied throughout the life of the building. Furthermore,the commissioning process encompasses and coordinatesthe traditionally separatefunctions of systems documen-tation, equipment start-up, control system calibration,testing and balancing, and performancetesting.[1]RecommissioningRecommissioning refers to commissioning read more..

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    consumption (expressed in average kBtu/h) as functions ofdaily average temperature. The pre-CC heating consump-tion data given in actionGoTo:219,Fig. actionGoTo:219,1 show very little temperaturedependence as indicated by the regression line derivedfrom the data.Data values weretypicallybetween5and6MMBtu/h with occasional lower values. The coolingconsumption is even higher (Fig. 2), though it shows moretemperature dependence.It was soon found that the preheat was operatingcontinuously,heating read more..

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    THE COMMISSIONING PROCESSIN EXISTING BUILDINGSThere are multiple terms that describe the commission-ing process for existing buildings, as noted in theprevious section. Likewise, thereare many adaptationsof theprocess itself.The same practitioner willimplement the process differently in different buildings,based on the budget and the owner requirements. Theprocess described here is the process used by thechapter authors whenthe ownerwants athoroughcommissioning job. The terminology used will read more..

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    system optimization and persistenceofthe improvedoperation schedules.Commissioning TeamThe CC team consists of aproject manager, oneormoreCC engineers and CC technicians, and one or moredesignated members of the facility operating team. Theprimary responsibilities of the team members are shown inTable1.The project managercan be an ownerrepresentative or aCCprovider representative.Itisessential that the engineers have the qualifications andexperience to perform the work specified in the table. read more..

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    † O&M records, if available.† Description of any problems in the building, such asthermalcomfort, indoor air quality,moisture, ormildew.An experienced engineer shouldreview this infor-mation and determine the potential of the CC processto improvecomfort and reduceenergy cost. If theCC potential is good, aCCassessment shouldbeperformed.Step 2: Perform CC Assessment and Develop ProjectScope.The CC assessment involves asite visit by anexperienced commissioning engineer whoexaminesEMCS read more..

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    USESOFCOMMISSIONING IN THE ENERGYMANAGEMENT PROCESSCommissioning can be used as apart of the energymanagement program in several different ways:† As astandalone measure. Commissioning is probablymost often implemented in existing buildings becauseit is the mostcost-effective step the ownercan take toincreasethe energy efficiency of the building, generallyoffering apaybackunder three years, and often 1–2years.† As afollow-uptothe retrofit process. Continuouscommissioninghas read more..

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    Table 2 Summary of energy cost measures (ECMs)Annual savingsECM #ECMElectric kWh/yrElectric demandkW/yrGas MCF/yrCost savingsCost to implementSimple payback#1Lighting1,565,3425221(820)$94,669$561,3016.0#2Replace chiller #3596,8911250-0-$33,707$668,54919.8#3Repair steamsystem-0--0-13,251$58,616$422,6937.2#4Install motionsensors81,616-0-(44.6)$3567$26,0877.3#5Add 2bldgs. toCW loop557,6767050-0-$60,903$508,5658.4#6Add chiller read more..

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    to delete one chiller and the EMCS upgrades, or somecombination of chillers and aportion of the buildingEMCSupgrades from the project to meet the ten-yearpaybackcriteria—one chiller and the EMCS upgrades, orsomecombination of chillers and limited building EMCSupgrades. With CC, however, the university was able toinclude all thesehardwareitems, and still meet the ten-year payback.SUMMARYCommissioning of existing buildings is emerging as oneof the most cost-effective ways for an energy manager read more..

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    Commissioning: NewBuildingsJaneyKasterYamas Controls, Inc., South San Francisco, California, U.S.A.AbstractCommissioning is the methodology for bringing to light design errors, equipment malfunctions, andimproper control strategies at the most cost-effective time to implement corrective action. The primary goalof commissioning is to achieve optimal building systems performance. There are two types ofcommissioning: acceptance-based and process-based. Process-based commissioning is read more..

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    ensures that the design meets the intent through coordina-tion, communication, and cooperation of the design andinstallation team. Commissioning ensures that individualcomponents function as acohesive system. Forthese rea-sons,commissioning is best when it begins in thepredesign phase of aconstruction project and can in onesense be viewed as the most important form of qualityassurance for construction projects.Unfortunately,there are manymisconceptionsassoci-ated with commissioning, and perhaps read more..

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    Construction inspection and regular commissioning meet-ings do not occur untillate in the construction/installationphase with acceptance-basedcommissioning. As aresult,there is no early opportunity to spot errors and omissionsin the design, when remedial measures are less costly toundertake and less likelytocause embarrassment to thedesigner and additional costs to the contractor. As mostcontractors will readily agree, addressing issues spotted inthe design or submittal stages of construction is read more..

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    † Building codes† StateenergycommissionresearchprogramsCurrently, the LEED is having the largest impact inbroadening the acceptance of commissioning. The GreenBuilding Council is the sponsorofLEED and is focused onsustainable design—design and construction practices thatsignificantly reduceoreliminate thecradle-to-gravenegative impactsofbuildings on the environment andbuilding occupants.Leadership in energy efficient designencourages sustainable siteplanning,conservation ofwater and read more..

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    Selecting the Commissioning AgentContracting an independent agent to act on behalfoftheowner to perform the commissioning process is the bestway to ensure successful commissioning. Most equipmentvendorsare not qualified and are likely to be biased againstdiscovering design and installation problems—a criticalfunction of the commissioning agent—with potentiallycostly remedies. Likewise, systemsintegrators have thebackground in control systems and data exchange requiredfor commissioning but read more..

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    mechanical systemsthat supportthe design intent of thefacility and comply with the owner’s current operatingstandards. TheMEP schematicdesign is the basis for thesystems installed and is discussedfurther below. Theconstruction manager ensures that the project installationmeets the criteria defined in the specifications, the budgetrequirements, and the predefined schedule.The systemscontractors’ responsibilities are to furnish and install afully functional system that meets the design read more..

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    One key schematic and set of specifications relevanttothecommissioning plan is the MEP schematic design, whichspecifies installation requirements for the MEP systems.As noted,the DIDisthe basisfor creatingthecommissioning approach outlineinthe predesign phase.The DID also serves as the basis for creating the MEPschematic design in the design phase. The DID providesthe MEP designer with the key concepts from which theMEP schematic design is developed.Thecompleted MEPschematic design is reviewed read more..

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    reinforce expectations. This conference should be heldregardless of the approach—negotiated or competitive—used for contractor selection.The contractor who is to bearthefinancialburdenfor failed verification tests andsubsequent functional-performance tests should beremindedofthese responsibilities to reinforcetheirimportance in the prebid meeting. The prebid conferencesets the tone of the project and emphasizes the importanceof the commissioning process to asuccessful project.Oncethe MEP read more..

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    meetings because many participants in aconstructionproject need to attend both meetings.Typical elements of acommissioning meeting include:† Discussing field installation issues to facilitaterapidresponse to field questions† Updating design documentswithfield changes† Reviewing the commissioning agent’s field obser-vations† Reviewing progress against schedule† Coordinating multicontractor activitiesOnce familiar with the meeting process, an agenda willbe helpful but not read more..

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    The supportlevel purchased from the systems contractordetermines the areas of most importanceinthe training andtherefore shouldbedetermined prior to the training process.Trainingshouldbevideotapedfor lateruse by newmaintenance team members and in refresher courses, andfor general reference by the existing maintenance team.Using the O&M manualsasa training manual increases themaintenanceteam’sawareness of theinformationcontained in them, making the O&M manuals more likelyto be read more..

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    benefit. Forexample, major systems should undergoperiodicmodified functional testing to ensurethat theoriginaldesign intent is beingmaintained or to makesystem modification if the design intent has changed. If anowner appreciates that commissioning is acontinuousprocess that lasts for the entire life of the facility, thecommissioning process will be asuccess.Most owners will agreethat the commissioning processis successful if success can be measured in acost/benefitanalysis. Cost/benefit or read more..

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    To ensure that acommissioning process is successful,one must avoid common mistakes. Acommissioning planis acustomized approach to ensuring that all the systemsoperate in the most effective and efficient manner. Apoorcommissioning plan will deliver poor results. Acommonmistake is to use an existing commissioning plan andsimplyinsert it into aspecification to address commission-ing. Each commissioning plan shouldbespecificallytailored to the project to be commissioned.Also, perhaps due to read more..

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    Commissioning: RetrocommissioningStephany L. CullRetroCom Energy Strategies, Inc., Elk Grove, California, U.S.A.AbstractThis entry examines the practice of commissioning in existing buildings, or retrocommissioning.It provides adefinition and apractical understanding of the retrocommissioning process, outlines the energyand nonenergy benefits that result, and examines the link between retrocommissioning and maintenanceactivities. It also explains the relationship between retrocommissioning and read more..

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    to compensate for changesinbuilding configuration andusage requirements. When complete, aretrocommissioningproject shouldprovide new and updated documentationsufficient for future recommissioning.Understandably, and depending upon the age of thebuilding, much couldhave changedsince original con-struction. This caninclude changestothe physicalconfiguration of occupied spaces, the addition of equip-mentand fixtures, new operating sequences, and alteredperformance characteristics of installed read more..

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    the implementation plan developed during the projectdevelopment phase.Although it is typical for the providerto manage the quality of the implementation process,individual componentsofthe workare usually performedby third party providers who have specific expertiserelated to each of the measure requirements. The imple-mentationstage is an excellent timefor buildingmaintenance and operations stafftobecome morefamiliarwith the operational and equipment improvements takingplace in their building. read more..

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    lifecycle cost analysis.Projects that lack sufficientdocumentation and allowancesfor training at completionsimplyhave agreater likelihood for inefficient operation.Unfortunatelypoor documentation and ineffective trainingis morethe rulethan the exception.Overall, retrocommissioning is apowerful tool forimprovingenergyefficiency andbuildingoperatoreffectiveness. In a2004 studysponsored by the U.S.Department of Energy[1] that focused on the results ofretrocommissioning applications across the read more..

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    Fig. 1 Result summary with quartile analysis—existing buildings.Source: Reprinted from “The Cost Effectiveness of Commercial Buildings Commissioning” LBNL Publication No. 56637 (see actionGoTo:245,Ref. actionGoTo:245,1).10.1081/E-EEE-120042993—7/5/2007—11:32—RATHNAS—221771—XML Taylor &Francis EncyclopediasCommissioning: Retrocommissioning204CoalComm© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC read more..

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    two years. These findings alsoindicated that the long-termpersistence of energy savings hingedonthe abilities of thebuilding operators to troubleshoot and understand how thesystems in the building were supposed to operate.In concluding why retrocommissioning benefits wouldpersist in some applications and not in others, the studyobserved that persistencewas influenced by agroup offactors. Themostnotable of these appeared to be theworking environment and operator training. Successfulprojects, read more..

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    Public Interest Energy Research Program and involvingten buildings at Texas A&M, the ContinuousCommis-sioning process was projected to deliver $4,255,000inenergy savingsover afour-yearprojection.[3]Given the magnitude of energy savings and otherbenefitsavailable fromretrocommissioning, andtheimpact that maintenance functions and training have onthe persistence of those savings, it is not difficult toconclude that awell-trained, effective, and supportedmaintenance program is essential for read more..

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    Compressed Air Control SystemsBill AllemonNorth American Energy Efficiency, Ford Land, Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.A.Rick AverySam PrudhommeBayControls, LLC, Maumee, Ohio, U.S.A.AbstractThis Compressor Control Systems entry provides an outline of the strategies used to manage compressed airgeneration at atypical manufacturing facility and discusses the components of acompressed air system,typical control methodology, and energy saving strategies. Compressed air distribution, metering, andmonitoring read more..

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    Effective electric motor control prevents damage and helpsalleviatecommon electric power concerns.Primary Motor ControlModern electric motorcontrols offer anumber of featuresthat improvemotor reliability. Extensive motor protectionis built into these products, preventing motor overload andburnoutthat can result from drawing too much power.User-friendly, man–machineinterfaces, with LiquidCrystal Display (LCD) screens and micro keypads, arenowcommonfeatures. Theseallowfor easy read more..

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    PlantSafetyMaintaining plantsafety by preventing catastrophiccompressorfailureisone of themostfundamentalresponsibilities of acompressor control. One exampleofseverecompressor failure is whenincompressible waterbuilds up in areciprocating compressor’scompressionchambers; if enough accumulates, the compressionactioncan cause the equipment to physically fail, sometimesexplosively.Other safety concerns include overheated andpotentially combustible oil entering the air distributionsystem or read more..

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    (a four-compressorsystem with pressure intervals of 5psiwill have a20psi operating window)and tends to maintainan average system pressure higher than needed.Advanced control systems with networked capacitycontrol capabilities produceanefficient compressor systemoperation. Through networkcommunication,the controlsautomatically operate as many individual compressors attheir most efficient (full load) capacity levels as possible.Instead of multiple compressors operating at part loadcapacities, read more..

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    automated with controls. Onceaneffective schedule isestablished, the system can essentially run on autopilot,with little need for immediate operator adjustments.AIR QUALITYAn often overlookedelement of compressor systemcontrols is the equipment used to condition air, whichprimarily includesdryers, aftercoolers, and filters. Thesepieces of equipment have the essential taskofensuringthat hot, wet air leaving the compressor is converted tohigh-quality, cool,dry air for use in the facility. The read more..

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    Regulate Air CostsThe ability to establish aseparate cost center for each airuse zone is another important benefit that comes from thecapability of monitoring and metering the air use of eachzone.Witha comprehensivemeteringprogram,thefacility has the ability to regulate the costs of compressedair for different segmentsoftheir productionoperations.Better information regarding air use and the costs of thatuse allowsfor better management decisions to be made.End to End System InformationWhen zone read more..

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    One of the central capabilities of aWeb system, however,is the ability to provide access to multiplefacilities from astandard internet connection.Usually, agatewaydevice of some kind is used toconnectthe facility compressor network to adedicatedcommunication connection, such as aphone line orbroadband connection. An off-site server then collectsdata from the system and aWeb portal provides access tothe information. From the site, auser can access real-timemonitoring of plantair compressor read more..

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    Compressed Air EnergyStorage (CAES)*David E. PerkinsActivePower,Inc., Austin, Texas, U.S.A.AbstractCompressed-air energy storage (CAES) is currently being deployed as an alternative to lead-acid batteriesfor uninterruptible power supplies. These systems use compressed air supplied from either transportcylinders delivered by local gas services, or from stationary cylinders refilled from on-site compressors todrive avariety of economical expansion engine topologies. Several factors make these read more..

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    suitablefor discharge into an interior building space.Maximum storage pressure was constrained by the mosteconomicalcylinders andcompressors as well asdiminishing returnsdue to significanteffectsofgascompressibility effects (O10%) above 310 bar [4500 psi].Small-scale electric power and storage systems aregenerally more expensive to produceper kW and/or kWhoutput, so the optimization described above is essential.Furthermore, in order to meetsystem-cost targets, thesimplest designs must be read more..

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    control is provided by acombination of solenoid valves1050 and1052 in Fig. 3that, respectively,eitherpressurizesthe dome with air supplied by an upstreamregulatorand accumulator, or depressurizes the dome byventing the dome to atmosphere. Operation of these twovalves is provided by adigitalcontroller with feedbackfrom downstream sensors. For reliable termination ofdome pressure in emergency situations, aredundant NOsolenoidvalve 1060 is in line with an Emergency PowerOff(EPO) circuit and is read more..

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    COMPRESSEDAIR STORAGE IN VESSELSMost large-scale CAES systems will probably continue touse underground caverns for pressurized air storage whereavailable. However, for small-scale systems or wherestorage caverns are unavailable, small-storage vesselsoffer economiesofscale duetomassproductiontechniques employed. These cylinders are produced onautomated process lines by backward extrusion of billet asopposedtolarger vessels produced using seamless pipewith integrally forged heads. One manufacturer read more..

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    been used for high-pressure applications in the oil and gasindustry. Scaling dynamic compressor designs for small-scaleapplications andadaptingfor high-dischargetemperatures poses significant technical challenges, butwill be crucial if high cycle efficiency is to be achieved.Afurther enhancement to the TACAS technologywouldallowhigherturbine inlettemperatures sincelimitations on turbine-exhaust temperatures imposed byindoordischarge requirements of UPS couldberelaxed.Increasing the discharge read more..

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    Compressed Air Leak Detection and RepairRobert E. WilsonConservAIR Technologies Co., LLP,Kenosha, Wisconsin, U.S.A.AbstractCompressed air is amajor cost component in manufacturing. As such, it offers one of the largest savingsopportunities. The investment in compressing air to energize it and then letting it escape from the systemthrough leaks, without doing any useful work, is acomplete waste. This waste can be minimized byimplementing aprogram of leak detection and repairs. This entry covers read more..

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    Table 1 Discharge of air through an orificeArea sq.in. read more..

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    noisesignature that is beyond the hearing threshold of thehumanear. The ultrasonicleakdetector translates theultrasonic noise of the leak signature into an audible soundheardinthe earphones worn by the leak surveyor. Someinstruments are also equipped with display meters andindicator lights that visually register the magnitude of theair leak. Adistinctive, loud rushingsound is produced inthe earphones when the leak detector sensor probe isaligned with aleak. With the productionbackground read more..

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    found in compressed air systems, and then have measuredair flow and decibel noise at different pressuresanddistances. One such Chart,publishedbyUESystems ofElmsford, NY, is presented in Fig. 1. Note the disclaimerthat the values are not stated as “factual CFM”and areprovided as a“general guideline.” Aleak signature isaffected by manyfactors, and the loudness of the noisegenerated is by itselfnot the sole measureofthe volume ofthe leakage. For example, ahigh-pitched whistle willsound read more..

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    original worksheet and entered into adatabase to establishtime and cost control accounting procedures.The surveyor should record complete information onthe worksheet to describethe leak. The probable cause oftheleak, such as aging, wear,damage, looseness,mishandling, breakage, or otherreasons, should be notedwith an explanatory note if required.Determinewhetherthe leak should be repaired or apart replaced, and note iton the worksheet. If replacement is recommended, thesurveyor should collect read more..

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    Leakage ð%Þ Z ½ðT ! 100Þ=ðT C tÞwhere: TZaverage on-load time, and tZaverage off-loadtime.In systems configured with compressor controls otherthan load/unload, leakage can be estimated based upon thetotal system capacitance.The total estimated volume (V)of all air receivers, the main piping distribution, and othersignificant air containment vessels must be calculated incubic feet. Pressure in the main header must be measuredat the startand endofthe evaluation testperiod.Production read more..

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    supplypressure from rising because of the lower demandthat stems from leak repairs. Without some method ofsupplyside pressure control, the system pressure increasesinversely with demand, forcing leaks and other unregulateduse points to consumemore air. The savings achieved bylowering the leak demand are offset by air that is shuntedout elsewhere in the system because of the rising pressure.The application of point-of-use pressure regulationisanother method for minimizing leakages. read more..

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    Compressed Air Storage and DistributionThomas F. TarantoConservAIR Technologies, LLP,Baldwinsville, New York, U.S.A.AbstractConsistent stable operation of an industrial compressed air system is achieved when compressed airflow supplied to the system equals compressed air demand. Energy distributed to the system is availablefrom two sources; rotating energy of the air compressors, and energy from compressed air storage.Optimum system energy efficiency is possible when the proper amount of read more..

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    the part-load or unloaded condition. As the peak demandoccurs, the compressor(s) will load for ashort time duringthe demand event and then return to part-load or unloadedoperation. The result is poor overall system efficiency.For acompressed air system to achieve maximumoperating efficiency, the compressed air supply shouldincorporate both compressed air generation and storage.The goal is to supplyaverage air demand with generation(on-line rotating energy) and to supply peak read more..

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    COMPRESSED AIRENERGY STORAGEThe compressed air system engineer must analyze thedynamicsofcompressed air energy storage.This sectiondevelops the mathematical expressions necessarytostudythe relationship among air system generation, storage,anddemand. To optimize system operation, system energysupply mustremain balanced with air demand. Further-more, system energy supply must be optimizedbetweengeneration (rotating on-line energy) and storage (storedcompressed air energy).Application of the read more..

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    It is important to note that the receiver’s pressurechange is the slope of the line calculated from finalpressure minus initial pressure. Lookingatthe receiverpressure throughout time, when pressureisfalling(negative slope), air is flowing from the receivertothesystem. The xy plot in Fig. 3shows pressure (y)and time(x). Storageairflow Qsto hasaninverse relationshipbetweenthe storage receiverand system—that is to say,air leaving the receiver (KQsto)isair entering the read more..

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    Considering that (Pf psigKPi psig)yieldsabsolutepressure difference DP (psia):Substituting PfKPi (psia)for the Storage Pressure Delta (DP atm).Vgas ZVsysðcu ftÞPaðatmÞDPðatmÞVgas ZVsysðcu ftÞPaðpsiaÞðPf K PiÞðpsiaÞTherefore : Cpn ZVsysðcu ftÞPaðpsiaÞð11ÞEq. 11 Capacitance and storage pressure delta (scf/psia).Therefore, pneumatic capacitanceofa compressed airsystem (Cpn)isa function of the total volume of the systemand atmosphericpressure, which can be expressedas:Cpn read more..

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    resulting power increaseis14%, and waste to artificialdemand is between14and 18% of the system’s airflow.As shownabove, creating compressed air energystorage increases the system’s energy requirement andpowercost. Therefore, it is unwise to create more storagethan the system requires. Proper design will minimize theincreasedcompressordischarge pressure andpowerrequirement. Also, proper control of compressed airenergyinstorage can virtually eliminate artificialdemand.Thistopic is discussed read more..

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    Qsto Z CpndPdTZ CpnPf K PidTQsto Z 9:2cf ftpsia0@1A 80ðpsigÞ K 105ðpsigÞ0:5ðminÞQsto Z K460ðscfmÞThe storage airflowrate is 460 scfm, which is equal toapproximately100 hp of rotating on-line compressorcapacity.Calculating Required ReceiverVolume forDemand EventsHow much air receivervolume should be added to supportthe demand event while maintaining supply pressure at85 psig minimum? Solve Eq.15for pneumatic capaci-tance (Cpn); then converttogal and solve for read more..

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    Vrec Z 16:7scfpsia0@1A14:5ðpsiaÞ Z 242:2ðcu ftÞConvert to gallons : 242:2ðcu ftÞ ! 7:48galcu ft0@1AZ 1812ðgalÞð18ÞEq. 18 Permissive startup—solve for pneumatic capaci-tanceand receiver volume.Pneumatic capacitance calculations can be applied tosolvea variety of compressed air storage requirements.MAXIMIZE AND CONTROL COMPRESSEDAIRENERGY STORAGEFor compressed air energy in storage to be effective, thestorage pressure mustbehigherthan the demand-sidetarget pressure.Assupply-side read more..

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    flow control is apackaged assembly of one or moreflowcontrolvalves in amanifold arrangementwith anautomatic bypass or fail-safe open overridedevice. It isnormally installed in the compressor room at the beginningof the main piping distribution system.Adequate-sizereceiver(s) installedupstreamofthe flow control providecompressed air energy storage for controlled releaseintothe system. The flow control senses air pressure at itsdischarge. Changes in the demand-side energy require-ments cause read more..

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    Compressed air energystorage can provide thenecessary energy to meet peak demands. Pneumaticcapacitance calculations derived from the Ideal Gas Lawand First Law of Thermodynamics for systems allowmathematical modeling of compressed air energy storage.Usable air storage is afunction of two factors: availablestorage volume, andthe pressure difference betweenstorage pressure and demand-side target pressure.Demand-side target pressure should be the lowest opti-mum pressure read more..

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    Compressed Air SystemsDiane SchaubIndustrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractCompressed air is avaluable resource for manufacturers, allowing the use of pneumatic-driven hand tools,which can be an ergonomic boon to employees. This resource comes with aprice, however, in the form ofhigher energy costs. This article describes the use of compressed air and the creation and delivery ofcompressed air from both asupply side and demand side approach. read more..

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    COMPONENTSOFA COMPRESSEDAIR SYSTEMSupplySideAthorough understanding of the end-use compressed airneeds,from both avolume and usage profile perspective, isnecessary in order to select the appropriate number and sizeof air compressors. It is raretofind amanufacturing plantthat has aconstant, uniform use of compressed air through-out the day. Most manufacturing plants have cyclicalflow and volume demands due to production schedules, andalso desire back-up supply, so engineers typically plan read more..

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    The various typesofdryers are:† Refrigerated: This is the mostcommon type,with bothlow initial and operating costs. It can be subject tofreezing if operating at low capacities.† Regenerative desiccant: Typically operated in tandembetween two twin dryers, with one operating and theother regenerating. The requiredvolumeofpurge airneeded to regenerate can increase the load or even causean idle compressor to be started. Heaters can be used inplace of purge air, but present their own energy read more..

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    COSTS OF COMPRESSED AIRTo operate aone hp air motor, seven to eight hp ofelectrical energy are required. This largeenergy penalty,alongwith thecommonemployeeperception thatcompressed air is essentially afree resource, makes it achallengetocontrolthe costsofcompressed air.Inadequate compressorcontrolschemes cancausemultiplecompressors to run at partialloads, rather thanturning them off. Problems with poor maintenance canincreaseconsumption or cause pressure variability. In fact,it isn’t read more..

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    information. Theorganizationcharged with actuallydeliveringthe compressed air training can be found at:actionURI(http://www.compressedairchallenge.org):http://www.compressedairchallenge.org.REFERENCES1. Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems;Training Manualfor the Compressed Air Challenge, Prepared by Laurel andAssociates, Ltd and Resource Dynamics Corporation andpresented by the trade association known as the CompressedAir Challenge, read more..

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    Compressed Air Systems: Optimization*R. Scot FossIR Air Solutions, Davidson, North Carolina, U.S.A.AbstractThis article will provide you with an complete action plan to optimize your compressed air systemincluding compressor optimization, demand management, density management, and storage in avariety ofdifferent applications.Compressed air represents one of the most criticalutilities in mostproduction and process environments. Theefficiency of acompressed air system is 100% energy inand, when read more..

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    the event with a100 hp compressor, the pressurewill hold at the load pressure of the compressoruntil the event stops, at which time, the pressurewill recover at the same rate of rise as the initialrate of decay.6. Review and add as necessary general and controlstorage to slow the rate of change in the system.This will allow you to maintain ahigher point ofuse pressure,ifnecessary, without increasing thesupply pressure. If there is any diligence used, youcan normallyreducethe supply read more..

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    on the process or production serviced by thesystem.The intent is to operate onlythesupply that is requiredatany time with everythingelse off.Example:largest compressorZ1600 scfm,maximum allowablepressure drop from the loadpressure on the back up compressorZ10 psid,permissive time to load the compressor from acold start signal to full loadZ15 s, atmosphericpressureZ14.3 psia, gallons per standard cubicfeetZ7.48 gal1600 ! ð15=60Þ ! ð14:3 ! =10Þ ! 7:48Z 4278:6gal3. Create enough storage to read more..

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    frequencydrive (VFD) compressor or compressorswill displace or fill in the removal or additionofabase. In this case, you will optimize both the baseload compressors and the trim compressors at thesame time.Notethat this is calleda “Bellows Effect”operating protocol.2. Base compressors should always be selected basedon the best energy efficiency. Trim compressorsshould be selected first on operating speed to coldor hot start and shut offcapabilities, and secondlyon their flexibility for read more..

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    prior to making the decision by preparing algo-rithms including transitions of powerand demandincluding failure scenarios. Keepinmind that youdo not have to match the event in the system. Youonly need to slow it down so you can wait longer.The essence of amasterfully designed system is theability to control demand by matching transientevents as quickly as possible with an expander ordemand controller serviced with potential energy.Oncethis is accomplished, the compressors’ control jobis read more..

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    Cooling TowersRuth MossadFaculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba,Queensland, AustraliaAbstractCooling is necessary to many industrial processes, such as power generation units; refrigeration and airconditioning plants; and the manufacturing, chemical, petrochemical, and petroleum industries. As recentlyas 20 years ago, cooling towers were more the exception than the rule in the industry because of their highoperating cost and the large capital required read more..

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    through the falling water. The two fluids go through amaterial that is provided to increasethe surface area ofcontact betweenthem, which is calledpacking (or fill).The heated and moisture-laden air leaving the fill isdischarged to the atmosphere at apoint remoteenoughfrom the air inletstoprevent it from beingdrawn back intothe cooling tower.The water is collected at the bottom ofthe tower and then recirculated to remove moreheatfrom the condenser. The temperature of the cold waterentering the read more..

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    pressure drop in relation to their capacityand lower fanpower requirement, leading to lower energy costs, but therisk of recirculation increases in tower exhaustair. On theother hand, counter-flow arrangements occupy less floorspace than cross-flow towersbut are taller for agivencapacity,sothey require higherpump heads.Itshowsbetter tower performance, since, the driest air contactsthe coldest water,producing higherdriving force tothe heat.Anatural-draft tower is alarge chimneyand typicallyhas read more..

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    circulating water will tend to increase unless some meansof dissolved-solidscontrol (such as blow-down) isprovided. Blow-downisthe amount of the circulatingwater that is removed to maintain the quantityofdissolvedsolids and other impurities at an acceptable level. Somewater is alsolost from droplets being carried out with theexhaustair (drift). The makeup amount mustequal thetotal of the evaporation, blow-down,drift, and other waterlosses (such as wind blow-out and leakage) to maintainasteady read more..

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    as corrugated roofing sheets made of cement-based orplastic material, timber laths of triangularorrectangularcross section, plastic-impregnated paper honeycomb, andcomplexcellular geometries madeofthin plastic material.Thermo-Fluid Dynamic EfficiencyinCooling TowersTo choose the most convenient fill, you need to find theone that produces the maximum heat transfer with theminimum pressure drop. Other factors to be consideredare the physical and chemical characteristics requiredforthe water to read more..

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    without the risk of plume formation; the dry air is not putinto operation until the ambienttemperature startstofall.The design and construction of hybridcooling towersare more complicated, and according to Streng,[5] thefollowing data need to be specified for winterand summeroperation. These data are thermal performance; coolingwater floworcooling range,which is the differencebetweenthe water temperature at inlet and the watertemperature at outlet; ambienttemperature; criteria foroperating read more..

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    subscript: a, air;w,water;s,saturated; fi, fill;(w),evaluated at water temperature Tw.Afterthe aboveequations were combined andintegrated over the whole length of the tower, the Merkelequationwas derived:MeM ZhDafiALfi_maZhDafiLfiGwZðTwiTwocpwdTwðhas;w K haÞwhere Me,Merkel number; L,length; G,mass velocity;subscript: M, according to Merkel approach; i, inlet; o,outlet.The term on the right side is ameasureofthe coolingrequirement whereasthe term on the left side is ameasureof the read more..

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    principle be used as the sole basis of design or they can beused to examine, modify, and improveexisting simplermethods—such as work by Kloppersand Kro¨ger,[14] whoused the finite difference method to compare the threeapproaches of Merkel, Poppe, and e-NTU.CONCLUSIONThe different types of cooling towers—wet,dry, andhybrid—have been presented. Research and experienceshow that the hybrid cooling towersconform well to thestringent environmental protectionrequirements and to thestandard read more..

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    5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available at:actionURI(http://www.epa.gov):www.epa.gov/waterscience/316b/technical/ch4.pdf#searchZ‘wetdry%20cooling%20towers6. Online Chemical Engineering Information. Available at:actionURI(http://www.cheresources.com):www.cheresources.com/ctowerszz.shtml7. GEA Cooling Tower Technologies. Available at: actionURI(http://www.bgrcorp.com):www.actionURI(http://www.bgrcorp.com):bgrcorp.com/default-gct.htm8. Lenntech. Cooling Towers. Available at: read more..

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    Data Collection: Preparing EnergyManagersand Technicians*Athula KulatungaDepartment of Electrical and Computer Engineering Technology,Purdue University,WestLafayette, Indiana, U.S.A.AbstractEnergy audits can be used to provide hands-on activities related to an energy management course. Afterlearning the necessary background concepts, students need to be aware of what measurements must betaken to evaluate an existing energy system. In industry and universities, one may find apprentices read more..

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    true root-mean-square (RMS) values of the fundamentalfrequencyand the harmonics at agiveninstant.[3]Two power quality analyzersmade by Fluke Corpo-ration are showninFig. 1A. One of these meters can beeasily used to obtain all necessary data for an electricalsystem.Fig. 1B showshow to obtain measurements for athree-phase balance (5% or less imbalance) using voltageand current probesthat come with the meter.The metersarecapable of measuring true RMS, peak, and total harmonicdistortion(THD) for read more..

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    For example, the circuit showninFig. 4may helpstudents learn howtodetect harmonics and locate theharmonicproducing sources in apower system.The three-phase power supplyshould be takenfrom aY-connectedtransformer secondary where the common point is taken asneutral. It is also necessary to ground the common point,if concepts related to overloading are introduced. Adouble-pole double-throw(DPDT)switch allows switchingbetweenthe lamp-only circuit and the lamp with adimmercircuit. The lamp-only path read more..

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    employees. However, manylighting systems are impro-perly designed and unattended over the years. Lighting isone of the areaswhere companies can save energy with theleast amount of capitalinvestments. Fig. 6illustrates thebefore and after appearance of awarehouse, where 50%more light was obtained.Light meters are very easy to use. The meter in actionGoTo:298,Fig. actionGoTo:298,7measures light intensity in Lumenand light density infoot-candles (fc). The purposeofmeasuring light is todeterminethe read more..

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    the building is allocated. When R-value and U-values areknown, adetailed analysis of abuilding envelop wouldyield Britishthermal unit lost or gained through walls,windows, and otherheating and cooling sources. It is verydifficult to determinethe R-values of even aseveral-yearold facility due to poor record keeping and later add-ons tothe structures. The OMEGAw OS-650energy conserva-tion and plant maintenancekit (see Fig. 8) is very useful inenergy audits and general plantmaintenance. The read more..

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    imagers have aminimum focusing distancethat must beadhered to. Most current thermal imagersallow users toview the object using different colorpalettes such asrainbow,ironbow, and grayscale. Despite the popularity ofcolor palettes, it is recommended to use grayscale for mostapplications, because the humaneye can detect variationsof grayscale better when thermal changesare subtle. Inaddition, students mustbeaware of concepts such asqualitative vs quantitative temperaturemeasurements,distance to read more..

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    Practice Activity OutlinePractice activities for thismeter may include: (1) testingflamesproduced by the four different type flames whilevarying the air intake into the flame,(2) experimentingheat transfer characteristics of ajar containing water (orany otherliquid applicable to acertainindustrial process)under different insulations and ambienttemperatures, and(3) simulating aspecific type of burnerused in anindustrial facility to investigate efficiency improvementopportunities. Flames for read more..

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    Practice Activity OutlineSeveral simple activities can be developed to familiarizethis equipment in alaboratory or workshop environmentwhere compressed air is available. Several holes, at leastone foot apart with different diameters, can be drilled in acopper piping tube. Aconnector needs to be soldered toone end and the other end mustbecapped. Once connectedto aregulated compressed air outlet, learners may trace airleaks of each hole under different pressure to learn thenature of the leaks and read more..

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    Practice Activity OutlineAny transducer that produces 0to C10 Vor0 to K10 Voutputproportional to the measured variablecan beconnected directly. As aprecaution, measure the voltagebetweentwo groundstoverify that the two groundsare atthe sameelectrical potential.When commercial transdu-cers are not available,a very inexpensive ambient roomtemperature sensor could be developed by using aLM34temperature sensor integratedcircuits (IC) made byNational Semiconductors Inc., as showninFig. 14.LM34 IC read more..

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    DaylightingWilliam Ross McCluneyFlorida Solar Energy Center,University of Central Florida, Cocoa, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractDaylight illumination of building interiors is an ancient art now benefitting from relatively recentengineering advances. The benefits are numerous and include energy savings and enhanced visual andthermal comfort. The design must avoid overheating and the discomfort and reduced productivity resultingfrom glare. Good daylighting design can displace electric lighting and read more..

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    Asunpath-chartdrawing program is available for freedownload from the Web site of the Florida Solar EnergyCenter (actionURI(http://www.fsec.ucf.edu):www.fsec.ucf.edu).Proper orientation of buildings and spaceswith glazedapertures relative to solar movement is very important inbuildingdesignfor daylighting. Shading devices—including overhangs, side fins, awnings, window reveals,and avarietyofexterior and interior shadesand shutters—areimportanttools forthe daylightingdesigner. Inaddition, new read more..

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    computerscreen or television set and light reflected fromaglossy magazine page. The reflectedlight reduces thecontrastofthe image. Witha glossymagazine, forexample, the reflected glare light can be as strong fromthe black ink as from the white paper, washing out the textand making it difficult or impossible to read.Discomfort glare usually results when light entering theeye from the side is much brighter than that coming fromthe visual task. This extra-bright light is mentally andphysically read more..

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    predominantly clear skies and high direct beam solar fluxlevels.Itisimportant to usedirectsunlight entryjudiciously and with care to prevent the adverse impactsthat can result. Some daylighting systems rely almostexclusively on direct beam sunlight, but these are designedto distributethe concentratedbeams widelyand diffusely,with minimal glare impact.DAYLIGHTINGDESIGNThe goals of good daylighting include the provision ofgood-quantity and good-quality daytime interior illumina-tion and view, read more..

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    tools for determining the performance of both electric anddaylighting systems. Thenew tools include commerciallyavailable computer programsand public-domainsoftware. AWeb search on such terms as daylightingdesign software and architecturallighting design shouldprovide links to manysites describing these computerprograms.Another important tool is scale-model testing. Becauseilluminationscales upward anddownward well,small-scale models of buildings can be constructed ofinexpensive materials. Light read more..

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    “Once you start thinking about it, [daylighting] designmakes perfect sense,” Heerwagen haswritten. “We didn’tevolve in asea of gray cubicles.”[4]Daylighting offersa number of benefits to buildingowners and occupants.Cool, natural daylight has goodcolorrendering; it is healthy and offers clear psycho-logical benefits. Daylighting can displace electric light-ing, saving energy and reducing air pollution, globalwarming, and our dependence on dwindling supplies offossil-fuel read more..

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    Demand Response: Commercial Building Strategies*David S. WatsonSila KiliccoteNaoya MotegiMaryAnn PietteCommercial Building Systems Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley,California, U.S.A.AbstractThis paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric loadin response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices thatwould be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The DR strategies read more..

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    ResponseResearch Center. While the tests focused onfully automated electric DR, somemanual and semi-automated DR was also observed. The field tests included28 facilities, 22 of which were in Pacific Gas and Electricterritory. Theother sites were located in territoriesservedby Sacramento MunicipalUtility District,SouthernCalifornia Edison,City of Palo Alto UtilitiesandWisconsin Public Service. The average demand reductionswere about 8% for DR eventsranging from 3to6 h.Table 1showsthe number of read more..

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    Daily Peak Load ManagementDaily peak load management is done in manybuildings tominimize peak demand charges and time-of-use rates.Strategies that temporarilymodify the operation of HVACor lighting systems are often used to implement daily peakload management.Decisions about when to initiate dailypeak load management are typically made by on-site staffor on-site automated equipment.Demand ShiftingDemandshifting is achieved by changing the time thatelectricity is used. Thermal energy storage is read more..

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    permanent improvements in efficiency were discoveredthrough the planning and implementation of “temporary”DR strategies. The DR strategies that are available to agivenfacility are based on factorssuch as the type ofHVAC, lighting, and EMCS installedatthe site.Shared BurdenDemand response strategies that sharethe burden evenlythroughoutthefacilityare leastlikelytohavenegativeeffectson building occupants. Forexample,ifitwerepossibletoreduce lighting levels evenly throughout an entire facility read more..

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    savings. The use of automation will reduce labor requiredto implement DR operational modeswhen they are called.In addition, timeliness of the response will typically beimproved.Heating, ventilating and air conditioning based DRstrategies recommended for agivenfacility, vary based onthetype andcondition of thebuilding, mechanicalequipment and EMCS. Based on thesefactors, the bestDR strategies are thosethat achieve the aforementionedgoalsofmeetingelectric shed savings targets whileminimizing read more..

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    Absolute vs Relative ImplementationGlobal temperature adjustment may be implemented oneither an absolute or relative basis (Table 2). An absoluteimplementation of GTA allows the operator to set thespace temperature setpoints for the entire facility toabsolute values (e.g., heating setpoints at all final spacetemperature control devicesZ688Fand cooling setpointsat all final space temperature control devicesZ768F). Arelative implementation of GTA allowsthe operator toadjust the space read more..

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    substantially simpler strategies are usually used to controlDSP. Typically DSP is measured at asingle locationabout two-third of the way down the duct system.TheDSP SP is set to afixedvaluethat is high enough to meetthe needs of the box of greatest demand during designload conditions. During less demanding conditions energyis wasteddue to losses associated with the DSP SP beinghigher than necessary to meetthe demands of the VAVterminal boxes.Fan energy and cooling energy can be reduced duringDR read more..

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    However, there are major impediments to the use oflighting systems for DR: (1) Few office buildings havecentralized controloflightingsystems;[3] (2)evenbuildings with centralizedlightingcontrolsare notnecessarily zoned in away that would allow areductionin lighting service that is adequate for occupancy.Granularity of controlisa very importantfactorindeterminingthe usefulness of lighting systemsfor DR.Thefollowinglistsfivetypesoflightingsystemsfrommostcoarseto most read more..

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    ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe authors are grateful for the extensive supportfromnumerous individuals who assisted in this project. Manythanks to the engineersand staffateach building site.Special thanks to Ron Hofmann for his conceptualizationof this project and ongoing technical support. Thanks alsoto Laurie ten Hope, Mark Rawson, and Dave Michel at theCalifornia Energy Commission. Thanks also to the PacificGas and Electric Company who fundedthe AutomatedCPP research. This work described in this report read more..

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    Demand Response: Load Response Resourcesand ProgramsLarryB.BarrettBarrett Consulting Associates, Colorado Springs, Colorado, U.S.A.Abstract“Demand response” is arelatively new term to the electric utility industry for an old concept called peakload management. Demand response has gained currency, as the historically cumbersome peak loadmanagement programs have been transformed by real-time monitoring, digital controls, and robustcommunications. The costs of managing demand response resources read more..

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    could reachabout $7.5 billion per year in the UnitedStates according to astudyfor the Federal EnergyRegulatoryCommission (FERC).[4]† Cost reduction—While similar to bill savings, costreduction is more of along-term benefit.Demandresponse reduces the long run costsofnew powerplants, defers newand expanded high voltagetransmission systems, and mitigates the overloadingof low voltage distribution systems.† Environmental quality—Tothe extent that peakingpower plants are old and read more..

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    voluntary. That is, whenthe utilitycalls for aloadreduction, the customer may choose to curtailand get paidfor the reduction or to continue operations and pay thepriceper the agreement. Thecustomer may notbemandated to reduce their load,but failure to meet targetload reductions can result in penalties. However, thepenalties are not usually as severe as with interruptibleload response programs.Another featureisadvance warning. Some programsmay provide a24-h notice before the curtailment read more..

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    or ice stored in tanks during peak hours.All of the airconditioning load can be movedoff-peak with largethermal energy storage systems. Even partial systemsallow substantial loadstobemovedoff peak.Heating systemsoffer some potential as well foralleviating peaking electric systems in the winter. Optionsinclude reducingtemperature set pointsonheatingsystemsand pre-heating space above normal temperaturesprior to peak load conditions. Electric thermal energystorage systemsallow for off-peak charging read more..

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    RESIDENTIALDEMANDRESPONSE SOLUTIONSResidential programs for demand response are in placewith tens of thousands,and in some utilities, hundreds ofthousands of homesparticipating. Three resources may betargeted for peak load reduction: central air conditioners,electric water heaters,and swimming pool pumps.Thelarge majority of demandresponse reductioncomes from central air conditioners. While an averageload reduction of 1kWper residential air conditionerduring peak summerperiods may seem small, read more..

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    engineer,the store manager,the plant superintendent, andothers in the customer organization. Afacility’s financeand accounting departments may find the information ofvalue, and, if participation may affect shipping schedulesand sales, even those in marketing and sales.ControlWith data comes information, and with information comescontrol.Data from interval metersmay be integrated withbuilding management systems and energy managementsystems. These systems can control lighting, read more..

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    improvethe environment. Athird motivation is to gaininformation about energy use and operatingconditionsassociated with the moredetailed monitoring protocolsattendant to demand response programs.Incentives may be paid from multipleparties. Gridoperations are willingtopay for demand response resourcesat manytimes the normal electric rates. For example, in2004, the New York Independent System Operator and theIndependent System Operator of New England offered$500 per megawatt-hour or 50 cents read more..

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    Demand-Side Management ProgramsClark W. GellingsElectric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, California, U.S.A.AbstractDemand-side management is the active planning and implementation of programs that will changeconsumers’ use of electricity. These programs may encourage the adoption of more efficient appliances, theuse of new technologies, and the time these and other devices are used.INTRODUCTIONDemand-side management programsresult fromtheplanning and implementation of those read more..

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    LOAD-SHAPECHANGESAlthough there is an infinite combinationofload-shapechanging possibilities, six can illustrate the range ofpossibilities: peak clipping, valley filling, load shifting,strategic conservation, strategicload growth,and flexibleload shape.These six are not mutually exclusive and mayfrequently be employedincombinations.The demand-side management planning approach doesprovide policymakers with awhole new set of alternativeswith which to meetenergy needs. The concept that theload read more..

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    participation, and the likelymagnitudes of costs andbenefits to both supplierand customer prior to attemptingimplementation.Becausethere are so many demand-side managementalternatives, the process of identifying potential candidatescan best be carriedout by considering key aspects of thealternatives in an orderly fashion. Demand-side manage-ment activities can be categorizedina two-step process:† Step 1: load-shape objectives† Step 2: end-use technology activitiesLOAD-SHAPE OBJECTIVESThe read more..

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    These four main categories cover mostofthe availableresidential options. Many of the individual options can beconsidered to be componentsofanoverall program.HOW TO SELECT ALTERNATIVESSelection of the mostappropriate demand-side manage-mentalternatives is the mostcrucial question. The relativeattractiveness of alternatives dependsonspecificcharac-teristics, such as load shape,summer and winterpeaks,generation or product system mix, customer mix, and theprojected rate of load growth.MARKET read more..

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    other externalfactors, such as economicconditions, prices,technology, regulation, and tax credits.CUSTOMER EDUCATIONMany energy suppliers and governments have reliedonsome form of customer education to promotegeneralcustomer awareness of demand-side management pro-grams. Brochures, bill inserts,information packets,clearinghouses, educational curricula, and direct mailingsare widely used. Customer education is the most basic ofthe market implementation methods available and can beused to:† read more..

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    been awards, energy-efficient logos,and residential homeenergy rating systems, to namea few.ALTERNATIVE PRICINGPricing of energy as amarket-influencing factor generallyperforms three functions:† Transfers to producers and consumersinformationregarding the implied valueofproducts and servicesbeing provided† Provides incentives to use the most efficient tech-nologies† Allocates supplyand demandAlternative pricingthrough innovative schemes can bean importantimplementation technique read more..

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    Desiccant Dehumidification: Case StudyMichael K. WestBuilding Systems Scientists, Advantek Consulting, Inc., Melbourne, Florida, U.S.A.Glenn C. HaynesRLWAnalytics, Middletown, Connecticut, U.S.A.AbstractDesiccant dehumidification is primarily anonresidential end-use technology that can be important tocertain commercial businesses such as restaurants, hotels, grocery stores, and hospitals; in public buildingssuch as courthouses, jails, and auditoriums; and in manufacturing sectors such as read more..

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    efficiency potential of desiccantequipment. Even so, it does(in our opinion) represent a“typical” commercial installa-tion. The simple gas boiler control does nothave the abilityto vary heat outputorgas consumption accordingtotheneed for dehumidification. The boiler is either full on orshut off, and the data clearly showsitunnecessarily operatesfull-on almost constantly.Our data indicates that less than60% of the natural gas energy consumed by the unit isactually utilized. Likewise, the read more..

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    simulatethe performance of the equipment as awhole.Each submodel was used to simulatethe performanceofasingle component for each of the 8760 hinthe typicalweatheryear.As afinalcheck,the resultsofthe modelwerecompared againstthe standardDOE-2.1ehourlysimulation software developed by the U.S. Departmentof Energy. Astatic comparison and validation was alsoperformedatthe outdoor temperature andhumidityconditions publishedinthe manufacturer’s equipmentperformance specifications. Comparisons were read more..

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    CONCLUSIONS1. The long-term as-installed performanceoftypicaldesiccant HVACequipment may be less thanexpected in terms of both delivered capacity andenergy efficiency.2. Engineered improvementstothe design andinstallation of typical desiccant HVAC equipmentcan providelarge performanceand cost benefits.3. Field monitoring and computer analysis of HVACequipmentperformance can reveal manycost-effectiveenergy-savingmeasures.10.1081/E-EEE-120043195—4/5/2007—20:07—VELU—225286—XML Taylor read more..

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    Distributed GenerationPaul M. SotkiewiczPublic Utility Research Center,University of Florida, Warrington College of Business,Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.Ing. Jesu´sMario VignoloInstituto Ingenierı´a Ele´ctrica, Universidad de la Repu´blica, Montevideo, UruguayAbstractDistributed generation (DG) is generally thought of as small-scale generation that is used on site and/orconnectedtothe distribution network. Distributed generationdevelopment hasbeendrivenbytechnological changes, the read more..

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    with othernotions of distributed resources. Next, we willbrieflyoutline the typesoftechnologies that are deployedas DG and summarize their cost characteristics. Followingthat, we will discuss the potential benefits attributed to DGand provide somecautions about overstating the benefits.Finally, we will discuss policies affectingDGand provideconcluding remarks.WHAT IS DISTRIBUTED GENERATION?Many terms have emerged to describe powerthat comesfrom sources other than from large, centrally read more..

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    highest nitrogenoxide (NOx)and carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions of any of the DG technologiesconsidered in thisentry, as showninTable 2.Simple Cycle Gas TurbinesThis technology is also mature, deriving from the use ofturbinesasjet engines. Theelectric utility industryusessimple cycle gas turbinesasunits to serve peak load, andthey generally tend to be larger.Simple cyclegas turbineshave the sameoperating characteristicsasreciprocatingenginesinterms of startupand theability to startindependently of read more..

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    among fossil-fired technologiesand consequently have thehighest levelizedcosts, as shown in actionGoTo:337,Table actionGoTo:337,1. Offsettingthat, the emission footprint of fuel cells is muchlower thanthat of the other technologies, as shown in actionGoTo:337,Table actionGoTo:337,2.Renewable TechnologiesWe discuss threemajor types of renewable energytechnologies here: solar PV, small hydro, and wind. Eachof these technologiesisintermittent, in that it is dependentupon the sun, river flows, or read more..

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    Fig. 2 shows avery simpledistributionnetwork. Itconsistsoftwo radial feeders, each with 10 MW ofcapacity,that feed busbar B. Aconstant load of 10 MW isconnected to B. TheForced outage rate (FOR) of the twofeeders is given in the table in Fig. 2. Additionally,consider a10MWDGsource with an availability factorof 80%.To begin with, let us consider only the two feedersand assume that there is no distributed resource connectedto busbar B. Theloss of load probability (LOLP)—theprobability that load read more..

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    and D2, losses on the transmission system are reduced, allelse beingequal.Additionally, the patternofusage has changed. Theusage on AB is still 200 kW, but the flow is in the oppositedirection from the situationwithout DG. Theflow on TAhas been reduced from 400 to 0kW. In effect, the DGsourceatC has created an additional 400 kW of capacityon TA to servegrowingloads at Aand B. Suppose that theloadsD1and D2 increased to 700 kW each. Without DG,this would require extra distributioncapacity to be read more..

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    environmental benefits, they do not address the networkor market benefits of DG. Only recently has seriousconsideration been given to considering locational pricingof network services as away to provide better incentiveswithoutsubsidies,[17,18] as recommendedbyIEA.[2]Moreover,only recentlyhas DG been recognized as apotential player in wholesale power markets to providemarketwide benefits.[15] Finally, any barriers that preventthe efficient entry of DG shouldbereconsidered.[1,2]REFERENCES1. read more..

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    Distributed Generation: Combined Heat and Power*Barney L. CapehartDepartment of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida Collegeof Engineering, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.D. Paul MehtaDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Bradley University,Peoria, Illinois, U.S.A.Wayne C. TurnerIndustrial Engineering and Management, Oklahoma State University,Stillwater,Oklahoma,U.S.A.AbstractDistributed generation (DG) is electric or shaft power generation at or near the site of use as opposed read more..

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    advantage during autility poweroutage whenthe user haspower and the competition does not.The utilitymight desire less grid congestion and lessfuture grid construction, both of which DG definitelyyields. Theutilitymay be able to hold on to acustomerbetter, if the customer has DG and CHP at their site.Certainly, this is true if the utilityconstructs and runs thelocal powerfacility.Today’stechnology is capable ofallowing the utility to remotely dispatch literally hundredsof DG units scattered in read more..

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    † Fuel cells† Photovoltaic cells† Wind turbines† Storage devices (batteries or flywheels).The following table briefly summarizes the pros andcons of these different DG/CHP technologies (Table 1). Ifmoredetailed information is needed, the authors rec-ommend Capehart, et al[1];Turner[2];orPetchers[3].The table above demonstrates that thereisa wide rangeof technologies available. Some are environmentallyfriendly, some are not. Some are moreeconomicallyfeasible, while others are extremely read more..

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    The Group of UsersThemselvesThe users’ goals are to have aDG/CHP project thatprovides an appropriate solution to their needs for electricor shaftpower, and probably heat;works well for themboth in the short termand the long term; and maximizestheir economic benefit from this investment.The user knowsits process better than anyone else. Thisis areal advantage of doing DG/CHP projects in house andleads to the best economics if it works. Finally, the goalalignment for this group is the best of read more..

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    history, selection of an ESCO that is likely to be aroundforthe long term is an important consideration.Utility-Based ESCOsNext, consider autility-based ESCO. Utility-affiliatedESCOshave goals similar to the independentESCOs’goalsinmanyrespects, but the big difference is that theutilityisa permanent organization that is local is there forthe long term, and is interested in seeing the user succeed,so that they will be an even better customer in the long run.Also, sincethe utility and the read more..

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    rated at 185,000 lb/h of steam at 1250 psig and 9008F.Boiler 3isa low-pressure boiler rated at 175,000 lb/h ofsteam at 175psig and saturated temperature. Boilers 1and2are normally in operation, with Boiler 3onstandby toinsure maximum steam production reliability for MGP.The high-pressure steam from boilers1 and 2passesthrough the ABB backpressure turbine-generator,which israted at 21 MW. The steam leaving the turbine is at175 psig and is desuperheated to 4108FtomeetMGP’sprocess steam read more..

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    District Cooling SystemsSusanna S. HansonGlobal Applied Systems, TraneCommercial Systems, La Crosse, Wisconsin, U.S.A.AbstractSeemingly small efficiency improvements to traditionally designed chiller plants multiply to createimpressive savings in district cooling plants. The size and scope of these larger projects make the benefitsmore obvious and very valuable. For example, the United Arab Emirates is fully embracing district coolingfor accommodating its tremendous growth, rather than using read more..

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    optimization, replacement considerations, thermal storage,andheatrecovery.Higherliftcreates solutionsforengineering problemsand leverages chiller capabilities.Chiller plantdesign for U.S. conditions usually calls foramaximum tower-leaving temperature of 858F. Conven-tional designs used 448F/548Fevaporators and 858F/958Fcondensers—easy on the chiller (and the system designer).But higher ambient wet bulb conditions are common in theMiddle East and China. Many parts of China call for89.68Fdesign read more..

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    Consider the following ideal relationship between flowand energy in apumping system:Pump Energy f Flow3For asystem using 80% of the design flow—amodest20% reduction—the energy requiredisreduced by nearly50%. In turn, amore aggressive 50% reduction in flow isan 87% reduction in power.Varying the flow through series chillers reduces thetotal operating cost, despite an increased pressure drop atdesign conditions. Improvedtube designs and extensivetesting in manufacturers’testing labs have read more..

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    temperature is set upwards,each coil will demand morewater to meetthe same cooling load.CHILLER PLANT DESIGN ENERGYCOMPARISONThefollowing exampleisfor adesigncreated initially fortheWashington DC Convention Center.Eachpairofseries-counterflow chillers (assumingmultiple-stagecompressorson each circuit) haseight to twelve stages of compressionequallysharing theload(Fig. 1).The chillermoduledepictedin Fig. 2created series-pairefficienciesof0.445 kW perton(7.8 COP) at standard read more..

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    DESIGN PARAMETERSAlarger-than-conventional difference between the enter-ing and leaving chilled water temperatures permits alowerflow rate, reducing the initial costs for distributingthechilled water (pumps, piping) in central chilled waterplants. Smaller pipesand pumpscan then be used to satisfythe same capacity.Becausesupplying colder chilled water requiresmorepowerfrom the chillers, the cost savings from reducing thepumping power and pipe sizeand installation must offsetthe chiller power read more..

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    parameters for this chilled water plant. Chiller power can bereduced by decreasing compressor “lift.” In this example,the difference in average lift at design is nearly 13%.1 Kð54:3 C 53:8Þ=261:9Z 0:126Now, consider aseries–series counterflow arrangementoftwo dual-circuited chillers. Becauseeach of the chillers inthis design has two refrigeration circuits, the reduced lifteffect is multiplied. Instead of two lifts, thereare four. Thedifference in average lift at designfor the system read more..

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    USEFUL REDUNDANCYLarge chiller plants can be more adaptive and efficientwith multiple chillers rather than fewer large, field-erectedchillers. In plants with more chillers, redundancy is easilycreated through parallel banks of upstream and down-stream chillers. Different combinations of upstream anddownstream chillers can meetthe load,soifone chilleris being serviced, itsduty can be spread out to the otherchillers. The same is true for pumps, which do not have tobe sequenced with the read more..

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    District EnergySystemsIbrahim DincerFaculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology(UOIT), Oshawa, Ontario, CanadaArif HepbasliDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University,Izmir,TurkeyAbstractThis entry presents some historical background on district heating and cooling along with cogeneration andgeothermal applications, and discusses some technical, economical, environmental, and sustainabilityaspects of geothermal energy read more..

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    community’s energy users, DESs maximize efficiency andprovide opportunities to connect generators of wasteenergy (e.g., electric power plants or industrial facilities)with consumers who can usethat energy.The heatrecovered through district energy can be used for heatingor can be converted to cooling usingabsorption chillers orsteam turbine drive chillers.District energy system cover both district heating (DH)and district cooling (DC), and distributesteam, hot water,and chilled water from read more..

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    † Community system integration and optimization, anduse of waste thermal energy, renewable energy andCHP, for abetter environment and sustainability† Reliability, robustness, and energy security for effec-tive maintenance and management of buildings† Advanced technologies for improved system inte-gration, including information systemsand controls† Dissemination anddeployment forrapid changetoward energy efficiency and sustainabilityIn this entry we present somehistorical background read more..

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    the system varies greatly depending on the system type.The outputcan range from high-pressure, high-tempera-ture (e.g., 5008C–6008C) steam to hot water (e.g., 908C).High-pressure,high-temperature steam is considered to behigh-quality thermal outputbecause it can meet mostindustrial-process needs.Hot water is considered to be alow-qualitythermal outputbecause it can be used for onlyalimited number of DHCapplications.Cogeneration can be based on awide variety offuels, andindividual installations read more..

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    mediumsfrom acentral energy production sourcetomeetthe diverse thermal energy needs of residential, commer-cial, andindustrial users.Thermal energy needsordemands include space heating and cooling systems formaintaining human comfort, domestic hot water require-ments, manufacturing-plant process heating and coolingsystem requirements, etc. In manyofthe systemsthat havebeen established aroundthe world, both district heatingand district cooling have not been provided. In Europe,forexample, where read more..

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    pollutants, improved air quality, and reduced use of CFCrefrigerants (if any) in DC applications.District heating and cooling systems are well suited tocombinewithelectricpower production facilities ascogeneration plants. Theamalgamation of thesetwoenergy production/utilization schemes results in asub-stantial improvementinoverall energy conversionefficiency, because DH systems can effectively utilizethe otherwise-wasted heat associated with the electricpowerproduction process. Adistrict system read more..

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    † Environmental education and training† Appropriate energy and exergystrategies† The availability of renewable energy sources andcleaner technologies† Areasonablesupplyoffinancing† Monitoringand evaluation toolsThe key point here is to use renewable energy resourcesin DHCsystems. As is known, not all renewable energyresourcesare inherently clean, in that they cause no burdenon the environment in terms of waste emissions,resourceextraction, or otherenvironmental disruptions. read more..

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    Exergy analysis is atechnique that uses the conserva-tionofmassand conservationofenergyprinciplestogether with the second law of thermodynamics for theanalysis, design, and improvement of DHC systems, aswell as others. It is also useful for improving the efficiencyof energy-resource use, for it quantifiesthe locations,types, and magnitudes of waste and loss. In general, moremeaningful efficiencies are evaluated with exergy analysisrather than energy analysis, because exergy efficiencies read more..

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    their energy efficiencies are assumed to be 100%. Theexergy efficiency can be expressed for the user-heatingsubsystem asjUH ZtQu;sH_Qu;sH C tQu;wH_Qu;wHtQuH_QuHð13Þand for the user-cooling subsystem asjUC ZKtQu;rC_Qu;rCKtQuC_QuCð14ÞThe left and right terms in the numerator of Eq. 13represent the thermal exergy supply rates for space andwater heating,respectively.For the overall process, because three different products(electricity, heat, and cooling) are generated, applicationof read more..

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    There are two main stages in this case study, takenfrom.[9,10] First, thedesignfor cogeneration-basedDHC[11,12] is evaluated thermodynamically. Then thedesign is modified by replacing the electriccentrifugalchillers with heat-driven absorptionchillers (first single-andthendouble-effecttypes) andreevaluatingitthermodynamically.Thecogeneration-based DES consideredhere(seeactionGoTo:363,Fig. actionGoTo:363,3) includesa cogenerationplantfor heat andelectricity, and acentral electric chiller that read more..

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    cooling, the cooling requirement of the chilling plantwas169 GWh/yr.[11] The COP of the single-effect absorptionchiller used here wastaken to be 0.67, atypicalrepresentative value. Therefore, the annual heat requiredto drivethe single-effect absorptionmachine was_Qgen Z 169=0:67 Z 252 GWh=yr. Thus, the total fuelenergy input rate to the cogeneration plantcan be evaluatedas _Ef Z ð1040 C 252Þ=0:6 Z 2153 GWh=yr.[9,10]As mentioned above, steam was required at highertemperatures and read more..

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    Table 4 System and subsystem efficiencies for the cogeneration-based DES for several types of chillersEfficiency (%)Energy (h)Exergy (j)SystemCentrifugal chiller1-Stage absorptionchiller2-Stage absorptionchillerCentrifugal chiller1-Stage absorptionchiller2-Stage absorption chillerIndividual SubsystemsCogeneration858585373737Chilling450a67a120a362330District heating(DH)100100100747474District cooling(DC)100100100585858User heating (UH)100100100545454User cooling (UC)100100100696969Combination read more..

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    and for double-effect absorption cooling, it was COPZ202/141Z1.43. It shouldbenoted that the workrequiredto drive the solution and refrigeration pumps was verysmall relative to the heat input to the absorption chiller(often lessthan 0.1%); this work was thus neglected here.actionGoTo:366,Table actionGoTo:366,4 lists the energy and exergy efficienciesevaluated for the individual subsystems, several subsys-tems comprised of selected combinations of the individualsubsystems, and the overall system read more..

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    the building by the heat exchangers of the substations. Theaverageconversiontemperaturesobtainedduringtheoperation of the IBGDHS are, on average, 808C/578Cforthe district heating distribution network and 658C/458Cforthe building circuit. By using the control valves for flowrate and temperature at the building substations, theneededamount of water is sent to each housing unit, andthe heat balance of the system is achieved.[14]In the following paragraphs, we give main relations formass, read more..

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    The geothermal brine exergy input from the productionfield is calculated as follows:_Exbrine Z _mw½ðhbrine K h0Þ K T0ðsbrine K s0Þð19ÞThe exergy destructions in the heat exchanger, pump,and the system itself are calculated using the following:_Exdest;HE Z _Exin K _Exout Z _Exdest;ð20Þ_Exdest;pump Z _Wpump K ð _Exout K _ExinÞ; andð21Þ_Exdest;system ZX_Exdest;HE CX_Exdest;pumpð22ÞWe define the exergy efficiency as follows:jsys Z_Exuseful;HE_ExbrineZ 1K_Exdest;sys C _Exreinjected read more..

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    4. UNEP. Cogeneration, Energy Technology Fact Sheet,Division of Technology, Industry and Economics-Energyand Ozone Action Unit. United Nations EnvironmentProgramme, Nairobi, Kenya. Available at: actionURI(http://www.unep.fr):www.uneptie.actionURI(http://www.unep.fr):org/energy. Accessed on 14th November 2006.5. Enwave. History of District Energy, 2006. Available at:actionURI(http://www.enwave.com):www.enwave.com/enwave/view.asp?/solutions/heating/actionURI(http://www.enwave.com):history. read more..

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    Drying Operations: Agricultural and ForestryProductsGuangnanChenFaculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba,Queensland, AustraliaAbstractThis entry presents an overview of the methods for drying agricultural and forestry products. The need forthe drying of agricultural and forestry products is presented, and the principles of drying operations aredescribed. It is shown that adiversity of drying systems are currently used. The performance of these read more..

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    process. Compared with the first period of constant dryingat therateofliquidwater evaporation,diffusion istypically aslow process, and is mainly controlled byinternal moisture transportofthe product. Diffusionprocesses may be considerably accelerated with increasedtemperatures. External masstransfer plays arelativelysmall roleatthis stage.Corresponding to the above process, initially,astheproductsurface is dried, it is restrained by the wet core sothat it is subjected to atensile stress.Later, read more..

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    MCdb Z MCwb=ð1 K MCwbÞ:Duringdrying, agricultural andforestry productsusually undergo considerable changes, including shrink-age, cracking(both externally and internally), nutrientloss,and colorchanges. By imposing harshdryingconditions, ahigh-temperature regimemay bring in thebenefit of shorteneddrying schedules. However, such aprocess may also increase the risk of quality degradation,so aright balance needs to be achieved between these twocompeting factors.The required drying time varies read more..

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    the energy required to evaporate 1kgofmoisture from aproductrangesfrom 3.5 to 7.0 MJ.[11,12]In manycases, it has been found that there is littlecorrelation between the dryer energy performance andproductprocess requirement. Lower process requirementsdo not necessarily lead to higher energy efficiency. Thisindicates that there is asignificant potential to improvethedryer energy performance.Although the technology is currently available,itisnotedthat there are significant barriers for the read more..

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    because drying environment is inherently dynamic andvaries with locations inside the dryer. Furthermore, dryersmayalsoberequired to handlevariable resources,includingfeed materials of different species,non-uniforminitial moisture contents, and different sizes. Compu-tational fluid dynamics (CFD) has now been widely usedto improve thedryer design andtominimize airrecirculation loss. Thelatest researchisalsofocusing onthe development of new sensor techniques and enhancedmachinevisiontools read more..

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    14. Carrington, C.G.; Sun, Z.F.; Sun, Q.; Bannister, P.; Chen, G.Optimising efficiency and productivity of adehumidifierbatch dryer. Part 1—Capacity and Airflow. Int. J. EnergyRes. 2000, 24,187–204.15. Perera, C.O. Modified atmosphere drying. Chapter 6. InDrying of Products of Biological Origin;Mujumdar, A.S.,Ed.; Oxford and IBH Publishers: New Delhi, India, 2004;153–163.16. Bannister, P.; Carrington, C.G.; Chen, G. Heat pumpdehumidifier drying technology—status, potential read more..

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    Drying Operations: IndustrialChristopher G. J. BakerChemical Engineering Department, Kuwait University,Safat, KuwaitAbstractDryers are widely used on an industrial scale and are major consumers of energy. This article first brieflyreviews some of the more common types of drying equipment. It then goes on to discuss the energyconsumption of dryers, with particular emphasis on an ideal adiabatic dryer model against which theperformance of drying equipment in the field can be benchmarked. It read more..

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    actionGoTo:379,Figs. actionGoTo:379,3–actionGoTo:381,7.Becauseofthe complexity of drying operations,manyfactorshave to be considered and weighedwhenselecting an appropriatedryer for agiven application.[1]Often there is no one “right”answer as several optionsmay be both technically and economically viable. Theoptimal choice can be defined as that dryer which satisfiesallprocess requirements at minimumcost. Processrequirements may include the specification of designatedquality parameters read more..

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    can be expected to consume at least 1MWofthermalpower per t/h of evaporation. Finally, as dryers arefrequently operatedvery inefficiently, this figure may inpractice be considerably higher than it needs to be. As aresult, many companies view dryersaspopular targets intheir energy conservation programs. The recent escala-tion in the price of oil and natural gas has naturallyprovided an added incentive. Additionally, the KyotoProtocolhas focusedthe need for governments ofsignatorycountries to read more..

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    greenhouse gas emissions. In order to achieve this, abody of enabling legislationhas been introduced,particularly within the European Union. This legislationand its likelyimpact on both dryer manufacturers andoperators is reviewed elsewhere.[6]The most recent analysis of dryer energy consump-tion within the UnitedKingdom was publishedbyGilmour et al.[7] and includesanumber of interestingstatistics. For example, in 1994, estimates of the energyconsumed in drying ranged from 348.6 to 379.5 read more..

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    escalation in oil and natural gas prices, this figure isprobably asignificant underestimate in today’s terms.The thermal efficiency of adryer can be expressedinseveral ways. Atypical measureis:h Z 100QevQhtrð1Þwhere Qhtr is the total rate at which thermal energy issuppliedtothe dryer.Ofthis, Qev is required to provide thelatent heat of evaporation.Alternatively, thespecificenergy consumption Es of thedryer is defined asthe thermal energy requiredtoevaporateunit mass of water:Es Z read more..

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    adiabatic counterpart. Baker and McKenzie showed thatthe specific energy consumption Es,a of such adryer is notfixed in the absolutesense,but rather that it depended onthe temperature and humidity of the outlet air:Es;a Z 0:001 CpgTo K TaYo K YaC lrefZ Cpgx C lrefð3ÞIn this equation, Cpg is the specific heat of dry air, andlref is the latent heat of water at 08C. Ta and Ya denotethetemperature and humidity of the ambient air, and To and Yodenotethe corresponding values for the outlet air read more..

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    occurring and to identify the corrective actions necessary toimprovethe performance of the dryer.Process measurements on operating dryersare difficultto perform and the following precautions should be takento minimize errors. All measurements shouldbemade induplicate or triplicate in order to ensuretheir accuracy andto confirm that the dryer is operating at steady-state.Triangulation, in which the valueofa particularparameteris arrivedatbymore than one approach, is alwaysadvisableasitprovides read more..

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    Yo is often to calculate it from amass balance over thedryer.Table 4showssome typical results that might beobtained through basic audits on three hypotheticaldryers,each evaporating 5t/h of moisture. In this table, thepotential energy saving in MW is Wev(E*sKEs,a), whereWev is the evaporation rate in kg/s and E*s and Es,a arein GJ/t.The numbers citedrepresentthe maximumpossible energy savings that can be achieved when thedryer is operating at the same exhaust air temperature andhumidity.Detailed read more..

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    Schemes Involving Little or NoCapital ExpenditureExamples of schemes that require little or no capitalexpenditure include thosewhich can be described ashousekeeping measures, 1–4 below, and those that arebased exclusivelyona beneficial change in the dryer’soperatingconditions, 5–7.1. Reducing air leaks2. Eliminating steam leaks3. Improving dryer insulation4. Improving heater insulation5. Reducing the air mass flowrate6. Increasing the inlet air temperature7. Eliminating over-dryingBrief read more..

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    savings,typically 17%–40%, may result.[10]However, industrial experience hasproducedmixed results. Fouling of the heat exchangersbyentrained particlesinthe dryer exhaustand, to alesser extent, corrosion, are commonly encounteredandresult in poorperformance andsevereoperating problems. These can be overcome byemploying glass heat exchangersfitted with clean-in-place washingsystems; however, such equip-ment is expensive. Other possibledevices includeheat wheels,heat pipes, and run-around read more..

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    compounds (VOCs).Pulsedfluidized bedandvibrofluidized bed dryers are more efficient thantheir conventional counterparts because they useless air. Finally, the efficiency of two-stagedryers isnormallyhigherthanthat of their single-stagecounterparts.2. Despite their added cost, the heat recovery optionsand otherenergy-savingmeasures described abovebecome more attractive as fuel prices rise. However,athoroughtechnicalevaluationneeds to beundertaken to ensure that any potential benefitsarenot read more..

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    Electric MotorsH. A. Ingley IIIDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractThis entry on electric motors is written from the perspective of amechanical engineer involved in thedesign and specification of mechanical systems powered by electric motors. The entry describes severalmotor types and their intended applications. Specific components and performance criteria for motorselection are illustrated. The entry concludes with adiscussion on read more..

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    In permanent split-capacitor induction motors,the capaci-tor is not disconnected after motor startup.The difference betweena synchronous and an asyn-chronous induction motor is dictated by the amount offull-loadmotor slip resulting from the motordesign.Synchronous speed in rpmZapplied voltage frequencyðHzÞ ! 60number of pole pairs in the motorð1ÞReferring to Eq. 1above, amotor having one pole pair(two poles) would have asynchronous speed in the UnitedStates (where the applied voltage read more..

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    (especially large motors,200 hp and up) with heaters inthe motor windings. These heaters are energized whenthe motor is de-energized and they keep the motorwindings warm to inhibitmoisture wicking into thewinding interstitial areas.The service factor rating for amotor addresses thecapacity at which an electric motor can operate forextended periods of time at overload conditions. As anexample, if the service factor is 1.0, the motor cannotoperate above full-loadcapacity for asignificant period read more..

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    This particular ownerpreferred motors in which the baseand motor housing was asingle integrated piece.In motor replacement or in selection of new motors, thesupply voltage shouldbecoordinated with the selection.Most three-phase motors are designed to operate at 460Vand 60 Hz in the United States. Many commercial orinstitutional facilities are served with 208- or 230-Vservices. Residential motors and small fractionalhorse-power industrial motors would be served with 120-Vpower. It should be noted read more..

  • Page - 392

    that exceed thoseofEPAct motors.Table 7illustrates acomparison betweenEPAct motor efficiencies and CEEpremium motor efficiencies for several motor sizes. Eventhough the price of CEE premium-efficiencymotorsexceeds EPAct motors by as much as 20%, energyand demand savings can result in simple paybacks of2to3 years.The EPAct of 2005 required that federal agencies selectand purchase only premium efficient motors that meet aspecification set by the Secretary of Energy. On August 18,2006, the DOE read more..

  • Page - 393

    Table 8 Nominal efficiencies for induction motors rated 600 VorlessRandom woundOpen drip-proof (%)Totally enclosed fan-cooled read more..

  • Page - 394

    author observed apaybackofunder 3years for amajorretrofit to variable speed pumping. This project alsoincludedmodifications to the control valves to accommo-date the variableflow strategy.The application of ASD technology does require care.Consider the effect on power factor whenselecting anASD.SomeASD applications can actually result in aninstalled system with apower factor better than theoriginal motor power factor.However, improper selection of an ASD can also resultin alower overall power read more..

  • Page - 395

    Electric PowerTransmission SystemsJackCasazzaAmerican Education Institute, Springfield, Virginia, U.S.A.AbstractThis entry discusses electric power transmission system functions, the benefits produced, components,ratings and capacity, alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) transmission, transmission systemoperations, the need for coordination, control areas, NERC and reliability councils, reliability standards,transmission access, and new technology.TRANSMISSION FUNCTIONSBasic read more..

  • Page - 396

    Electrical Characteristics[4]Transmission systems have resistance (R), which causesthe heating of conductors and the loss of energy whencurrent (I) flows and reactance (X), which causesvoltagedrops when current flows. Reactance can be positive ornegative; positive when it is an inductive reactance andnegative when it is acapacitive reactance.TRANSMISSIONCOMPONENTSTransmission LinesThe transmission system consists of three-phase trans-mission lines and their terminals, read more..

  • Page - 397

    The primary componentsofanoverhead transmissionline are:† Conductors (three, one per phase)† Ground or shield wires† Insulators† Support structures† Land or right-of-way (ROW)Conductors consistofstranded aluminum wovenarounda core of strandedsteel that provides structuralstrength.When there are two or moreofthesewires perphase,they are called bundled conductors.Ground or shield wires are wires strung from the top ofone transmission tower to the next, over the transmissionline. Their read more..

  • Page - 398

    Substation equipment includes:† Bus workthrough which lines, transformers, etc., areconnected.† Protective relays that monitor voltages and currentsand initiatedisconnection of lines and equipment in theevent of failures or malfunctions.† Circuit breakers that interrupt the flowofelectricity tode-energize facilities.† Shunt capacitorstohelpprovide needed reactivepower.† Disconnect switches.† Lightning arrestors.† Metering equipment.† System control and data acquisition (SCADA) read more..

  • Page - 399

    one system can cause transmission system overloadsinother systems.Becauseofthese characteristicsofmodern electricpower systems, the design and operation of the keyelements in asynchronous network mustbecoordinated.Business decisions, government legislationandregulations, and otherinstitutional processesmustbecompatiblewith thetechnicalcharacteristics. Manyproblemscan be solved by technical solutions, somecanbe solved by institutional solutions, and in somecases,problemscan be solved by read more..

  • Page - 400

    approximately with the square of the power carried byeach component,they vary greatly betweenlight loadand heavy-load timesand are also affected by increasesin the powercarriedbythe transmission system.There are alsoreactive power(MVAR) losses in thetransmission system. These losses depend on the reactanceof the system (X) and againvary as the squareofthecurrent.When electrical energy is transported across largedistances through the transmission system,a portion ofthe energy is “lost.” For read more..

  • Page - 401

    Acontrol area can consist of agenerator or group ofgenerators, an individual company, or aportion of acompany or agroup of companies providing it meetscertain certification criteria specified by NERC. It may beaspecific geographicarea with set boundaries or it may bescattered generation and load.Thecontrolcenters require real-timeinformationabout the status of the system.This information includespower line flows, substation voltages, the output of allgenerators, thestatusofall transmission read more..

  • Page - 402

    Meeting reliability standards in the planning of thetransmission system is difficult because the time requiredto install new transmission is longer than the time requiredto installnew generation. Attempting to meetreliabilitystandards in planning forfuturetransmission needsinvolves considerable uncertainties because future gene-ration locations are not known. The general industryconsensus is that the restructuring and deregulation of theelectric power industry has resulted in adecrease read more..

  • Page - 403

    Electric PowerTransmission Systems: Asymmetric OperationRichardJ.MarceauUniversity of Ontario Institute of Technology,Oshawa, Ontario, CanadaAbdou-R. SanaMontreal, Que´bec, CanadaDonald T. McGillisPointe Claire, Que´bec, CanadaAbstractAsymmetric operation of an electric power transmission corridor is an operating strategy that enables a3-phase line to be operated with one or two phases out of service in the case of single-line transmissioncorridors, or with one, two, or three phases out of read more..

  • Page - 404

    expensive transmission equipment, costly in terms of lossof potential revenue, and stressful to both power systemequipment and operators. In the light of the considerablepressures on electric utilities due to deregulation,greaterenvironmental awareness, normal load growth,and (asshownlater in this article) symmetrical operation exposethe system to numerous riskswhile wasting valuabletransmission capacity. This was particularly showntobetrue in the August 2003 blackout in the read more..

  • Page - 405

    LOLEsym Z fchT 1 K p3LOLEasym Z fchT 1 K p3ð1Þwhere fch is aload factor that takes average load variationsinto account. An arbitraryload factor between 50 and 75%is considered to be acceptable in the industry.The difference between the LOLE of symmetric andasymmetricoperation, DLOLE, yields thebenefitofasymmetric operation, which can be evaluated at theenergy generation costLOLEsym K LOLEasymZ ð1 K p3Þ K ð1 K pÞ3 fchTZ 3pð1 K pÞfchTð2ÞEq. 2shows that DLOLE is always greater than read more..

  • Page - 406

    the ai-phases out of service has the same electricalcharacteristicsand carries the same power as theoriginal symmetrically operated corridorA-phase withN operational ai-phases.Installed ReactivePowerThe total installed reactive power for series compensationQTseries is calculated assumingthatseries-connectedreactive powerisavailable to every phase of everyline.The total installed series reactive power in the 3N phasesof the corridorisQTseries Z 3NXSIpN K L2Z K3LðN K LÞ2XpI2pð4Þwhere Ip is the read more..

  • Page - 407

    (SILZ1400 MW) and equipped to sustainthe loss of threedifferent phasesoneither of the two 3-phase lines. actionGoTo:406,Fig. actionGoTo:406,3shows this corridor with one phase out of service on oneline. The unit length parameters are xLZ0.3 U/km andbLZ6.0 mS/km.Thus, for 300 km, XLZ90 U,and BLZ1.80!10K3 S.For LZ1, Table 1givesthe required reactive powerresulting from the application of Eqs. 4and 5. For seriescompensation, atotal 1150 Mvar is required. Thetotalneed for shunt compensation, read more..

  • Page - 408

    capacitorsof2 Mvar each foratotal 6Mvar. Thecompensation of the negativesequence requires68Mvarfor the two compensators at the ends of the line. Filteringthe zero sequence requires 16 Mvar.RemarksThe values of the passive LC elements of the negative-sequence compensator depend on the actual load,and itmay be necessarytoadjust them for large variationsoftheload from SIL (design load). Adjustingthe groundingtransformers of the zero-sequence filters according to theactual load is not read more..

  • Page - 409

    figure can then be used to determinehow long it takesto payfor the equipment required to implement eitherasymmetric operation or someotheralternative, such asadding another line. The purposeofthis sectionistoshow that asymmetric operation is apractical andeconomical alternativefor improving transmissionsystem capacity.RetrofitofExisting CorridorsThe benefit of asymmetric operation is obtainedbycomparing (1) the total investment cost of retrofittingan existing 3-phase corridorfor asymmetric read more..

  • Page - 410

    New CorridorsThree voltage scenarios (345, 500, and 735 kV; seeTable 4) have been selected to compare the per-formance of differenttransmissionoptions undersymmetric and asymmetric operation for planning newtransmission capacity from the point of view of theNK1criterion. Each scenario comparesthe cost of a2-line,symmetrically operatedtransmission corridortoa1-line,asymmetrically operated corridor of the samecapacity, both of which respect an NK1criterion. Ineach case, the NK1criterion is read more..

  • Page - 411

    Effect of Line LengthIn the above example, line length was set somewhatarbitrarilyat300 km even though allscenariosaretechnically realistic. There is considerable merit, however,in comparing thecosts of a1-line, asymmetricallyoperatedcorridor as afunctionofdistancewith respectto those of a2-line symmetrically-operated corridor. Thiswas examined, therefore, in the case of the three voltagescenarios considered above and for line lengths rangingfrom 1to400 km.As Fig. 6shows, the costsofboth read more..

  • Page - 412

    at its SIL) while respecting existing 3-phase NK1securitycriteriaifneed be.Inthe case of newtransmission corridors, point-to-point transmission,interarea networkinterconnections, or ring-typetrans-mission grids feeding large metropolitan areas, asym-metric operation has such apositive impact on thereliability of single-line transmission systems that itredefines one’s outlook on such fundamental issues aschoice of voltage,number of lines, the contingency thatdefines one’s security read more..

  • Page - 413

    Electric SupplySystem: GenerationJill S. TietjenTechnically Speaking, Inc., Greenwood Village, Colorado, U.S.A.AbstractThe electric utility system is comprised of three major components: the generation system, the transmissionsystem, and the distribution system. The generation system, where the electricity is produced, is comprisedof power plants, also called generating units. Generation in the United States is produced at facilitiescategorized as conventional and renewable resources. read more..

  • Page - 414

    Coal is mined and shipped to the powerplants from abroad range of states.The vast majority of coal is mined inWyoming, West Virginia, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, andTexas.Coal-fired powerplants are very reliable and operate in amanner that is called dispatchable. This means that theamount of power that the facility provides minutetominuteis controllable by ahumanoperator and can be increased ordecreased at anytime, depending on theamount ofelectricity required by autility’s customers. read more..

  • Page - 415

    afternoons and cold wintermornings) or during emergen-cies (suchasthe loss of amajor generating unit ortransmission line).Combustion turbinesrange in sizefrom about 1MWtomore than 300 MW. New units use selective catalyticreductioninaddition to water or steam injection to controlNOx emitted during the combustion process. Combustionturbinesalso emit CO2.In special combined cycle units, muchofthe heat that isexhausted (not used) in the process of generation from acombustion turbine is captured read more..

  • Page - 416

    facilities include changestostream flows, oxygen contentof the water, and the disruption of wildlife habitat.[5]The word geothermal comes from Latin words thatmean“heat from the earth.” Geothermal resources rangefrom shallow ground to hot water and rock several milesbelowthe Earth’s surface,toeven farther down,tomoltenrock knownasmagma.Inthe United States, mostgeothermal resourcesare locatedinthe Western states,Alaska,and Hawaii.The three typesofgeothermal power plants operatingtodayare read more..

  • Page - 417

    the biomass is burned, providing heat to turn water intosteam, which turns blades in aturbine that turnsageneratorand produceselectricity. The direct-firedsystemsproduce many of the same products of combustionas do coal-fired generating units and require much of thesame equipment for cleaning up the byproducts. Direct-fired systems tend to be dispatchable, although someareconstrained by the amount of fuel available to the facility.Co-firing involves substituting biomassfor aportion ofcoal in read more..

  • Page - 418

    Electricity Deregulation for CustomersNorm CampbellEnergy Systems Group, Newburgh, Indiana, U.S.A.AbstractDeregulation of the United States electric industry has been aroller coaster ride with roots in the 1920’s andcontinuing as awork in progress to present day. From the birth of retail electricity markets and the initialregulations provided through PUCA in 1935, the electric industry has fueled the growth of the UnitedStates. Since PURPA in the 1970’s, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and read more..

  • Page - 419

    monopolies would be able to control the electricsystemwithout any limitations. With unfettered control on thehorizon, the federal government passed the Public UtilitiesHoldingAct of 1935(PUCHA)tolimit electricmonopolies andoffer aframeworkfor astructuredgeneration and transmission system to supply electricityto agrowingnation. This system and its evolution servedwell for nearly 40 years until the 1973 oil crisis shockedthe nation into anew era of energy awareness andregulation.GROWING PAINS1973 read more..

  • Page - 420

    of electricity to wholesale customers. The theory of theRTO was that pricing, maintenance, scheduling, develop-ment, expansion, and access would be mosteffectivelycontrolled by one entity rather than allow for the multiplestructures of franchise utility controls, as historically wasin place. There was also adesire to prevent discriminatorypractices to prevent nonutility generators from using thegrid to supply alternatives to wholesale customers.Is the RTO concept successful? The final tallyhas read more..

  • Page - 421

    when prices in the Midwest skyrocketed to morethan$10,000 per megawatt. As the prices moved higher,contractual defaults started to increase. Suppliers anduserswerenot ready forthis type of fast pricemovement after the yearsofsteady wholesale supplyand contractual prices. Other regions were also affectedwith similar supply and demand imbalance events, andsome of these, such as the activities in California, havecreatedcourt actions to determine if markets wereartificially manipulated.Clearly the read more..

  • Page - 422

    activities and appeared to have been interpolated orextracted from otherindustry’s experiences with increasedcompetition. So the remaining(and most prominent)driver of issues in United States business is economicimprovement or lower consumer costs. Becausethis text islimited on space,there will only be ahighlighting of eachgroup’sconcerns, butthisshould help to define the overallimage.Fig. 1 Average revenue per kilowatthour by state 1998.Source: From Energy Information Administration, read more..

  • Page - 423

    THE CONSUMER’SPOINT OF VIEWThe consumers of electricity are usually classified intoresidential, commercial, and industrialusers. Of these,typicallythe industrial users are considered the largestconsumersofelectricity and thus they are the mostprominent players in the economicsituation. However,because electricity is also aregulatory/legislative issue,the residential and commercial interestsare importantin economicand politicalterms. With this in mind,one can generalize that industrial, read more..

  • Page - 424

    continental United States) and offer options in the spirit ofPURPA, of which they were aleading proponent. In otherstates such as Kentucky and Indiana, the focus is onmaintaining the existing low electric rates and economicdevelopment opportunities for their communities.So the regulators and legislators have multiple forcespullingthem in manydirections. Naturally, these opposingforces are not necessarily interested in the sameoutcomeand the scales of balance on the issue move from one sideto read more..

  • Page - 425

    among various business models with varying rules. Theserule variations leadtothe discussion of strandedassets(those assets built by regulated utilities in past years withthe understanding the assets would be recovered or paid bythe customers over time). When deregulation becameadistinct possibility, utilities naturally were worried thatinvestments in infrastructure prudently made under the“old” rules neededtobeaddressedifcustomers began toselectnew suppliers. Some of theseconcerns read more..

  • Page - 426

    Electricity Enterprise: U.S., Past and PresentKurt E. YeagerGalvin Electricity Initiative, Palo Alto, California, U.S.A.AbstractThis article provides abrief historical synopsis of the development of the electricity enterprise in the UnitedStates. The end of this article includes areference list of more detailed accounts of the electricity enterprise,on which this summary is based.INTRODUCTIONThe organization of this synopsis corresponds with thestages in the Electricity Sector Life-Cycle shownin read more..

  • Page - 427

    systemsthat connectthe powersupplytoeach consumerare effectively alast bastion of analog, electromechani-cally controlled industry. This is aparticularly notableparadox giventhe fact that the nation’s electricity supplysystem powers the digital revolution on which muchofthecurrent and future valuedepends. Keepingthe lights on99.97% of the time is simplynot good enough. That stillmeans the average consumer doesn’t have power for 2.5 hayear. In today’s impatient, increasingly read more..

  • Page - 428

    computers, communications and entertainmentproducts,cordlesstools, medical devices, military products,etc.This innovative diversityhas been accomplished byexploiting the synergy betweenthe products themselves,the electricity storage devices they employ—includingbatteries, ultracapacitors, and fuel cells—and the power-management systemsthat charge these storage devices.Today, the globalportable electricity storage market isabout $50 billion per year,ofwhich, $5 billion is allocatedto read more..

  • Page - 429

    became areactionary who threatened to stagnate theindustryatinits primitive stage of development.In1892,Edison’s financier,J.P. Morgan, stepped in and forced amerger with Thompson-Houston and put their manage-ment in charge of Edison’s GeneralElectric Co. In 1896,GeneralElectric and Westinghouse exchanged patents, atypical move in the age of trusts, so even GeneralElectricused Westinghouse concepts.The age of Edisonhadended.By 1892, Samuel Insull of Chicago Edison,anotherformer read more..

  • Page - 430

    sustained through most of the 20th century. When Insulltook over the Chicago Edison Co. in that year, it was justone of 20 electric companies in the city. Although Chicagohad apopulation of more than one million, only 5000 hadelectric lights. He vowed to serve the entire population.Insull and other leaders of the Association of EdisonIlluminating Companies (AEIC) realized that the industryhadhighfixedcosts because of theinfrastructureinvestment needed. At the same time, the cost of operatingthe read more..

  • Page - 431

    Insull began asales campaign, cut prices as necessaryto get customers, and wrote long-term contracts for largecustomers. He utilizeda demand meter (invented inEngland) and set the price of electricity to cover both fixedand operating costs. Insull also concluded that profitsweremaximized by keeping the power plantrunning as muchaspossibletoexploit the diversity of load. As aresult, theU.S. led the world in the rates of electrification. Insull inChicago sold moreelectricity per capita, ran read more..

  • Page - 432

    in steampressureand temperatureinboilers andgenerators, providingcorresponding improvementsinthermal efficiency. Steam temperature and pressure in1903 were typically 5308Fand 180 PSI respectively. By1930, water-cooled furnace walls permitted the productionof steam at 7508Fand upto 1400 PSI. By 1960, theseparameters had increased to 10008Fand 3000 PSI, turningwater into dry, unsaturated, supercritical steam, effectivelyexploiting the full potential of the Rankinesteam cycle.Improvements in read more..

  • Page - 433

    every decade, incentives to add to the rate base, satisfiedcustomers andinvestors, and acceptable returns forowners. That environment of few operating problemsandlittleneedtoquestionthe prevailing regulatorystructure left the electricity enterpriseand its stakeholdersunprepared to either anticipate, or respond quickly to, thechallenges that rapidly followed.Table 3summarizes the progress of the electricityenterprise duringthis period of growth and consolidation.MATURITY AND STASISBy the mid read more..

  • Page - 434

    2000, and no newU.S. orders had been placed in twodecades.These issues were profoundlyimpacting the electricityenterprise in the 1980s. The very ways electricity wasgenerated and priced were being challenged for the firsttime in nearly acentury. No longercould planners counton asteady rise in electricity demand. No longercouldutilities count on low-cost fuels or the promiseofthe atom.They couldnolongerconstruct larger and more efficientgeneration, nor could they avoid the costs associated read more..

  • Page - 435

    operateonly in onedirection—downward. Thus, theessential foundation for restoring vitality to the electricityenterprise rests first and foremost on innovation, princi-pally in the consumer/delivery interface and in end-useelectro-technologies. This represents aprofound transfor-mational challenge for the enterprise, which, throughoutits history following the Edisonian beginning, has focusedon supply-side technology as the wellspring of progress.This combination of rising costs read more..

  • Page - 436

    of newplayers taking advantage of the growing value gapsin the nation’straditional electricity supply capability isthe trend toward distributed powerresources. Consumerswith urgent needs for high quality powerare increasinglytaking advantage of the emergence of practical on-sitegeneration technologies. These include diesel power sets,microturbinesutilizing natural gas or landfill methane, fuelcells, and hybrid powersystems incorporating photo-voltaics. All of these are, in effect, competitors read more..

  • Page - 437

    Table 4 summarizes the course of the enterpriseduringthe maturity and stasis periodofthe last 35 years.CONCLUSIONThe past century has witnessedthe creation of the electricutilityindustry, and the profound growth in electric use.Electricity is now consumed by virtually everyresidential,commercial, industrial, and institutional facility in theUnited States. Forthe first half century of this newtechnology, costsofelectricity continually declined; andby the 50 year mark, aunifiedelectric grid read more..

  • Page - 438

    Electricity Enterprise: U.S., ProspectsKurt E. YeagerGalvin Electricity Initiative, Palo Alto, California, U.S.A.AbstractThis entry examines the present status of the U.S. electricity enterprise, and seeks to identify futureopportunities for technological innovation in the electric power systems (as broadly defined) that will bestserve the changing needs of consumers and businesses over at least the next 20 years. Of paramountimportance will be insuring that the electricity system provides read more..

  • Page - 439

    enable all consumers to becomeactive participantsin, and benefactors of, the electricity enterprise,rather than remaining captive to the historic modelof energy as strictly acommodity.Consumers wantmore choice and control.The stakeholders’ feedback also underscores that this“forward-to-fundamentals” transformation of the electri-city enterpriseisa process, not an event. This processshould develop and proceed based on local benefits andcosts—just as the nation’shighway system was read more..

  • Page - 440

    for innovation, and allocate investments moreeffectivelythan centrally regulated monopolies. While fundamentallysound in principle,the policy implementation of thisrationale has not adequately reflectedeither the uniquephysics or thepublic entitlement characteristicsofelectricity. The consequence has been abreakdown inthe traditional public/privatepartnershipbuilt aroundtheobligation to reliably serve, and upon which the value andreputation of the electricity enterprise was built. Thedecision read more..

  • Page - 441

    pressuretofurther escalate infrastructure securitymeasures, regardless of their cost. On the other hand, amodern, digitally monitored and controlled powersupplysystem would comprehensivelyand confidently addresstheseconcerns as part of theprocess of technicalmodernization.The need to improvethe reliability and qualityofpowersystemsisanother important reason the cost of electricitylikely will increasethrough 2015. Mandatory reliabilitystandards have been endorsed widely and were movingthrough read more..

  • Page - 442

    —Increased functional valuefor all consumers interms of metering, billing, energy management,demand-response, and security monitoring, amongothers.—Access to selective consumer services includingenergy-smartappliances, power-market partici-pation, security monitoring, and distributed gener-ation.To apowersystem operator, automation means aself-healing, self-optimizing smart power deliverysystem that automatically anticipates and quicklyresponds to disturbances, thus minimizing, if read more..

  • Page - 443

    supplysystemwithinthe currentregulated utilitystructure.All of these initiatives have been developed over thelast several yearsinresponse to the concerns of the broadelectricity stakeholder community about the nation’s agingelectricity supplysystem.This reflects the fact that thenation and its economy are dependent on the integrity of acomplexweb of digital networks for which the electricpower system is the foundation. These initiatives reflectthebroad-based collaborationofleaders in read more..

  • Page - 444

    self-organizing entrepreneurstoengage in the nation’selectricity enterprise. Innovative entrepreneurial leader-ship guidedbyconsumer service opportunities is seen bythe Initiative as providing the mostconfident engine forquality transformation and sustainablesystem improve-ment. The emphasis here is on creative, “outside the box”thinking that focuses on achieving maximum consumervaluethrough innovation with as short aturnaround aspossible.The basicapproach to developing the Perfect read more..

  • Page - 445

    portfolio of domestic energy options includingfossil,nuclear, and renewable energy sources, alongwithenhanced end-use efficiency; (2) develop asustain-able electric energy system providing the highestvalue to all consumerswith perfect reliability; and(3) electrify transportation to reducedependence onforeign oil.The cost/benefits of electricity system modernizationwill be profoundly positive. For example, the cost to theaverage household would be less than $5 per month beforetaking any credit read more..

  • Page - 446

    Electronic Control Systems: BasicEric PeterschmidtHoneywell Building Solutions, Honeywell, Golden Valley,Minnesota, U.S.A.Michael TaylorHoneywell Building Solutions, Honeywell, St. Louis Park, Minnesota, U.S.A.AbstractEvery piece of energy-consuming equipment has some form of control system associated with it. Thisarticle provides information about electronic control systems primarily used to control HVAC equipment.The same principles are used to control other equipment, such as lighting, read more..

  • Page - 447

    Circuit diagrams in this article are basic and fairlygeneral.A resistance-temperature input and a2–10 Vd.c.outputare used for purposes of discussion.A detaileddiscussiononcontrol modes can be found in the “ControlFundamentals” sectionofthe Engineering ManualofAutomatic Controls.[1]ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEMCOMPONENTSAn electroniccontrol system includessensors, controllers,outputdevices such as actuators and relays; final controlelements such as valves and dampers;and read more..

  • Page - 448

    sensorprovides the controller with adiscrete signal such asopen or closed contacts.Some electronicsensors use an inherent attributeoftheirmaterial (e.g., wire resistance) to provide asignal and canbe directly connected to the electronic controller. Othersensors require conversion of the sensorsignal to atype orlevelthat can be used by the electronic controller. Forexample, asensorthat detects pressure requiresa transduceror transmitter to convertthe pressure signal to avoltage thatcan be used by read more..

  • Page - 449

    insulating base. Alaser trimming method (Fig. 4) thenburns away aportion of the metal to calibrate the sensor,providing aresistance of 1000 O at 748F. This platinumfilmsensorprovides ahigh resistance-to-temperaturerelationship. With itshighresistance,the sensor isrelatively immune to self-heating and sensor-leadwireresistanceoffsets. In addition, the sensor is an extremelylow-massdevice and responds quickly to changesintemperature. RTD elements of this type are common.Solid-State Resistance read more..

  • Page - 450

    have near-perfect linear characteristicsovertheir usabletemperature range.ThermocouplesIn athermocouple, two dissimilar metals such as ironandconstantan are welded togethertoform athermocouplejunction (Fig. 7). When this junction is exposed to heat,avoltage in the millivolt range is generated and can bemeasured by the input circuits of an electronic controller.The amount of voltage generated is directly proportional tothe temperature (Fig. 8). At room temperatures for typicalHVACapplications, read more..

  • Page - 451

    resistanceand capacitance that can be measured by anelectronic circuit.Sensorsthat use changes in frequencytomeasurerelative humidity actionGoTo:452,(Fig. actionGoTo:452,12) can use a quartz crystal coatedwith ahygroscopic material such as polymer plastic. Whenthe quartz crystal is energized by an oscillating circuit, itgenerates aconstant frequency. As the polymer materialabsorbs moisture and changesthe mass of the quartzcrystal, the frequencyofoscillation varies and can bemeasured by an read more..

  • Page - 452

    sent to the controller is less susceptible to externalnoiseinterference. Thesensorthus becomes atransmitter.Another pressure sensing method measures capacitanceactionGoTo:453,(Fig. actionGoTo:453,14). Afixed plate forms one part of the capacitorassembly, and aflexible plate is the other part of thecapacitor assembly. As the diaphragm flexes with pressurevariations, the flexible plate of the capacitor assemblymovescloser to the fixed plate (shown by adotted line inFig. 14)and changesthe read more..

  • Page - 453

    Input TypesElectronic controllers are categorizedbythe type or typesof inputsthey accept, such as temperature, humidity,enthalpyoruniversal.Temperature ControllersTemperature controllers typically require aspecifictypeor category of input sensors. Some have input circuits toacceptRTD sensors such as BALCOorplatinumelements,while others containinput circuits forthermistor sensors. These controllers have setpoint andthrottling range scales labeled in degrees Fahrenheit orCelsius.Relative Humidity read more..

  • Page - 454

    4–20 mA current signal. Setpoint and scales for thesecontrollers are in percent relative humidity.Enthalpy ControllersEnthalpy controllers are specialized devices that usespecificsensors for inputs. In some cases, the sensormay combine temperature and humidity measurementsand convert them to asingle voltage to represent enthalpyof the sensed air. In othercases, individual dry-bulbtemperature sensors and separate wet-bulb or relativehumiditysensors provideinputs, andthe controllercalculates read more..

  • Page - 455

    perform modulating functions. One form of pulsating signalis aPulse Width Modulation (PWM)signal.TranducerIn someapplications, atransducer converts acontrolleroutputtoa signal that is usable by the actuator. Forexample, Fig. 18 shows an Electronic-to-Pneumatic (E/P)transducer that converts amodulating 2–10 Vd.c. signalfrom the electronic controllertoa pneumatic proportionalmodulating 3–13 psi signal for apneumatic actuator.Indicating DevicesAn electroniccontrol system can be enhanced with read more..

  • Page - 456

    outdoor temperature sensortoprovidea common inputto several controllers. Controller C1 modulates the hot-and chilled-water valves V1 and V2 in sequence tomaintain space temperature measured by sensor T1 at apre-selected setpoint. Sequencer Sallows sequencingthe two valve actuators from asingle controller. Low-limit sensorT2assumes control whenthe discharge airtemperature drops to the control range of the low-limitsetpoint. Aminimum discharge air temperature ismaintained regardless of space read more..

  • Page - 457

    sensorT3atthe selected setpoint. When the OAtemperature is above the economizer startpoint setting,the controllercloses the OA dampers to apresetminimum.ADDITIONAL DEFINITIONSAuthority (reset authority or compensation authority).Asetting that indicates the relative effect acompensationsensorinput has on the main setpoint (expressed in percent).Compensation change-over.The point at which thecompensation effect is reversed in action and changesfromsummertowinter or vice versa. read more..

  • Page - 458

    Reverse acting.A reverse-acting controller decreasesits outputsignal on an increase in input signal.Setpoint.The value on the controller scale at which thecontroller is set, such as the desired room temperature seton athermostat. The setpointisalways referenced to themain sensor(not the reset sensor).Throttling range.Inaproportionalcontroller, thecontrol point range throughwhich the controlledvariablemustpass to move the final control element through its fulloperating range. Throttlingrange is read more..

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    EmergyAccountingMark T. BrownDepartment of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville,Florida, U.S.A.Sergio UlgiatiDepartment of Sciences for the Environment, Parthenope, University of Naples, Napoli, ItalyAbstractIn this chapter, we briefly review H.T. Odum’s concepts and principles of emergy and relatedquantities.[1–5] The concept of energy quality is introduced and defined by transformity and specificemergy. Tables are given of data on global emergy flows, read more..

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    Empower is aflow of emergy (i.e., emergy per unit oftime). Emergy flows are usually expressed in units ofsolar empower(solar emjoules per unit of time).ENERGY, QUALITY, ANDEMERGYProbably the least understood and most criticized parts ofH.T. Odum’sbody of work[1–5] are his concepts andtheories of energy quality, which are embodied in the 35year development of the emergy concept. The develop-ment of emergy andits theoreticalbase cannot beseparated from the development of the concept of read more..

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    quality, is related to the efficiency of aprocess thatproduces agivenflow of energy or matter within the samehierarchical level.(SeeFig.3 foranexample ofcomparison among units in the samehierarchical level.)For any given output—say, electricity—thereisalmost aninfinite number of waystoproduceit, includingall thegenerators, chemical processes, solar voltaiccells, andhydroelectric dams presentlyinservice. Arecentcompilation of transformities for electricity from variousproduction systems read more..

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    useful for otheremergy evaluations for which globalaverages can be used.Temporary Emergy Inputs to the GeobiosphereIn the past two centuries, the production and consumptionprocesses of humancivilization that are using the largeemergy in the geologic stores of fuels and minerals havereached ascale with global impact.Because these storagesare being used much faster than they are beinggenerated ingeologiccycles, they areoften called nonrenewableresources.Theyare actually very read more..

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    unit emergy values are given for primary nonrenewableenergy sources. In some cases, the unit emergy valueisbasedononlyone evaluation—plantationpine, forexample. In other cases, several evaluationshave beendone of the same primary energy but from differentsources, and presumably different technology, so unitemergy valueisanaverage. Obviously, each primaryenergy sourcehas arange of values depending on sourceand technology. Becausethey usedata from typicalproduction facilities(and actual read more..

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    living systems, to photosynthesis, to the energy expendedby animals as they grazeorchase prey—it seems logicalthat it must also be applied to the processesofextractingfossil fuels from the Earth and to energy production of allsorts that drives economicsectors and human societies.Odum suggested, “The true valueofenergy to society isthe net energy, which is that after the costs of getting andconcentrating that energy are subtracted.”[9]An Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR) is used to calculate thenet read more..

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    Notice that the EYR decreases at each stage as more andmore resourcesare used to process the wood into chips.NET EMERGY ANDTIMENet energy is related to time,inthat the longera producthas to develop, the higher its quality and the greater its netcontribution. Doherty, for example, evaluated severalprocessesthat convertwood to higher-quality energy, suchas ethanol.[10] Then he graphed the EYR vs the time ittakes to grow the input wood. Thegraph in actionGoTo:466,Fig. actionGoTo:466,7 resulted.The read more..

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    usually not accounted for by otherenergy evaluationmethods.Nonemergy approachesmostoften evaluate onlynonrenewableresourcesand often do not account for thefree services that asystem receives from the environment(e.g., the photosynthetic activity driven by the solarradiation or the dilution of pollutantsbythe wind),which are just as much arequirement for the productiveprocess as are fossil fuels. Finally, mostnonemergymethods do not have an accounting procedure for humanlabor, societal services, read more..

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    any process occurring in the biosphere. Through thisquality correction, it is possibletoevaluateall the inputs toprocessesand compute true net yields for processes,including potentialenergysources. Without qualitycorrection, net energy accounting can evaluatefossilenergy return only for fossil energy invested; it cannotinclude human services, materials, and environmentalservices, in essence accounting for only aportion of therequiredinputs. The result can easily be afalse assumptionof read more..

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    6. Brown, M.T.; Ulgiati, S. Emergy evaluation and environ-mental loading of electricity production systems. J. Clean.Prod. 2002, 10,321–334.7. Odum, H.T.; Brown, M.T.; Williams, S.B. Handbook ofEmergy Evaluation: ACompendium of Data for EmergyComputation Issued in aSeries of Folios. Folio *1—Introduction and Global Budget;Center for EnvironmentalPolicy, Environmental Engineering Sciences, University ofFlorida: Gainesville, FL, 2000; 16.8. Odum, H.T. Handbook of Emergy Evaluation: read more..

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    Emissions TradingPaul M. SotkiewiczPublic Utility Research Center,University of Florida, Warrington College of Business,Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractEmission trading is asystem of rights or permits that gives the holder the right to emit 1unit of adesignatedpollutant. Permits or rights to pollute then can be considered an input to production and are priced like anyother commodity. The idea behind emissions trading is to meet environmental goals at the lowest possiblecost compared with read more..

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    at the same plant),solong as total facility emissions didnot exceed aspecified level.[8]The movement to emissions tradingasa policy optionhas also been driven by the cost of CAC policies relative tothe least-costway of meeting emissions standards. AsshowninPortney,[6] amultitude of studies conductedduring the 1980s showed ratios of CAC cost to least cost inarange from as low as 1.07 to as high as 22. Themovement towardwidespread application and acceptanceof cap-and-trade programs led by the read more..

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    reductions can be measured in an offset system, or todetermineemissions rates.DeterminationofanEmissionsCapIn cap-and-tradesystems,the elementthatmakesemissions reductions valuableisthe programwide limiton total emissions. Thedecision on the leveloftheemissions cap is as much political as it is scientific. In anideal world with perfect information, the cap would be setso that the net benefitstosociety would be maximized(marginal costs of emissions reductions would equal themarginal read more..

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    season, banking may not be allowed such as in RECLAIMor by somestates in the NOx SIP Call Program.[18]Penalties and EnforcementAll affected sources in atrading program mustpossessenough allowancestocover its emissions in acap-and-trade program.Penalties and enforcement are necessarybecause without penalties or enforcement, there is noreason for sources to hold the necessary allowances to bein compliance. In cap-and-trade systems, apenalty perallowance not held, well in excess of the market price read more..

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    Nowconsidera cap-and-trade emissionstradingprogram.Let Xi be the allowance allocation for firm iand xi be the allowance purchase (xiO0) or allowancesales (xi!0) position of firm i.Let P be the price ofallowances in the market. Each firminthe marketminimizes its cost of pollution abatement and allowancepurchases/salessubject to the restrictionthat emissions, ei,are less than or equal to the allowance allocation plus thenet position:Minei;xi CiðEi K eiÞ C Pxis:t: ei %Xi C xiThe solution to read more..

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    optimizing behavior of firms, as showninTable 3, as theystill producethe same emissions (e1Z1600, e2Z400);neither does it change the allowance price, which is stillPZ400. What does change is the allowance cost for thefirms. Under the gratis allocation firmsare, in effect, beingallocated asubsidy in the sense of not needing to pay forany costs associated with their emissions covered by theallocation as they would under an auction scheme. Underan auction, firmspay the government directly for read more..

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    Suppose that the environmental regulator imposesanemission tax of 300 per ton. By design, the marginal costsof abatement are equalized across firms, thus minimizingthe cost of meeting the uncertain emissions level. Table 5shows the result for the tax of 300 per ton.The resulting emissions of 2600 are greater than thetarget set forth under either emission tradingorCAC,although this higheremissions level is achieved at least-cost. If the goal is to achieve the 2000-ton limit withemissions taxes, read more..

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    11. South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD).RECLAIM home page. Available at: actionURI(http://www.aqmd.gov):www.aqmd.gov/actionURI(http://www.aqmd.gov):reclaim/index.htm (accessed on November 2006).12. European Commission. Emission Trading Scheme (EUETS) home page. Available at: actionURI(http://ec.europa.eu):http://ec.europa.eu/actionURI(http://ec.europa.eu):environment/climat/emission.htm (accessed on November2006).13. Hahn, R.W.; Hester, G.L. Where did all the markets go? read more..

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    EnergyCodes and Standards: FacilitiesRosemarie BartlettPacific Northwest National Laboratory,Richland, Washington, U.S.A.Mark A. HalversonPacific Northwest National Laboratory,West Halifax, Vermont, U.S.A.Diana L. ShankleBattelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,U.S. Department of Energy,Richland,Washington, U.S.A.AbstractEnergy codes and standards play avital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements forenergy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform read more..

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    Who is Involved?ASHRAE works with otherstandards organizations, suchas the Illuminating EngineeringSociety of North America(IESNA), American National Standards Institute(ANSI),American Society of Testing and Materials(ASTM), AirConditioning andRefrigeration Institute (ARI),andUnderwriters Laboratories (UL). The voluntary consensusprocess also includesrepresentation from othergroups:† The design community, including architects, lighting,and mechanical designers† Membersofthe enforcement read more..

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    What’s the TimingofRevisions to Standards90.1 and 90.2?Standards 90.1 and 90.2 are automatically revised andpublishedevery3 yr. However, anyone may proposearevision at any time. Approved interimrevisions (calledaddenda) are posted on the ASHRAE Web site and areincludedinthe next publishedversion.Key activities relating to revisions, including respond-ing to public comments, typically occur during one ofASHRAE’s annual (June)ormidwinter (January) meet-ings. Public review of standards commonly read more..

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    Adoption ThroughLegislationState legislation rarely includesthe complete text of anenergy standard or MEC. More commonly, legislationreferences an energy standard or MEC that is alreadypublished. Thelegislation often adds administrativeprovisions addressing enforcement, updating,variances,and authority.Another common approach is to use legislation todelegate authority to an agency, council,orcommittee.The delegated authority is empowered to develop andadopt regulations governing energy-related read more..

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    implementation and training easier for states and localjurisdictions.ENFORCEMENTOFENERGY CODES ON THESTATE AND LOCALLEVELSEnforcement ensures compliancewith an energy code andis criticaltosecuringenergysavings.Enforcementstrategies vary according to astate or local government’sregulatory authority, resources, and manpower. Enforce-ment can include all or some of the following activities:† Plan review† Product, material, and equipment specifications review† Testing and certification read more..

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    DOE SUPPORTThe DOE’s Building Energy Codes Program (BECP)supports state and local governments in their efforts toimplement andenforce buildingenergycodes.Thissupportincludesthe following activities:† Developing and distributing easy-to-use compliancetools and materials† Providingfinancial and technical assistance to helpadopt, implement, and enforce building energy codes† Participating in the development of MECs and energystandards† Providinginformation on compliance products read more..

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    EnergyConservationIbrahim DincerFaculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology(UOIT), Oshawa, Ontario, CanadaAdnan Midilli*Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Nigde University,Nigde, TurkeyAbstractThis study highlights these issues and potential solutions to the current environmental issues; identifies themain steps for implementing energy conservation programs and the main barriers to such implementations;and provides read more..

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    practical energyconservation aspects; research anddevelopment(R&D) in energyconservation,energyconservation, and sustainable development; energy con-servation implementation plans; energyconservationmeasurements;and life-cycle costing(LCC)asanexcellent tool in energy conservation. In this regard, thiscontribution aims to:† Help explain main concepts and issues about energyconservation† Develop relations betweenenergy conservation andsustainability† Encourage energy read more..

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    conservation will become increasinglyimportant tocompensate for shortagesofconventional resources.MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMSOne of the mostimportant targetsofmodern industrialcivilizations is to supplysustainable energy sources and todevelop the basis of living standards based on these energysources, as well as implementing energy conservationmeasures. In fact, affordableand abundant sustainableenergy makes our lives brighter, safer, more comfortable,andmoremobile read more..

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    solar radiation directed at Earthand cause adecrease in theoxygen available for the living things. Thethreat of globalwarming has been attributed to fossil fuels.[2] In addition,the risk and reality of environmental degradation havebecome moreapparent.Growing evidence of environ-mental problemsisdue to acombination of factors.Duringthe past twodecades, environmentaldegradation has growndramatically because of the sheerincreaseofworld population, energy consumption, andindustrial activities. read more..

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    consumption is found to be 6092.2 million tons in 1980,8754.5 million tons in 2006, 9424.3 milliontons in 2012,and 10,317.2 million tons in 2020. These values show thatthe CO2 production will probably increase if we continueutilizing fossil fuel. Therefore, it is suggestedthat certainenergy conversion strategies and technologies should beput into practice immediately to reduce future environ-mental problems.The climate technology initiative(CTI) is acooperativeeffort by 23 Organization for read more..

  • Page - 488

    Development (OECD)/International Energy Agency (IEA)member countries andthe European Commission tosupportthe objectives of the united nations frameworkconvention on climate change (UNFCCC). TheCTI waslaunched at the 1995 Berlin Conference of the Parties tothe UNFCCC. The CTI seeks to ensure that technologiesto address climate change are availableand can bedeployed efficiently. The CTI includesactivities directedat the achievement of seven broad objectives:† To facilitatecooperative and read more..

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    PRACTICAL ENERGYCONSERVATION ASPECTSThe energy-savingresult of efficiency improvements isoften calledenergy conservation. Theterms efficiency andconservation contrastwith curtailment, which decreasesoutput(e.g., turning down the thermostat) or services (e.g.,drivingless) to curb energy use. That is, energycurtailment occurswhensaving energy causesa reductionin services or sacrificeofcomfort. Curtailment is oftenemployedasanemergency measure. Energy efficiency isincreased whenanenergy read more..

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    their spending priorities in aid plans and through officialsupportprovided to their exporters, but they can influencethe vast potential pool of private-sector finance onlyindirectly. Many of the mostimportant measures to attractforeigninvestorsinclude reformingmacroeconomicpolicy frameworks, energy market structuresand pricing,and banking; creatingdebt recovery programs; strengthen-ing the commercial and legal framework for investment;andsetting up judicialinstitutions read more..

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    and natural gas) and uranium are generally acknowledgedto be finite. Other energy sources (suchassunlight,wind,and falling water) are generally considered to be renew-able and, therefore, sustainableover the relatively longterm. Wastes (convertible to useful energy forms through,for example, waste-to-energy incineration facilities) andbiomassfuels usually also are viewed as beingsustainableenergy sources. In general, the implications of thesestatements are numerous and depend on how the read more..

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    energy resourceslead to some environmental impact,however, it is reasonabletosuggest that some(not all) oftheconcerns regardingthe limitations imposed onsustainable development by environmental emissions andtheir negativeimpactscan be overcomeinpart throughincreased energy efficiency. Clearly,a strongrelationshipexists betweenenergyefficiency andenvironmentalimpact,because for the sameservices or products,lessresource utilization and pollution normally are associatedwith increased energy read more..

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    capital deferral, potential for energy efficiency,compatibilitywith communitygoals, and environ-mental benefits).8. Adopting policies and strategies. Priority projectsneed to be identifiedthrough anumberofapproaches that are best for the community. Thedecision-making process shouldevaluate the costof the options in terms of savingsinenergy costs;generation of business and tax revenue; and thenumber of jobs created,aswellastheircontribution to energy sustainability and theirbenefit to read more..

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    † Institutional (e.g., lack of appropriate technical input,financial support, andproperprogram design andmonitoring expertise)† Financial(e.g., lack of explicit financing mechanisms)† Managerial (e.g., inappropriate program managementpractices and staff training)† Pricing policy (e.g., inappropriate pricing of electricityand other energy commodities)† Information diffusion(e.g., lackofappropriateinformation)Reduced energy consumption through conservationprograms can benefit not only read more..

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    To evaluate the energy conservationmeasures, thefollowingparametersshouldbetakenintoconsideration[13]:† Costestimation. The first step is to estimate the cost ofpurchasingand installingthe energy conservationmeasure. Cost estimates shouldbemadefor the entiredevelopmentrather than forasinglepieceofequipment (e.g., obtain the cost for installing stormwindowsfor an entire development or building, ratherthan the cost of one storm window). If you are planningto implement the energy conservation read more..

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    An enhanced understanding of the environmentalproblems relating to energy conservation presents ahigh-priority need and an urgent challenge, both to allowthe problems to be addressed and to ensure that thesolutions are beneficial for the economy and the energysystems.All policies should be sound and make sense in globalterms-that is, become an integral part of the internationalprocess of energy system adaptation that will recognize thevery strong linkage existing between energy requirementsand read more..

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    EnergyConservation: Industrial ProcessesHarvey E. DiamondEnergy Management International, Conroe, Texas, U.S.A.AbstractEnergy Conservation in Industrial Processes will focus on energy conservation in industrial processes, willdistinguish industrial processes and characteristics that differentiate them, will outline the analyticalprocedures needed to address them, will identify and discuss the main industrial energy intensive processesand some common ways to save energy for each of them, and will read more..

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    beingproduced within industrial facilities. Industrialprocesses utilizeoverone-third of thetotal energyconsumed in America.[1] Consider the amount of energythat is required to melt all of themetalsbeingmanufactured, to vaporize all of the oil and gasolinebeingrefined, to dry all of the finished products that aremadewet, to heat all of the chemicalsthat react at acertaintemperature, to vaporize all of the chemicals that mustbedistilled for purity, to vaporize all of the steam that is usedto read more..

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    might be best that this determination not be calledabalance (in that the numbers might not exactlycometoaprecise balance) but that it sufficiently quantifiestheamount of energy consumed by each unit, area,ordivisionof the plant. Abetter term for thisdetermination might bean “Energy Consumption Allocation”. Theterm balance ismore usually applied to chemical and thermodynamicprocesseswhere heat and materialbalances are workedtogethermathematically to determine acalculated variableand the read more..

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    very often waste heat recovery projects. See “Use PinchAnalysis to Knock Down Capital Costs and Emissions” byBodoLinnhoff,ChemicalEngineering, August 1994[5] and“PinchTechnology: Basics for the Beginners”.[6]MAIN INDUSTRIAL ENERGY PROCESSES,SYSTEMS, AND EQUIPMENTThis sectionprovides an overview and alist of the morecommon energyintensive industrial processesthat areused to manufactureproducts in industrialfacilities. Mostenergy intensive industrialprocessescan be classified intoabout read more..

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    Chemical ReactionsDescription.Chemicals reacttoforma desiredchemical, to remove an undesired chemical,ortobreak out adesired chemical. Thechemical reactioncan involve heat,electrolysis, catalysts, and fluid flowenergy.Energy forms.Heat, electrolysis,and fluid flow.Energy units.Heat, Btu, calorie, joule, or therm.Electrolysis.KWhrs.Fluid flow.Ft-LbsorKg-M.Examples.Reaction of chemicalfeed stocksintocomplexchemicals, petrochemicalmonomersintopolymers, the oxidation of chemicals for read more..

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    air for process use.Applied systems.Cooling water systems, chilled watersystems, refrigerant systems, thermal systems.Common equipment.Cooling towers, pumps, chillers,refrigeration compressors, condensers, evaporators,heat exchangers.Common energyconservation issues.Use evaporativecooling as muchaspossible. Keep chillers properlyloaded. Restrict chilled water flow rates to where 108Ftemperature difference is maintained for chilled water.Limit cooling water pumps to the properlevel of flowand read more..

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    processes. Pneumatic conveyance systemsthat utilize afan or blower to create alow-levelvacuum are sometimesused to withdraw materials or products from aprocess andseparatethe matter within ascreen or filter. For largeconveyance systems, the efficiencies of the equipment andthe management of their operation can be asourceofenergy savings.Furnaces, Fired Heaters, Kilns, CalcinersTheabove comments on combustionsystems areapplicable to these equipment itemsand additional energysavings issues can read more..

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    not possible to manage any activityunless the activityis being properly monitored and measured with keyperformancemetrics (KPMs).The data collectionsystem part of an effective energy management systemwithin any industrial facility provides the accurateandconcurrent measurement data (KPMs) that is required inorder to identify actions that are neededtoeliminatewaste of energy and improve overall efficiency of thefacility. An effective energy management system is firstbuilt upon acquiring total read more..

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    6. Solar Places Technology. Pinch Technology: Basics forthe Beginners; http://www.solarplaces.org/pinchtech.pdf(accessed on 2006).7. Dowtherm, Dow Chemical actionURI(http://www.dow.com):http://www.dow.com/heattrans/actionURI(http://www.dow.com):index.html (accessed on 2006).8. Paracymene, Orcas International, Flanders, NJ 07836 actionURI(http://www.orcas-intl.com):http://actionURI(http://www.orcas-intl.com):www.orcas-intl.com (accessed on 2006).9. King, P.E. Magnetohydrodynamics in Electric read more..

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    EnergyConservation: Lean ManufacturingBohdanW.OppenheimU.S. Department of Energy Industrial Assessment Center,Loyola Marymount University,Los Angeles, U.S.A.AbstractProductivity has amajor impact on energy use and conservation in manufacturing plants—an impact oftenmore significant than optimization of the equipment energy efficiency. This article describes LeanManufacturing, which represents the current state-of-art in plant productivity. Asignificant opportunity forenergy savings by read more..

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    improvement, or eliminating agiven productivity waste,or as simple metrics measuring energy density.It is remarkable that in most cases, these types of energysavings occur as anatural byproduct of productivityimprovements,without the need for adirect effort centeredon energy. Thus, themanagementshouldfocus onproductivity improvements. In atraditional non-Leanplant intending to transform to Lean production, the firststep should be to acquire the knowledge of the Leansystem.Itiseasily available read more..

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    inventory, defects, leadtimes by 90%, and space by 50%,andvastlyincreaseplant competitiveness,customersatisfaction, and workforce morale. The resultant energysavingscan be equally dramatic. Ref. [4] containsinterviews with industry leaders who have succeeded inthis transformation.IMPACTONENERGYThe impact of productivity on plant energy falls into thefollowing two broad categories:1. Productivity improvements that save infrastructureenergy. These improvements reducethe energyconsumed by all plant read more..

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    therefore the former simplistic approach, combinedwith conservative estimates, offer useful tools.2. Process energy savings. In thiscategory, the energysavings of process equipment are obtained byimproving theprocess productivity.Examplesinclude the reductionofunscheduled machinedowntime or setup time and the elimination ofprocess variability, defects, rework,scrap, exces-sive labor time,etc.Single Piece Flow (SPF)Changingthe traditional BAQproduction to Leanproduction is by farthe most read more..

  • Page - 510

    minimumoverall cost, requiredquality,maximumergonomics, and safety. Process operators mustbetrainedin the procedures as well as in the process qualityassurance, and they mustbeempowered to stop theprocess and take correctiveaction or call for help if unableto avoid adefect. Management culturemustbesupportivefor such activities. Any departure from this ideal leads tocostly penalties in quality, rework,delays, overtime orcontract penalties,crewfrustrations, andcustomerdissatisfaction.These, in read more..

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    DowntimeEquipmentdowntime and idlenessmay occur due toscheduled maintenance, unscheduled breakdowns,machinesetups, and poor process scheduling. The down-time may cause proportional loss of both profitsandenergy. The downtime may have fourfold impact onenergy use, as follows:1. When aprocess stopsfor whatever reason duringan active production shift, the plant infrastructurecontinues to use energy and loosing money, as inEq. 4. Agood plant manager should understandwhat fraction of the read more..

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    SetupsModernmarket trends push industry towards shorter seriesand smaller orders, requiring, in turn, more and shortersetups. Industry leaders have perfected routine setups totake no morethan afew minutes. In poorly managedplants, routine setups can take as long as several hours. Inall competitive modern plants, serious efforts should bedevoted to setup time reductions. Theeffort includes bothtraining and hardware improvements. Thetraining alone,with only minimal additional equipment (such as read more..

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    † “5Ss”: The term comes from five Japanese words thatbegin with the “s” sound and loosely translateintoEnglish as: sorting, simplification, sweeping, standardi-zation, and self-discipline(many othertranslations ofthe words are popular in industry); and describes asimple butpowerful workplace organization method.[8]The underlying principle of the method is that onlytheitems needed forthe immediatetask (parts,containers,tools, instructions,materials) are kept athandwhere they read more..

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    overall costs, leadtimes, and inventoriescan be reducedby as much as 50%–90%, floor space and energy by50%, and energy density can be improved by 50%. Theamount of energy that can be saved by productivityimprovements often radicallyexceeds the savings fromequipment optimization alone, thus providing astrongincentivetoinclude productivity improvementsinenergy-reduction efforts.Productivity stronglydependsonhuman factorssuch asmanagement,learning, andtraining,communications,culture, teamwork, read more..

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    EnergyConversion: Principles for Coal, Animal Waste, andBiomass FuelsKalyan AnnamalaiDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, College Station, Texas, U.S.A.Soyuz PriyadarsanTexas A&M University,College Station, Texas, U.S.A.SenthilArumugamEnerquip, Inc., Medford, Wisconsin, U.S.A.John M. SweetenTexas Agricultural Experiment Station, Amarillo, Texas, U.S.A.AbstractAbrief overview is presented of various energy units; terminology; and basic concepts in energyconversion including pyrolysis, read more..

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    10.1081/E-EEE-120041557—4/5/2007—20:35—RATHNAS—223882—XML Taylor &Francis Encyclopedias© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLCis as follows: 40 quads for petroleum, 23 for natural gas,23 for coal, 8for nuclear power, and 6for renewables(where energy is renewedorreplacedusing naturalprocesses) and others sources. Currently, the UnitedStates relies on fossil fuels for 85% of its energy needs.Soon, the U.S. energy consumption rate which distributedas electrical power (40%), read more..

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    10 cents(price per kWh) at 1% coal use for powergeneration in California to 48 cents at 94% use of coal inUtah.Biomass is defined as “any organic material from livingorganisms that contains stored sunlight (solar energy) inthe form of chemical energy.”[1] These include agro-basedmaterials (vegetation, trees, and plants); industrial wastes(sawdust, wood chips, and crop residues); municipal solidwastes(MSWs), which contain more than 70% biomass(including landfill gases, containing almost 50% read more..

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    Solid FuelsThe primary solid fuel widely used in power plants is coalcontaining combustibles, moisture, and intrinsic mineralmatter originating from dissolved salts in water.Duringthe “coalification” process, lignite, the lowest rank of coal(low C/O ratio), is produced first from peat, followed bysub-bituminous(blacklignite, typically lowsulfur,noncaking), bituminous (softcoal that tends to stickwhenheated and is typicallyhigh in S), and finallyanthracite (dense coal;has the highest read more..

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    Table 2 Coal, advanced feedlotbiomass (FB) and litter biomass (LB)ParameterWyoming coalCattle manure (FB)Chicken manure (LB)aAdvanced Feedlot biomass(AFB)bHigh-ash Feedlot biomass(HFB)bDry loss (DL)22.86.87.510.887.57Ash5.442.343.814.8343.88FC37.2540.48.417.3310.28VM34.510.540.356.9738.2C54.123.939.150.0849.27H3.43.66.75.986.13N0.812.34.738.4938.7O13.120.348.34.584.76S0.390.91.20.870.99Cl!0.01%1.2HHV-as received (kJ/kg)2138595609250149839353Tadiab, Equilc2200 K(35008F)2012 K(31618F)DAF read more..

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    Table 3 Coal composition (DAF basis)ASTMRankState(U.S.A.)Ash, %(dry)CHNS*O**HHVEstkJ/kgCO2 kg/GJNkg/GJSkg/GJLigniteND11.663.34.70.480.9830.524,46994.80.1960.401LigniteMT7.770.74.90.84.922.328,64390.40.2791.711LigniteND8.271.25.30.560.4622.528,78290.70.1950.160LigniteTX9.471.75.21.30.7221.129,07090.40.4470.248LigniteTX10.374.350.370.5119.829,81691.30.1240.171Sbb. AWY8.474.35.81.21.117.731,09287.60.3860.354Sbb. read more..

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    Table 4 Ultimate analyses and heating values of biomass fuelsBiomassCHONSResidueMeasuredHHVMaEstimatedHHVCO2 g/MJN, g/MJS, g/MJField cropsAlfalfa seedstraw46.765.4040.721.000.026.0718.4518.2792.90.5420.011Bean straw42.975.5944.930.830.015.5417.4616.6890.20.4750.006Corn cobs46.585.8745.460.470.011.4018.7718.1990.90.2500.005Corn stover43.655.5643.310.610.016.2617.6517.0590.60.3460.006Cotton stalks39.475.0739.141.200.0215.1015.8315.5191.40.7580.013Rice straw read more..

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    Forest residueBlack Locust50.735.7141.930.570.010.9719.7119.8694.30.2890.005Chaparral46.95.0840.170.540.037.2618.6117.9892.30.2900.016Madrone485.9644.950.060.02119.4118.8290.60.0310.010Manzanita48.185.9444.680.170.02119.318.991.50.0880.010PonderosaPine49.255.9944.360.060.030.320.02193790.10.0300.015Ten Oak47.815.9344.120.120.01218.9318.8292.60.0630.005Redwood50.645.9842.880.050.030.420.7220.0189.60.0240.014White Fur495.9844.750.050.010.219.9519.2290.00.0250.005Food and fiber processing read more..

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    estimated using the ultimate analysisofthe fuel and thefollowing empiricalrelation from Boie[5]:HHVfuelðkJ=kg fuelÞZ 35; 160 YC C 116; 225 YH K 11; 090 YOC 6280 YN C 10465 YSð1ÞHHVfuelðBTU=lb fuelÞZ 15; 199 YC C 49; 965 YH K 4768 YOC 2700 YN C 4499 YS;ð2Þwhere Y denotes the massfraction of an element C, H, O,N, or Sinthe fuel. The higher the oxygen content,thelower the HV,asseen in biomassfuels.Annamalai et al. used the Boie equation for 62 kinds ofbiosolidswith good agreement.[6] For read more..

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    Flue Gas VolumeThe flue gas volume for C–H–O is almost independent ofO/C ratios. Thefitat6%O2 in products givesthefollowing empirical equation for flue gas volume (m3/GJ)at SATP[8]:Flue gasvolðm3=GJÞZ 4:96HC2K 38:628HCC 389:72ð5ÞFlue gasvolðft3=mmBtuÞZ 184:68HC2K 1439:28HCC 14520:96ð6ÞLiquidFuelsLiquidfuels, used mainly in the transportationsector, arederived from crude oil, which occursnaturally as afree-flowing liquidwitha densityof r z780kg/m3–1000 kg/m3,containing 0.1% ash read more..

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    partial oxidation of fuel in the presence of oxygen isknownasgasification. If all combustible gases and solidcarbon are oxidizedtoCO2 and H2O, the process is knownas combustion.PyrolysisSolid fuels, like coal and biomass, can be pyrolyzed(thermally decomposed) in inert atmospheres to yieldcombustible gases or VM.While biomass typicallyreleases about 70%–80% of its massasVM(mainlyfrom cellulose and hemicellulose) with the remainderbeing char, mainly from lignin content of biomass, coalreleases read more..

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    Fuel C yO2 O2 $$%Oxidation yCO2 CO2 C yH2OH2Oð7ÞKdFuel½dt;kgm3 secZ Aexp KERTYfuela YO2hib;ð8Þwhere []represents the concentration of species in kg/m3,Y the massfraction, Athe pre-exponential factor, E theactivation energy in kJ/kmole, and a and b the order ofreaction; they are tabulated in Bartok and Sarofim foralkanes, ethanol,methanol, benzene and toluene.[11]Char ReactionsTheskeletal char, essentially FC,undergoeshetero-geneousreactionswithgaseous species.The hetero-geneouscombustion read more..

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    Apart from pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion,another option for energy conversion (particularly if solidfuel is in slurry firm,such as flushed dairy manure),istheanaerobicdigestion (in absence of oxygen) to CH4 (60%)and CO2 (40%) using psychrophylic (ambient tempera-ture), mesophyllic (958F) andthermophyllic(1358F)bacteriaindigesters.[10] Typical options of energyconversion,indicatedinFig.7,include anaerobicdigestion (path 1, the biological gasification process),thermal gasification read more..

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    The over-fire region acts like aperfectly stirred reactor(PSR). It is apparent that solid fuels need not be ground tofiner size.Fixed Bed CombustorThe bed containsuncrushed solid fuels, inert materials(including ash), and processing materials (e.g., limestoneto remove SO2 from gases as sulfates).Itisfed with airmoving against gravity for complete combustion, but thevelocity is low enough that materials are not entrained intothe gas streams. Large solid particlescan be used.Fluidized Bed read more..

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    hydrolysis forfermentation to liquid fuels likeethanol.[18,19]CofiringAlthough somebio-solids have been fired directly inindustrial burners as sole-source fuels, limitations arosedue to variable moisture and ash contents in bio-solidfuels, causing ignition and combustion problemsfor directcombustion technologies. To circumvent such problems,these fuels have been fired along with the primary fuels(cofiring)either by directly mixingwith coal and firing(2%–15% of heat input basis) or by read more..

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    manure were used: raw, partially composted, and fullycomposted. Theburnt fraction was recorded to be 97% forboth coal and coal-manure blends.[25,26]NOx EmissionsDuring combustion, thenitrogenevolvedfromfuelundergoes oxidation to NOx;and this is calledfuel NOxto distinguish it from thermal NOx,which is produced byoxidation of atmospheric nitrogen. Unlikecoal, mostofthe agricultural biomass being burned is very low innitrogencontent (i.e., wood or crops), but manure has ahigher read more..

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    GASIFICATION OF COAL AND BIO-SOLIDSGasification is athermo-chemical process in which asolidfuel is converted into agaseous fuel (primarily consistingof HC, H2 and CO2)with air or pure oxygen used forpartialoxidation of FCs. Themainproducts duringgasification are CO and H2,with some CO2,N2,CH4,H2O, char particles, and tar (heavy hydrocarbons). Theoxidizers used for the gasification processesare oxygen,steam, or air. However, for air, the gasification yields alow-Btu gas, primarily caused by read more..

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    for combined heat and power(CHP),and traditionalboilersuse combustiblegases from gasifiers for generationof electricpower.Typically in combined cycles, gaseous or liquid fuel isburntingas turbine combustors.High-temperatureproducts are expanded in agas turbine for producingelectrical power; alow-temperature(but still hot) exhaustis then used as heat input in aboiler to produce low-temperature steam, which then drives asteam turbine forelectrical power. Therefore, one may use gas as read more..

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    FUTUREGENFutureGen is anew U.S. initiative to build the world’s firstintegrated CO2 sequestration and H2 production researchpower plant usingcoal as fuel. The technologyshowninactionGoTo:534,Fig. actionGoTo:534,14 employs modern coal gasification technologyusing pure oxygen, resulting in CO, CnHm (a hydro-carbon), H2,HCN,NH3,N2,H2S, SO2,and othercombinationswhich arefurther reactedwith steam(reforming reactions) to produceCO2 and H2.The bedmaterials capture most of the harmfulN and read more..

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    compounds (e.g., coal,biomass, plantresidue, animalwaste) and from the Ninthe air. The NOx generated fromfuel Niscalled fuel NOx,and NOx formed from the air iscalledthermal NOx.Typically, 75% of NOx in boilerburners is from fuel N. It is mandated that NOx,a precursorof smog, be reduced to 0.40–0.46 lb/mmBtu for wall andtangentiallyfired units under the Clean Air Act Amend-ments (CAAA). The current technologies developed forreducing NOx include combustion controls (e.g., stagedcombustion or read more..

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    typicallycoal.Recently, animal manure has been testedas areburnfuel in laboratory scale experiments. Areductionofamaximum of 80% was achieved for purebiomass, while the coal experienced areduction ofbetween10and 40%, depending on the equivalenceratio.[34] It is believedthat the greater effectiveness ofthe feedlot biomass is due to its greater volatile contenton aDAF basis and its releaseoffuel nitrogenintheform of NH3,insteadofHCN.[35]ACKNOWLEDGMENTSMost of thiswork was supportedinpart by the read more..

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    Engineering, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station:Manhattan, KS, 30, 1973.19. Raman, K.P.; Walawander, W.P.; Fan, L.T. Gasification offeedlot manure in afluidized bed: effect of temperature. Ind.Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Dev. 1980, 10,623–629.20. Aerts, D.J.; Bryden, K.M.; Hoerning, J.M.; Ragland, K.W.Co-firing Switchgrass in a50MWPulverized Coal Boiler,Proceedings of the 59th Annual American Power Con-ference, Chicago, IL, 1997; Vol. 50(2), 1180–1185.21. Abbas, T.; Costen, P.; Kandamby, read more..

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    EnergyEfficiency: Developing CountriesU. AtikolH.M. Gu¨venEnergy Research Center,Eastern Mediterranean University,Magusa, Northern CyprusAbstractStatistics and projections show that not only the rate of energy consumption, but also the carbon emissionsof developing countries are rising very fast. The rate of increase in the capacity needs in developingcountries can be decreased in two steps. First, the component associated with the old infrastructure shouldbe dealt with; and second, the read more..

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    several mechanisms were developed to implement thechanges; two important ones were the introduction ofutilitydemand-side management (DSM) and the establish-mentofenergy service companies (ESCOs) backedupwith accurate data collection and improved codes andstandards. Recently, distributed powerand renewableenergy (RE) technologies have been promoted by theintroduction of new legislation.In developing countries, these mechanismsdonot exist,mainlydue to lack of institutional formation, read more..

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    householdelectrification,are responsiblefor theincrease.Developing countries need energy to raise productivityand improve the living standards of their populations.Traditionally, developing countries have addressedtheirenergy needs by expanding their supplybase, with littleattention to the efficient use of energy. This approach hasbeen raising serious financial,institutional, and environ-mental problems. The magnitude of these problems hasbeen underlining the need for improving the read more..

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    impact on residential electricity use, creating additionaldemand at peak times.ENERGY AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIESDeveloping countries need energy to raise productivityand improvethe living standards of their populations.Traditionally, developing countries have addressed theirenergy needs by expanding their supply base, with littleattention to the efficient use of energy, which led to theneed to expand the supply base frequently. This approach,however, raises seriousfinancial,institutional, read more..

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    also provide agood measureofthe levelofeconomicdevelopment in that society.Televisions, automobiles,home electronics, jewelry, watches, refrigerators, andwashing machines are someofthe major consumergoods produced worldwide on varying scales. The ratioof peopletotelevision setsindevelopingcountries is150 to 1, for example, and the ratio of the population toautomobiles is 400 to 1. In California, the ratio is almost1to1 for theseconsumer items.[10] The number ofconsumer goods such as telephones read more..

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    out through the consideration of the variables shown inactionGoTo:541,Fig. actionGoTo:541,3. Using the end-use information, the available DSMoptions can be determinedfromthe pool of DSMtechnologies. Then the applicability of the DSM tech-nologies to the country in question is examined further byusinginformation about the category of the country. Thefinal decision is madebychecking the cost-to-benefit ratioof the applicable DSM program.Finally, the implementation of the DSM programs read more..

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    the sectors with the best applicability of DSM options. Todeterminethe specificDSM options to apply, however,detailedinformation on theend uses wasrequired.Therefore, asurveywas conducted for this purpose, andDSM programs were proposed.Northern Cyprus, being asmall island, is not anindustrially advanced country. Sector-based electricityconsumption shares are given as 35% for residential,18.74% forcommercial,and 9.39% forindustrialsectors.[11] The great majority of the population (approxi-mately read more..

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    best potential forload reduction andthatthe DSMtechnology transfer should be considered for these sectors.Surveyswere conducted in both sectors to determinethemicro indicators leading to the selection of the DSMoptions to apply.In the residential sector, statistical information wasobtained on the number of electrical appliances and theirtime of use, and end-use load curveswere obtained. It wasdiscovered that electrical water heaters demanded 50 MWat the winter peak hour (19:00), which read more..

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    efficient water heating would be mostappropriate for thesecountries, but in manyother countries, this may not be thecase. In Thailand,for example, the highest potentialsavings couldcomefrom improving the energy efficiencyof the refrigerators, the reason being the intense use ofold-technology, inefficient refrigerators.Therefore, it can be concluded that to applyenergyefficiency technology transfer to developing countries, thesocial and economic realities of thesecountries need to betaken read more..

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    EnergyEfficiency: Information Sources for NewandEmerging TechnologiesSteven A. ParkerPacific Northwest National Laboratory,Richland, Washington, U.S.A.AbstractThe purpose of this entry is to share alist of useful organizations that provide reliable information on newand emerging energy-efficient technologies based on research and experience. Experienced energymanagers may use the information provided by these organizations to enhance their knowledge andunderstanding, thereby improving their read more..

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    studies.With these actions,experienced energy managerscan look before they leap,and in some cases, benefit fromthe lessons learned from others.INTRODUCTIONFinding useful andreliable information on newandemergingenergy-efficient technologies can be daunting,even for the experienced energy manager.Today, morethan ever,a lot of information is available. There arebooks, professional associations with journals, magazines,e-newsletters, other periodicals, and the gamut of InternetWeb sites. Alot of read more..

  • Page - 548

    vitality in public–private partnerships that:† Enhance energy efficiency and productivity;† Bring clean, reliable, and affordable energytechnologies to the marketplace; and† Make a difference in the everyday lives of Americansby enhancing their energy choices and quality of life.EERE manages and supports a wide variety of energyresearch, development, and deployment activities. EEREactionURI(http://www.eere.energy.gov):(www.eere.energy.gov) consists of 10 major programoffices:† read more..

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    the transmission infrastructure, distributed energy, trans-mission grid modernization,energy storage, and super-conductivity. New technologies related to the utilitygrid,includinggrid reliability and GridWise, are supportedthrough this office. In addition, the distributed energyprogramssupport distributed generation, combinedheatand power, and thermally activated technologies.DOE NationalLaboratoriesTo accomplish its mission, the DOE maintains severalnational laboratories and technology centers read more..

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    Advanced Technology Program actionURI(http://www.atp.nist.gov):(www.atp.nist.gov). TheNISTlaboratories conductresearch that advances thenation’stechnology infrastructure and is neededbyU.S.industry to continually improveproducts and services. TheAdvanced Technology Program accelerates the develop-mentofinnovative technologies for broad national benefitby cofunding R&D partnerships with the private sector.Other Federal Agency SourcesAs aresult of legislation, every federal agencyhas read more..

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    Energy CenterofWisconsinThe Energy Center of Wisconsin actionURI(http://www.ecw.org):(www.ecw.org)isaprivate, nonprofitorganization dedicated to improvingenergy sustainability, including support of energy effi-ciency, renewable energy, and environmental protection.TheEnergyCenterofWisconsin provides objectiveresearch, information, and education on energy issues tobusinesses, professionals, policymakers, and the public.The EnergyCenter’seducation department supportscomprehensive energy read more..

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    efficiency. You will find actual customer questions withdetailed answers, case studies, reports, and articles ontopics ranging from appliances and lighting to motors andsolarenergy. The EnergyIdeas Web site is sponsored bythenonprofit NorthwestEnergyEfficiency AllianceactionURI(http://www.nwalliance.org):(www.nwalliance.org)and it is managed by the WSUEnergy Program.More on University ProgramsThere are several universities that operate energy manage-mentresearch programs. Each major read more..

  • Page - 553

    management through theresearch,development,deployment,assessment,and/orthe useofnew andemergingenergy-efficient technologies.† Association of EnergyEngineers (AEE), actionURI(http://www.aeecenter.org):www.actionURI(http://www.aeecenter.org):aeecenter.org† AmericanInstituteofArchitects (AIA), actionURI(http://www.aia.org):www.aia.org† AmericanSociety of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), actionURI(http://www.ashrae.org):www.ashrae.org† AmericanSociety of read more..

  • Page - 554

    Energy, Snohomish County Public Utility District, BritishColumbia Hydro, and Tacoma Power.Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CustomerAdvanced Technologies ProgramThe Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD)Customer Advanced Technologies (CAT) program is aresearch and development program designed to encouragecustomers to use and evaluate new or underutilizedtechnologies. According to one presentation, CATprovides the following benefits: it helps customers sortfact from fiction, identify read more..

  • Page - 555

    they are deployed on alarger scale. Demonstrations andpilot projectsallow usersto“lookbeforeyou leap” whenapplying new technologies.Many of the organizations identified in this entryaredoing their part to get information on new and emergingenergy-efficient technologies into the hands of energymanagers, design engineers, building owners, and others,and they are encouraging them to consider the newtechnologies so that they may save energy, reducecosts,reduce emissions, or achieve read more..

  • Page - 556

    EnergyEfficiency: LowCost ImprovementsJames CallJames Call Engineering, PLLC, Larchmont, New York, U.S.A.AbstractIn most energy efficiency initiatives, one is blessed with anumber of energy-saving projects, all competingfor acompany’s limited corporate resources. The various projects are typically interrelated; one of them, ifimplemented, would impact the others. They have awide range of implementation costs and related energy-saving impacts—that is, they have different payback periods. If read more..

  • Page - 557

    energy cost reduction initiatives. These are the kinds ofopportunities that frame the issues in comparing paybackperiods and prioritizing competing projects.Replace Lugs on TimeClocks to Reestablish NightSetbackSurprisingly, manybuildings with installed time clockshave their OFF lugs removed and, thus,let the HVACsystemsrun 24/7. They were removed for reasons thatprobably seemed compelling, or at least expedient,atthetime.In a100,000-ft2.office building, for example, employeesworkinglate at read more..

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    was used by asecond shift in adata entry department thatfinished at 2:00 a.m. That was no longer the case,but thetime clockhad never been reset whenthe late shift wasdiscontinued.Ithad been morethan 4yearssince the lateshift had used the space.Becausethe cooling tower and the entire chiller plantwere interlocked to run whenany zone calledfor cooling,resetting the time clocktoreflect the current schedulesaved an estimated $8000 per summer.Shut OffBoiler in Summer by Installing read more..

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    b. Run Only One CompressorinTwo-CompressorPackage Units:A 90,000-ft2.office building had 30rooftoppackageunits,eachcontrolled by alocalthermostat in the related zone. Calculations, confirmedby loggers, indicated that the building as awhole had wellover twice the cooling capacity needed even for the hottestday of the year.Twenty of the 30 rooftop units had 2(hermetically sealed) compressors,typically5or7.5 toneach. In their related zones,two-stage T-stats would bringon the first and then the read more..

  • Page - 560

    3. This introduced a20-min lag in the feedback loop,thus allowing the HVACtoovershoot grossly. Thespace temperature would drop to 628Fbythe timethe metal cover and the enclosed thermostat weredown to 738F.4. At this point, the HVAC wouldcycle off, but theprocess would begin again in the opposite directionas the room heated. Themetal boxkept thethermostat cool until the room was nearly 808F.This energy-savingand comfort-improvement oppor-tunity was addressed simplybyremoving the metal boxesand read more..

  • Page - 561

    then rely on the VAV boxineach zone to control the spaceby releasing more or lessofthis fixed-temperature air(with apreset maximum and minimum amount). This isvery near to running the system “open loop” exceptfor the(considerable) action of the VAV boxes.Thereweredaysand conditions during occupiedperiods, however,whennozone in the entire buildingneeded608Fair—when all zones became cold on awintermorning, for example. (Thisdiscussion assumes that thebuilding had already undergone awarmup read more..

  • Page - 562

    Use arealistic but easy-to-understand measure, such asBtu per square foot.CONCLUSIONThis paper explored the consequencesofimplementinglow-cost/no-cost energy-savingprojects before conside-ring longer-payback projects. Anumber of examples ofsuch low-cost/no-cost projectsand approaches werereviewed.When acompany lets energy projects compete forfunds in terms of the whole company’s needs,asopposedto considering only the impact on the energy or buildingservices department, low-cost/no-cost read more..

  • Page - 563

    EnergyEfficiency: Strategic Facility Guidelines*SteveDotyColorado Springs Utilities, Colorado Springs, Colorado, U.S.A.AbstractThe intent of this article is to offer aconvenient list of strategic guidelines to help steer new building designstoward energy efficiency. It is hoped that the project owner, interested in achieving greater than averagesavings, will provide this list to the design team as part of their project intent instructions. To encourage itsuse and acceptance, emphasis is placed read more..

  • Page - 564

    explain which measures do not apply, and why. Doing sowill reinforceyour intentionstoachieve operationalsavings by smart design decisions up front, and motivatethe design teamtomakea good effort to accommodate.THE FACILITY GUIDE SPECIFICATION AND THETOP-DOWN APPROACHThe approach used for this article is to tabulate alist ofsuggested “Dos and Don’ts,” suitable for use in afacilityguide specification.A guide specification is ahand-outdocument given to adesign team at the read more..

  • Page - 565

    In addition to downsizing, integrated design can beused as an investmenttool, with utility use reduction as thereturn. If sufficient funding exists, the ownercan allowupgrades with identifiablecosts and annual savings to beproposed, with astipulated paybackperiod such as 2–5 yr,to capture the fruit that is just above the proverbial low-hanging level. Forexample, an upgrade with a10yrlifeand a4 yr simple payback is an equivalent internal rate ofreturn of 21%, which is an attractive return for read more..

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    † Project commissioning that includes identifyingmeasurable energysavings goalsand monitoring thedesign andconstructionactivities with theseasprojectintentitems,with early detectionandnotification of any project changesthat impact energyuse or demand.† Project final payment contingent upon:—Receipt of accepted accurateas-built drawings,with accuracy verified by ownerand signed by thecontractor.—Receipt of accurate and complete operations andmaintenance(O/M) manuals, with certified read more..

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    Electrical Service† Provide separateutilitymetering for electric, gas, andwater for the building, separate from other buildings.† Electrical transformer conversion efficiency not lessthan 95% efficient at all loads from 25% to 100%capacity. Dry-type transformers National ElectricalManufacturers Association (NEMA)TP-1 compliant.† Locate transformers in perimeter areas that do notrequire air conditioning for cooling.† Power factor (PF) correction on large motor loads, foroverall building read more..

  • Page - 568

    † Use 1-2-3 switching for large open interior area spaces.† Use ballast that will tolerate removing at least one bulbwith no detriment.† Whereoccupancy sensors are used, provide “switchingballast” that will tolerate large numbers of on–offcycles without bulb or ballast life span detriment.† Use electronic ballast instead of magnetic ballast.† Use ballastfactor in the lighting design to improvelighting system efficiency. Becausethe ballastmostlydetermines how many wattsare used, read more..

  • Page - 569

    † *Air-side economizers forall rooftopequipment,regardless of size, for climates with design wet bulbtemperatures below 658F.† Avoid duct liner and fiber-board ducts due to higherairfriction and energy transportpenalties.† Insulate all outdoor ductwork to R-15 minimum.† Use angled filters in lieu of flat filters, to reduceairfriction loss.† Reduce coil and filter velocities to amaximum of400 fpm to lower permanentair system losses and fanpower.† Avoid series-fan-powered VAV read more..

  • Page - 570

    —Air hp limitation from:Cooling fan hp max budget ! fan eff:—TSP limitation from:TSP Z ðair hp ! fan eff ! 6360Þ=CFM:For example, a100-ton HVACair system using80% emotor, 70% efan, and 350 CFM per tonwould be limited to 44 hp motor load and 3.9 in.w.c.TSP. NOTE: for systemswith both supply andreturn fans, the transport energy considers bothcombined as the “fan.”† ForHVACwatersystems, themaximum energytransport budget will be:—Nolessthan 50 Btu cooling and heating delivered tothe read more..

  • Page - 571

    design to 78Fabove designwet bulb with reset controlsto lower the setting wheneverconditions permit.† Water treatment control for minimum seven cycles ofconcentration to conserve water.† Specify cooling tower thermal performancetobecertified in accordance with CTI STD-201.Air-Cooled Equipment and Cooling Towersin Enclosures† Locate to prevent air short-circuiting and associatedloss of thermal performance.Rule of thumb is theheight of the vertical finned surface projected hori-zontally. read more..

  • Page - 572

    † 58Fdead band betweenspace heating and cooling setpoints to prevent inadvertent overlap at zone heat/cool equipment, and from adjacent zones.† 58Fdead band betweenair handler heating and cooling(or economizer) set points, e.g., preheat coil cannotshareasingle, sequenced, set point with the economizeror cooling control.† Provide separate lighting and HVAC time schedules.† For chillers (condenser) and hotwater boilers, usetemperature sensors to log heat exchanger approachvalues, to prompt read more..

  • Page - 573

    verify that building energy and water usage per SF isnot increasing. Report resultstothe buildingoccupants as an annual energy use reportfor theirfeedback.—Escrow(save) approximately5%ofthe replacementcost per year for the energy consuming equipment inthe facility that has anormal life cycle, such asHVAC systems, lightingsystems, andcontrolsystems. This will allow 20-year replacement workwithout “surprises” to sustainefficientbuildingoperations.—For leased office space, show the read more..

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    EnergyInformation Systems*Paul J. AllenReedyCreek Energy Services, Walt Disney World Co., Lake Buena Vista, Florida, U.S.A.David C. GreenGreen Management Services, Inc., Fort Myers, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractAdvances in new equipment, new processes, and new technology are the driving forces in improvements inenergy management, energy efficiency, and energy-cost control. Of all the recent developments affectingenergy management, the most powerful technology to come into use in the past several read more..

  • Page - 575

    data are stored on acentral computer—the server—andwait passivelyuntil auser makes arequest for informationusing aWeb browser—the client. AWeb-publishingprogram retrieves theinformation from arelationaldatabase and sends it to the Web server, which thensends it to the client Web browser that requested theinformation.Many software choices are available for the Web-publishing process. Onechoice uses aserver-sideCommonGateway Interface (CGI) program to coordinatetheactivitybetween theWeb read more..

  • Page - 576

    FoxWeb is asmall CGI program that connects to aVisual FoxPro database application. Theapplication thencallsany number of custom-designedqueriesandprocedures to return results to the browser as HTML.More information about FoxWeb is available at actionURI(http://www.foxweb.com):www.actionURI(http://www.foxweb.com):foxweb.comPerl (practical extraction and report language) is anapplication used forCGI programming.Applicationswritten in Perl will work on any operating system. It alsohas the ability read more..

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    † Many client-side applications are available free. Searchthe Internet before spending resources to developcustom client-side applications.† Client-side applications will makeyour Web pagesmore complex,which adds to developmentandmaintenance costs. Be sure to weigh the benefitsofthese enhancements against their costs.Choosing EIS Web-Publishing ToolsWe might define tools, in this case, as utility applicationsthat require moreconfiguration effort than programmingeffort. There are read more..

  • Page - 578

    UTILITY REPORT CARDS: EIS EXAMPLEThe UtilityReport Cards (URC) program[2] is aWeb-based EIS that reports and graphsmonthlyutilitydata forschools. The URC was developed and prototyped by theFlorida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)[3] usingOrangeCounty Public Schools (OCPS)[4] utility data. Each month,the EIS automatically generates aWeb-basedreportandemails it to school staff to examinethe school’s electricityusage (energy efficiency) and to identify schools withhigh-energy consumption for further read more..

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    figures (the per-day values multiplied by 30 days). actionGoTo:578,Fig. actionGoTo:578,2showsthe overall school-district summary report forFebruary 2004.The URC program interface makes the program easy touse, considering the enormous amount of data available.The top-downapproach lets users view different levels ofdata from the overall districtwide summary to individualmeters in asingle school. For example, the user can clickaschool type to display the details for each school.Fig. 3shows the read more..

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    the CGI query string.These values are processed by asetof predetermined rules built into the program by thedevelopertochange theappearance of thereportsincrementally to suit the user. The hyperlink constructionincludesmessages usingthe onMouseOverevent toexplain the action of the hyperlink. Total and subtotallines provide summary information. Data that show anincreaseordecrease from the previous year are flaggedwith adifferent background cell color. The user can definepercentage criteriafor read more..

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    BIBLIOGRAPHY1. Apache HTTP Server Project, Apache Software Foundation,actionURI(http://www.apache.org):www.apache.org2. ColdFusion MX, Macromedia, Inc., actionURI(http://www.adobe.com):www.macromedia.com/actionURI(http://www.adobe.com):software/coldfusion3. Acquisuite Energy Information Server, Obvius, Inc., Port-land, Oregon, actionURI(http://www.obvius.com):www.obvius.com4. FoxWeb, Eon Technologies, Alameda, California, read more..

  • Page - 582

    EnergyManagement: Organizational Aptitude Self-TestChristopher RussellEnergy Pathfinder Management Consulting, LLC, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.AbstractHuman, technical, and financial criteria all contribute to amanufacturer’s ability to build wealththrough energy management. Collectively, these attributes constitute a“culture” and receptiveness not onlyto energy management, but to operational efficiency in general. Manufacturers will enjoy awider range ofenergy management options by read more..

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    taken by individual manufacturers is very mucha functionof their organizational attributes and business culture.PREVAILING ENERGY MANAGEMENTSTRATEGIESThe aim of this section is to present the range of typicalenergymanagementstrategiespracticed by industry.Every manufacturer employs some energy managementstrategy, even if the choice is to do nothing about energyconsumption. Consequently,every manufacturingorganization adopts one or more of these strategies:† Do Nothing.Ignore energy read more..

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    CONs:you need alot of in-house talent,cooperation,and acapable energy “champion” to do this.It is beyond the scope of this entry to comment on whichstrategies arepredominantlyencountered in industry.Anecdotal evidence suggests that all industrial energymanagement strategies can be categorized per one of thesefive selections. It is also possiblefor firms to practicemultiplestrategies simultaneously—for example, priceshopping for low-priced fuel commodities in concert with read more..

  • Page - 585

    † Refer to Appendix A, “Determining an Organization’sAptitude forEnergyManagement.”Notewhichorganizational attributes have been substantiallyattained by the subject company.† Compare the attained attributes to the information inactionGoTo:584,Table actionGoTo:584,1. The presence (or absence) of certain attributesdetermines which energy management strategies areavailable to the subject company.† Use these findings to understand whatthe subjectorganization can or cannot achieve in read more..

  • Page - 586

    Your manufacturing processesand products are mostlysimilar across all plants.Your facilities are designed and operated per onestandard; standards do not significantly vary by facilityfor assetselection, procedures, and management styles.Staffmembers from different plants (or divisions)regularly collaborate to sharetheir common issues andsolutions.Maintenance management is set up to serve multiplesites; individual sites adhere to centralized maintenanceplanning and procedures.Your corporation read more..

  • Page - 587

    Plant managersdevelop (or help to develop) projectproposals for capital budgetingpurposes.Your facilitiesmaintainprocedures for safety, health,and waste management.Most or all of your facilities maintain an action plan forimproving process efficiencies.Your organization maintains adatabase or archive thatdocumentsengineering problems and solutions.Your facilities track thevolumeoffactor inputsrequiredper unit of production.Your facilitiesmonitor scraporerror rates.Your annual budgets read more..

  • Page - 588

    EnergyMaster PlanningFredric S. GoldnerEnergy Management &Research Associates, East Meadow,New York, U.S.A.AbstractEnergy master planning (EMP) is the process of transitioning an organization’s culture from the traditional“fixed cost, line item” view of energy to one in which energy is recognized as both an opportunity and ariskthat that can be managed. An EMP can guide an organization in longer-range planning of energy costreduction and control as part of facility maintenance, read more..

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    have been documented include quality-of-lifeimprove-ments, enhanced productquality, better operationalsafety, reduced raw materialwaste in industrial plants,and increased rentabilityincommercial facilities. Anoften overlookedoutcome of an EMP is the reductionof emissions,among other environmental impacts thathelp organizations become perceived as better corporatecitizens.As more companiesmove toward an integratedcorporate strategy that links environmental, economic,and social considerations, the read more..

  • Page - 590

    righthere” viewpoint createssituations in which life-cyclethinking is not possible because potentially higherinitial costs are visible, but potential benefitstend to beinvisible. As aresult, whenfirst cost becomes the maincriterion for purchasing, such afocus distorts planningand decision-making. Too often, facilities choose thecheapest solution, based on the current quarter’s budget,without realizing it could cost them morelater.Acriticaldifference betweenenergy master planningand read more..

  • Page - 591

    STEPS TO AN ENERGY MASTER PLANTo fill this gap in the U.S., the Energy Master PlanningInstitute(EMPI)was established and has developed asetof steps that lay out the process for applying energy masterplanning to acommercial,institutional, or industrialfacility (See Figure 1). This model, which builds onaccepted international approaches, offers US organi-zations abroad and integrated business approach formanaging energy that is both strategicand sustainable.The steps presented in Figure1 appear read more..

  • Page - 592

    executives have not been introduced to the bottom-linevalueofenergy master planning, your task is to changemanagement culturesoexecutives no longer view energyas an uncontrollable expense. Part of the marketingmessage is that managing energy is no different fromtracking, controlling, and accounting for the costs of rawmaterials, IT, personnel,safety, or the corporate fleet.Obtain and Sustain Top CommitmentWithout question, this stepisthe mostdifficult in theenergy masterplanning process. read more..

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    equipment, elevators, andlocalized process loads. Itmeans making construction and equipment specs energy-conscious and creating waysto“enforce” such specs.Forexample, specifying T8 lamps for efficiency upgrades isnot sufficient. The architecture,design, and constructionstaffshouldbuild T8sinto their specs for non-energy-related upgrades, such as converting alibrarytotrainingrooms. Casting awide net also means revising inventoryand purchasing practices to support energy efficiency. Asin read more..

  • Page - 594

    expertise forinternaland external communications.Inform theorganization’s Boardabout thefinancialsavings and improved assetvalue. Let the staffandcommunity know about the environmental benefits. Applyfor energy awards for national recognitioninyour sector.And use the good will generated by the success to keep theenergy master planning process moving forward.TIPS FOR SUCCESSFrom thesesteps to an EMP, two points emerge as themostcriticaltosuccess.The first is ensuring buy-in from the top, read more..

  • Page - 595

    EnergyProject ManagementLorrie B. TietzeInterface Consulting, LLC, Castle Rock, Colorado, U.S.A.SandraB.McCardellCurrent-C Energy Systems, Inc., Mills, Wyoming, U.S.A.AbstractToday’s energy projects are becoming ever more complicated technically, beginning to involve morepeople, and beginning to include more integrated components and systems. As the complexity of anindividual project increases, so does the importance of project management. Even if the responsibilities forproject management are read more..

  • Page - 596

    Energy Project StageStageDeliverablesConceptual StageProject's general description or projectbrief,Needs basis,Return on Investment (ROI)estimate, such as aLifeCycleCostAnalysis (LCCA),Initialcostrange,Initialbenefitrange (including intangibles, whereappropriate),Initialproject timing,ProjectCharter,Initialproject management team.Definition StageDetailedproject scope,Detailedproject cost,Initialproject funding strategy,Bid processstrategy,Updated Return on Investment (ROI)orLifeCycleCost read more..

  • Page - 597

    Project stage.A logical sequence of activities, mile-stones, and deliverables.Scheduleriskanalysis.Equipment andcomputerprogramsthat let usersmeasure, monitor, and quantifyschedule impact on their energy project and help identifyschedule risks and opportunities.ENERGY PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLANThe energy project management plan is the roadmap forthe project.Itisa set of organized activities, each having adefinite beginningand end, intendedtomeet aspecificbusiness objective whencompleted by read more..

  • Page - 598

    uncertainty in the project scope and associated costs.While strategiclevel decisions can be made with thesenumbers, the conceptualstage costs shouldnot be used asthe project cost commitment.If the project is afitfor the business, aproject summaryor project brief is written and then reviewed with keystakeholders. Theprojectbrief reviewshavetwopurposes—to educate and to gain alignment and commit-menttothe proposed project. Oncethe projecthascommitment from all appropriate parties, aproject read more..

  • Page - 599

    Turnovercriteria additionally include the personnelperformance criteria (operational and maintenance), train-ing criteria (operational and maintenance), documentationcriteria, and the resolution of any outstanding itemssuch asstudy or research items. Onceall of the turnover criteria areachieved,the system is turned over to the operationalpersonnel and the projectpersonnel’s workisnearlycomplete; it remains only to complete any outstandingfollow-upactivities and conducta project postmortem.Also read more..

  • Page - 600

    design/build costsgrowproportionally as thescopechanges, with the costs passed through to the project.Consequently, the design/build bid can be the highestpriced, butitprovides greater flexibility to handletheissues or scope changes during the project.Fixed bid is the best choice when the scope is welldefined. There are few unknowns and project personnel areexperienced enough to strongly defend and enforce theagreed upon scopeofworkand removeexcessivecontingency fees from the bid price. Scope read more..

  • Page - 601

    stage, the project deliverypersonnel needs are broken downby specific trade skills, roles and responsibilities, and aschedule of wheneach set of the personnel resourceswill beneeded. The personnel requirements at this point are verylarge, especially from the ongoing operation.The project schedule will have previously identifiedtraining activities, personnel, and schedules; start-up, full-going,and turnover activities personnel and schedules;and delivery stage commissioning activities read more..

  • Page - 602

    Scope management is an ongoing challenge as scopechange requestscome from all personnel involved in theproject. Criteria should be established to sort outsmall,inconsequential change requests from larger ones havinggreater impact and astandardized scope change toolshouldbedeveloped for approval and documentation. Forlarger change requests, aformal review should evaluatethe change’s impact on the project’s cost, schedule,and other related systems. Its impact on the schedulecan then be read more..

  • Page - 603

    completed foreachactivity, taskgapsand overlapsbecome quickly visible—allowing the project team toresolve them (Fig. 8).SKILLS FOR ENERGY PROJECT MANAGEMENTThe energy project manager needs both technical projectmanagement skills and people project management skillsto deliveraproject on time, on budget, andwithexcellence.Technical Project Management SkillsThe technical project management skillshave alonghistoryand are well understood, and they include:† Scope definition.† Scope read more..

  • Page - 604

    awful”, to “the project won’t work because.”. The“because” is very important, and it is important that theproject manager hear and recognizethis change in order toactively involve people and bring them the rest of the wayto commitment. Once they agree to help be part of solvingthe “because”,they are committed to the project. Energyprojects bring change, and change always causesconflict.The project manager mustbethe first one to pull out ahidden conflict and set it squarely on read more..

  • Page - 605

    EnergyService Companies: EuropeSilvia RezessyEnergy EfficiencyAdvisory,REEEP International Secretariat, Vienna International Centre,Austria, Environmental Sciences and PolicyDepartment, Central European University,Nador,HungaryPaolo BertoldiEuropean Commission, Directorate General JRC, Ispra (VA), ItalyAbstractEnergy service companies (ESCOs) are important agents to promote energy efficiency improvements. Thisentry attempts to address amajor gap identified in the process of conducting the read more..

  • Page - 606

    paid afee for their advice/service rather than being paidbased on theresults of theirrecommendations.[13]Principally, projects implemented by ESPCs are relatedto primary energy conversion equipment (boilers, com-binedheat and powers [CHPs]).Insuch projects, the ESPCis unlikely to guarantee areduction in the delivered energyconsumption because it may have no control of or ongoingresponsibility for the efficiency of secondary conversionequipment (such as radiators,motors,and drives) and nocontrol read more..

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    equipment.[13] Two conceptually different TPF arrange-ments are associated with EPCs, and the keydifferencebetweenthem is which party borrows the money: theESCO or the client.† The first option is that the ESCO borrows the financialresources necessary for project implementation.† The second option is that the energy-user/customertakes aloan from afinancial institution,backedbyanenergy savings guarantee agreement with the ESCO.The purpose of the savings guaranteeistodemonstrateto the bank read more..

  • Page - 608

    Guaranteed Savings and Shared SavingsFig. 2illustratesthe relationships and risk allocationsamong the ESCO, customer, and lender in the two majorperformance contracting models:shared savings andguaranteed savings. Brief descriptions are also given. Animportant difference betweenguaranteed andsharedsavings models is that in the former case, the performanceguarantee is the level of energysaved,whereasinthelatter, this is the cost of energy saved.[7,11]Underaguaranteed savings contract,the read more..

  • Page - 609

    Usually, the contract also containsaproviso that theguaranteeisgood (i.e., the value of the energy saved willbe enough to meet thecustomer’sdebtobligation)provided that the price of energy does not go belowastipulated floor price (performance contracting is riskmanagement, and dropping fuel prices—such as thoseexperienced in North America in 1986—gave rise to thisprovision. We areindebted to ShirleyHansenforthis clarification).[8] Avariation on guaranteed read more..

  • Page - 610

    Other Contracting ModelsWhile there are numerous waystostructure acontract—hence,any attempt to be comprehensive in describingcontracting variations is doomed—othercontractualarrangements deserve some attention. Here, we describethe chauffage contract, the first-out contract, the build-own-operate-transfer (BOOT)contract, and the leasingcontract.Avery frequently used type of contractinEurope is thechauffage contract, in which an ESPC or an ESCO takesover complete responsibility for the read more..

  • Page - 611

    equipment. In acapital lease, thelessee owns anddepreciates the equipment and may benefit from associ-ated tax benefits. Acapital assetand associated liabilityappears on the balance sheet. In an operating lease, theownerofthe asset (lessor—the ESCO)ownstheequipment and essentially rents it to the lessee for afixed monthly fee. This is an off-balance-sheet financingsource. It shifts the risk from the lessee to the lessor buttends to be more expensive for the lessor. Unlikeincapitalleases, read more..

  • Page - 612

    Encyclopedia ofEnergyEngineering and TechnologyFirst EditionVolume 2Pages 573 through 1146Energy Star PerfEnergyStarEvapExerFedFossGreHeatIndeInduInterInvLightLiqMobilNatPerfEOEE —24/4/2007—11:33—VELU—Volume_title_page_vol-2—XML Taylor &Francis Encyclopedias© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC read more..

  • Page - 613

    EnergyStarww Portfolio Manager and BuildingLabeling ProgramBill AllemonNorth American Energy Efficiency, Ford land, Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.A.AbstractThis entry on the ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager and building-labeling program acts as asingleresource for first-time users of this energy benchmarking application from the U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency’s ENERGY STAR program. The entry provides background on the need for energybenchmarking, development of the Portfolio Manager application, read more..

  • Page - 614

    loads, and facility use. When comparing one facility withothers, it’s important to use consistent analysismethod-ology to ensure predictable and accurate results. Eachstatistical modelhas its own limitations and caveats. Anexcellent technical reference regarding energy modeling isMeasuringPlant-Wide EnergySavings,byDrKellyKissockand Carl Edgar of the University of Dayton.[1]After the issueofbenchmarking accuracy is addressed,itsapplicabilityand many uses can be discussed.Benchmarking read more..

  • Page - 615

    applythe tool and the resultant output, and what the inputdata requirements are for specificfacility types. Thissection will guidethe user throughthe process ofdetermining whetheraspecific facility can be benchmarkedusingthe tool, identify necessaryinput data, review weathernormalization methodology, andexplain additionalrequirements of specific facility types.Eligibility RequirementsFor Portfolio Managerresultstobevalid,specificrequirements have been established to ensure that thefacility read more..

  • Page - 616

    that must reside in areas with independently controlledtemperatureand humidity.Usually,the airconditioning system for this type of area is separatefrom theequipmentused to controlthe spacetemperature of the general building. The total area ofall computer data center spaces cannot exceed10% ofthe total building space.† Garages andparking lots.Enclosed or open parkingfacilities that operate from the same energy use meteras the primary building. Garages are categorized aseither above ground or read more..

  • Page - 617

    building energy consumption and physical parameters areaccurate. The engineer must visit the building and verifythat it conformstocurrent industrystandards for indoorenvironment, as referenced by ENERGY STAR in theProfessional Engineer’sGuide.[6] These standards addressindoorair quality, illumination, and occupant comfort, asidentified by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerat-ing, and Air-Conditioning Engineer’s (ASHRAE).ENERGYSTAR relies on the professionalism of thePE industry to read more..

  • Page - 618

    not only forecasta performance rating,but perform agap analysistoidentify the quantity and type of fuel to bereduced in order to achieve the target score.Delta Score EstimatorSimilar to TargetFinderbut much less extensive, this toolquickly and easily quantifiesthe reduction in energyconsumption necessarytoimprove afacility’s PortfolioManager score above the 75% level. The tool can alsobeused to identify aprojected score, givena proposedreductioninconsumption. Use this tool read more..

  • Page - 619

    6. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air andRadiation. Professional Engineer’s Guide to the ENERGYSTAR Label for Buildings,EPA 430-F-01-XX; EPA:Washington, DC, 2003.7. Available at actionURI(https://www.energystar.gov):www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?cZevaluate_ actionURI(https://www.energystar.gov):performance.bus_portfoliomanager_intro (accessed Septem-ber 2006).8. Available at read more..

  • Page - 620

    EnergyUse: U.S. OverviewDwight K. FrenchEnergy Consumption Division, Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy,Washington, D.C., U.S.A.AbstractVirtually all of the myriad economic and social activities of United States society involve inputs of energy.Our high activity levels have propelled the United States to the forefront of energy consumers amongnations. Our almost 100 quadrillion (100 followed by 15 zeroes) British thermal units (Btu) of energyconsumed annually is more read more..

  • Page - 621

    distribution, can be allocatedtothe generation sector. Thisapproach essentially treats electricity delivered to the other(so called“end use”) sectors as anon-energyinput.Second, the heat and power value of the electricitydelivered to the end use sectors,rated at astandard3412 Btu per kilowatt-hour (kWh),[3] can be allocatedtothosesectors,leavingthe energydissipated in thegeneration and distributionprocessesallocated to thegeneration sector. This approach treatsthe end use sectorsas read more..

  • Page - 622

    requirements of any othercountry.[1,3,5] For manydecades,virtually all electricity produced in the United States wasgeneratedwithinthe traditional, vertically integratedelectric utility, responsible for the entire process frominitial generation to delivery to the final consumers. Overthe past 30 years, various laws and regulations[6] havebeen putinto place that encourage decentralizedelectricityproduction, and in somecases force the utilities to divestthemselves of the generation process in read more..

  • Page - 623

    ResidentialThe stock of housing units and their occupants currentlyaccountfor aboutone-fifthofU.S.energydemand,including electricity requirements actionGoTo:621,(Table actionGoTo:621,1). The EnergyInformation Administration’s(EIA) Residential EnergyConsumption Survey (RECS), which assesses energy usein thenation’s occupied,year-roundhousing units,indicates that total residential energy use has remainedremarkably stable over the past two-plus decades, evendecreasing abit, despite a40% read more..

  • Page - 624

    IndustrialOf the major industrialactivities mentioned earlier, onlymanufacturing is covered by an EIA consumer-basedsurvey, the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey(MECS).Manufacturing has historically accountedfor thegreatmajorityofindustrial energy use, basedoncomparison with EIA supplier surveyinformation.[20,21]Although muchhas been maderecently of the departure ofsubstantial amounts of manufacturing from the UnitedStates, the energy use, including energy embodied inelectricity, read more..

  • Page - 625

    Census Bureau’sEconomic Censuses andother datasources, has agricultural energy use at about 1.2 quads in2002, mining use at about 2.5 quads, and construction use atabout 0.9 quads.[24]TransportationThe movement of peopleand goods is avital part of theU.S. economy and society. Transportation accounts forabout one-fourth of U.S. energyuse, but it is anenormously important fourth, because it is virtually allpetroleum.[25] In fact, transportation accounts for abouttwo-thirds of petroleum use in read more..

  • Page - 626

    small part of our consumption, and bring new types ofenergy online in order to continue to meet the country’senergy requirements reliably and at reasonablecost.Additionalinformation about energy throughput in theUnited States can be accessed through the Web site of theEIA at actionURI(http://www.eia.doe.gov):http://www.eia.doe.gov.More details on EIA’sconsumer surveys and the relationship betweenconsumercharacteristics and energy use can be accessed through theEnergy Consumption page, read more..

  • Page - 627

    atactionURI(http://www.eia.doe.gov):http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mecs/mecs2002/data02/actionURI(http://www.eia.doe.gov):excel/table1.2_02.xls (accessed May 2005).20. Annual Energy Review 2003.Energy Information Adminis-tration, Washington, DC, 2005, at actionURI(http://www.eia.doe.gov):http://www.eia.doe.gov/actionURI(http://www.eia.doe.gov):emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec2_7.pdf (accessed May 2005).21. Manufacturing Consumption of Energy, 1991,PublicationDOE/EIA-0512(91); Energy Information read more..

  • Page - 628

    EnergyUse: U.S. TransportationKevin C. CoatesTransportation &Energy Policy, Coates Consult, Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A.AbstractOil, gas, and electricity prices are spiking, America’s highways and airports are overcrowded, suburbia hasmorphed into urbania, and suburban sprawl has led to exurban sprawl. As political and industry leaderscontinue to apply old solutions to solve the problems of rapid growth, they are discovering that those oldsolutions do not work in the face of exponential read more..

  • Page - 629

    instance, housing and transportation are combinedintoonefederal ministry, theBundesministeriumfu¨rVerkehr,Bauwesen, und Wohnungswesen (Federal Min-istry of Transport, Building, and Housing). Japan has itsMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport becauseland is limited, natural energyresourcesare scarce,andthe efficientmovement of people andgoodsbetweenpopulation centers keeps energy transportationcostslow.Industrialized countries aroundthe world were forcedyearsago to recognizethe read more..

  • Page - 630

    square, he asked that the amount of wheat be doubled. Notbeinga mathematician, theperplexed ruleragreed.Unfortunately, long beforereachingthe 64th square, allof the wheat in the kingdom had been exhausted. Indeed,there is not enough wheat in the world todaytosatisfy thisformula—nor is there enough oil (Fig 2).Approximately 65% of American oil consumption isfortransportation. Thecountry’s twoprimary trans-portation modes, road and air travel, are entirely oildependent. These modesserved read more..

  • Page - 631

    launched the massive infrastructure development projectsthat became the present interstate highway system.This1950s policy decision locked American transportation intotoday’s oildependence.[5] Massive federal funding forroads and airports not only erodedthe many private railoperators’ passenger base, but also eliminated rail as aviable alternative mode of transportation fortakingridership pressure offthe othertwo modes. Entire railnetworks have disappeared, such as the 1600-mile read more..

  • Page - 632

    as fast as they can. Additionally, it takes four years fromthe time an oil tanker is ordered until it is delivered intoservice,and the number of new tankers coming online in2005 is not likely to keep pace with the projected increasein world demand. Exacerbating this already diceyshippingsupply situationwas an internationalmaritime agreementthat mandated the scrapping of all tankers built before1982 by May 2005 and the scrapping of all non-double-hulled tankers by 2010. In October2004, shipping read more..

  • Page - 633

    years, but with unknown and almost certainly lower flowrates. It may have peakedalready,but no one knowsforsure because the data is not publicly available.Andbecause governments can use oil reserve estimates tosecurelarge internationalbank loans, the temptation forsomegovernments to inflate their reserve estimates isoften toogreat to resist.Suchvagaries make openaccounting from the Middle East improbable at best(Fig. 5).Oil-economy optimists tend to be economists, notgeologists. Proponents of read more..

  • Page - 634

    It just so happensthat America’s neighbor to the northhas tar sand depositswith enough oil trapped in the sands toexceed the known reserves in the Saudi peninsula, albeit notas easy, clean, or cheap to recover. Syncrude, aconsortiumof eight U.S. and Canadian oil companies, has been activelyimproving methods for extracting crude from thesesandssince 1978. In 2003, Shell and Chevron Texaco jointlyopened the $5.7 billion Athabasca Oil Sands Project inAlberta(about 250miles north of Edmonton), read more..

  • Page - 635

    Unfortunately for Americans, conservationist measuresare at complete odds with the economicgoals of any profit-driven energy provider corporation;the production goalsof any major manufacturer of internal combustion enginevehicles; the advertising industry,which thrives onproducing automobile television commercials; and thepoliticalpowers in Washington who have no troubleaccepting political campaign contributions from all thosewho, understandably, do notwanttoget offthe read more..

  • Page - 636

    Alaska StatehoodAct of 1959, the federal governmentwould receive only 10% of that royalty percentage (only1.25% of total revenue), with Alaska receiving the other90%. One has to believe that the majority of Americanswould find this outrageous, especially because all Alaskansalready receive yearly $2000 royalty checksand don’t payany state income tax. It is no coincidence that Alaskans andSaudi Arabians have similar attitudes toward energyresource ownership and management.As oil is an read more..

  • Page - 637

    meaningful energy conservationmeasures and by exten-sively deploying electric-powered intercity and intracitytransitsystemsthat are not oil reliant.In light of evolving world events such as China’sandIndia’s dramatic economic growth,the world’s burgeoningpopulation, the present capacity limits of existing world oilproduction, the growingconcern over the environmentalimpacts of burninghydrocarbons, andthe ominousprospect of terroristattacks[18] or naturaldisastersdisrupting the flowofoil read more..

  • Page - 638

    If America’s leaders continue to ignoretheseproblems,the country will be left in the weak position of constantlyreacting to an increasingly volatile world energy market.The days immediately after the September 11, 2001,attacks exposedthe weaknesses in the American trans-portation system when no practical rail transportation wasavailablefor manystranded travelers, and whatrailsystemswere available were overwhelmed until commer-cial flightsresumed several days later.In spite of this read more..

  • Page - 639

    will be the only workable solution to meetour prodigiousshort-term energy needs while preventing greenhouse-gasemissions before cleaner “alternative” or “renewable”energy sources can be developed in sufficient quantitiestomeetour energy needs.Yet regardless of the sourceofpowerused to generate future electricity, there are seriousinfrastructure problemsfacing America’s method ofdelivering that electric power. The same problem the oilindustry faces with capacity limitations and read more..

  • Page - 640

    REFERENCES1. Schrank, D.; Lomax, T. The 2004 Urban Mobility Report,Texas Transportation Institute; 2004.2. U.S. Department of Energy. Energy Information Agency.Transportation Energy Data Book, 23rd Ed., 2003.3. The Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century wasenacted June 9, 1998, as Public Law 105–178. TEA-21authorizes federal surface transportation programs forhighways, highway safety, and transit for the six-yearperiod 1998–2003.4. Oberstar, J.L.; The Transportation Equity Act: read more..

  • Page - 641

    Energy: Global and Historical BackgroundMilivoje M. KosticDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Northern Illinois University,DeKalb, Illinois, U.S.A.AbstractThe global and historical overview of energy use is presented with emphasis on energy diversity but alsouniversality. Starting from ancient civilization achronology of selected energy-related events is presented.It starts from the prehistoric age, when humans relied on their muscular power to survive; then they learnedhow to control and use read more..

  • Page - 642

    exchanges or “energy flows”indifferent astrophysical,geological, chemical, biological, and intellectualpro-cesses. Hundreds of millions of years ago, life emergedfrom the oceansand transformed the landscape. Just afewmillion years ago, the first humanspecies evolved andbegan its own process of interaction with its environment:the planet Earth. About 1million yearsago our ownspecies, Homo sapiens,first appeared, then strivedmost ofthehistory,and boomed with agriculturaland theIndustrial read more..

  • Page - 643

    The humanmetabolism needed to maintain life isapproximatelyequal to the dietaryenergy reference valueof 2000 kcal/day, which is equivalent to 97 Wor331 Btu/h.Human sustained workingpowerisabout 75 W, or one-tenth of 1hp. Human muscular power bursts may be ahundredtimes greater than basal metabolic or sustainedpower. By comparison,the world’s population is about 6.3billion, with total energy consumption about 7550 Btu/hor2.21 kW per capita (or 11.34 kW per capita for apopulationof about 0.3 read more..

  • Page - 644

    Table 2 Primary energy sources and conversion to workPrimary energy sourceConversionNon-renewableFossil fuelsCoalCombustion (heat and heat-engine H/HE/Wa)PeatOil/crude petroleumNatural gasNuclearUraniumFission (H/HE/W)ThoriumDeuteriumFusionb (H/HE/W)RenewablecGeothermaldHot steam/waterH/HE/WGround soil/rock heatVolcanic, etc.bOcean-gravitationalTidal-ocean waveDirect to workSolar-relatedOceanOcean thermalH/HE/WOcean currentsDirect to workOcean waveBiomassWoodCombustion (H/HE/W)Vegetation, read more..

  • Page - 645

    Energy, Work and Heat Units, andEnergy EquivalentsEnergy is manifested via work and heat transfer, with acorresponding Force!Lengthdimension for work (N m,kgf m, and lbf ft, in SI, metric, and English system of units,respectively);and the caloric units, in kilocalorie (kcal) orBritishthermal unit (Btu), the last two defined as heatneededtoincreasea unit mass of water (at specifiedpressure and temperature) for 1degreeoftemperature intheir respective units. Therefore, the water-specific heat read more..

  • Page - 646

    crops; and domestication of animals, including horses.Many cattle breeds provided draftand power, as well asmilk. Virtually all fuel in preindustrial societies camefrom straw,wood,and charcoal.The latter was criticalfor smeltingand processing, first metals(copper, iron,and steel) and then firingbricks. The powerwas providedby the muscular laborofpeopleand animals. Even today,in undeveloped rural areas of Asia, Africa, and LatinAmerica, most of the work is provided by human andanimal read more..

  • Page - 647

    and otherinventions (see actionGoTo:650,Table actionGoTo:650,A1). The birth andintense development of the new energy science,thermo-dynamics, was taking place, along with the discoveryofthefundamental lawsofnature andmanyotherdiscoveries in chemistryand physics. One inventionwas fuelinganother invention,and so on. The use of newheat engines and the need for more fuels were propellingdiscoveryofmanycoal mines and oilfields. In return,available energy sources were enabling an intense rise read more..

  • Page - 648

    efficiencyissimilar in nuclear powerplants, whichcontribute to about 16% of world and about 20% of U.S.electricity production. When the global energy supplyisgiven together with fossil fuels and expressed in Britishthermal units (Btu),all electrical energy (including hydroand wind) is given in equivalent Btu thermal units,accounting for the conversion efficiency (typically, 33%).When electrical energy is accounted separately, the actualelectrical output is given in kilowatt hours (kWh), read more..

  • Page - 649

    Furthermore,advances in energyconversionandutilizationtechnologies,and increases in efficiency,including computerized control and management, contrib-ute to energy conservation, an increase in safety, and areduction of related environmental pollution. Actually,per-capita energy use in the United States and otherdeveloped countries has been reduced in recent years.The increase of the world’s population, however, and thedevelopmentofmanyunderdeveloped andverypopulated countries (China,Indiaand read more..

  • Page - 650

    6. Renewablebiomassand synthetic hydrocarbons forfossil-fuel replacement(mobile energy, trans-portation, and chemicals).7. Advanced energystorage (synthetic fuels,advanced batteries, hydrogen, etc.).8. Redistributed solar-related and other renewableenergies (to fill in the gap).In conclusion, life may be happier after the fossil fuelera, which represents only ableep on the human-historyradar screen. With increased population and technologicaldevelopments,and sophistication in manyareas read more..

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    Table A.1(Continued)1612Aprimitive thermometer invented by Galileo1650Otto van Guericke develops away to charge aball of sulfur with static electricity. He also observed lightproduced by electricity. The term electricity is coined to describe the force that is found when amber is rubbedwith silk (static electricity)1659Natural gas is discovered in England; the first time in Europe1660Robert Boyle presented alaw (Boyle’s law), which states that pressure varies inversely with volume at read more..

  • Page - 652

    Table A.1(Continued)1823Methyl alcohol was first discovered by condensing gases from burning wood into aliquid. It is used as asolventand achemical building block to make consumer products as plastics, plywood and paint1824In “On the motive power of fire,” Sadi Carnot shows that work is done as heat passes from ahigh to alowtemperature. He defines work and hints at the second law of thermodynamics1827George Ohm writes “The galvanic circuit investigated mathematically,” which contains read more..

  • Page - 653

    Table A.1(Continued)1880Pierre Curie discovers the piezoelectric effect that certain substances produce electric current under pressure1882The first electric central station to supply light and power was the Edison Electric Illuminating Company ofNew York City. It had one generator which produced power for 800 electric light bulbs. Within 14 months, theservice had 508 subscribers and 12,732 bulbs1884Nikola Tesla invents the electric alternator, an electric generator that produces alternative read more..

  • Page - 654

    Table A.1(Continued)1947The first airplane to break the speed of sound, the Bell X-1, is flown by Chuck Yeager1948The first transistor, invented by Drs. John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brittain, was demonstrated. The essentialelement of the device was atiny wafer of germanium, asemi-conductor1948Market acceptance of frozen orange concentrate leads to the expansion of the frozen foods industry, withassociated increases in packaging1951An announcement was made of abattery that converts nuclear read more..

  • Page - 655

    GlossaryEnergy: It is afundamental property of aphysical system andrefers to its potential to maintain asystem identity or structureand to influence changes with other systems (via forced–displacement interactions) by imparting work (forced direc-tional displacement) or heat (forced chaotic displacement/motion of asystem’s molecular or related structures). Energyexists in many forms: electromagnetic (including light),electrical, magnetic, nuclear, chemical, thermal, and mechan-ical read more..

  • Page - 656

    Enterprise EnergyManagement SystemsGregoryCmarBill GnerreKevin FullerInterval Data Systems, Inc., Watertown, Massachusetts, U.S.A.AbstractBuilding automation systems and metering systems are an enormous source of valuable operational data.However, it is rarely put to use, as facilities professionals do not have adequate means to collect and managethe data. The information is lost and decisions are made without solid operational facts, resulting inunderperforming buildings and physical plants. An read more..

  • Page - 657

    utilitybilling system.Itencompasses billing and meterdata but extends beyond by connecting billing informationdirectly to the related operational data.EEMSPRINCIPLE 1: CONSOLIDATE ALLENERGY-RELATED DATAINTO ADATAWAREHOUSEEnergy-relateddatacomesfrompurchasedutilities, generated utilities, BAS, meteringsystems(bothadvanced and manually read), weather, computer-ized maintenance management systems(CMMS), andspace planning systems. Additionally, an EEMS man-ages rate and billing data, users, and read more..

  • Page - 658

    it is unlikelythat you’llgather sufficient information toknow with certaintyhow to improveit(Fig. 4). (Thisiswhat happens when one installs advanced meteringsystemsinsteadofanEEMS.)At large facilities, it is not unusual to have 30,000–130,000 points (or more), each generating one valueevery15 min. Forevery 30,000 points, thereare over abilliondata intervals per year.Without an EEMS, much, if not all,of this information is thrown away actionGoTo:659,(Fig. actionGoTo:659,5).Metersand Metering read more..

  • Page - 659

    Optimal Time IntervalAn EEMS uses astandardtime series interval, selected toensuresufficient data to identify transitions. This meansthat there should be enough data points gathered to discernperformance fluctuations across transitiontime periods(between day and night, office hours and nonworkinghours,etc.) so that behavior patterns and problems becomeapparent quickly.For this reason, and because electricity is frequentlymetered within the sametime interval, 15 minutes is anappropriate time read more..

  • Page - 660

    actionable data,the EEMS should collect both monitoringand control points. With monitoring data alone(withoutcontrol information), it is difficult to verify or quantifythesavings opportunity.Time and Usability MattersWith gigabytes or even terabytes of data to manage, theuse and operation of an EEMS cannot be an arduous andtime-consuming task. An EEMSaccesses and presentsdata to users at the “speed of thought,” enablinguserstoview information createdfrom hundreds of thousands ofdata read more..

  • Page - 661

    effectivenessofanEEMS for diagnostics, monitoring, andotherapplications, which results in actionable information.Building automation systems trend logs do have theirplaceinproviding neededinformation—where their abilityto collect real-time data is useful—as showninTable 2.Calculated Data:ProvidingActionable InformationTheefficiencygains in having commonlydesiredcalculations available for monitoring and diagnostics aretremendous, and they have adramatic impact on usability.Avisual display of read more..

  • Page - 662

    display (trend lines, calculations, etc.), user interface,andsystem performanceofthe EEMSthat allows the user towork at the speed of thought and to improvethe quantityand quality of decisions made.Present User-SpecificInformationAn EEMS supports avariety of energy-related appli-cations and users, including energy engineers, HVACdesign engineers, technicians, area/building mechanics,facilitiesengineersand managers, commissioning agents,energy purchasers, and performance contractors.An read more..

  • Page - 663

    functionality to be added outside the vendor’s develop-mentcycle.There are standards in several areasthat an EEMSshouldadhereto.Operating system.There are three platforms, suf-ficiently open and standardized, that an EEMS could runon. The first, and by far the mostpopular, is MicrosoftWindows. It offersthe greatest availability of tools andoptions, and is already installedand supported nearlyeverywhere. TheMicrosoft.NET platform is excellent fordeveloping and integrating application read more..

  • Page - 664

    functionality/value/cost relationships. Largerfacilities—those with amillion square feet of space or more—shouldlook for an EEMSthat is complete and meets the idealcriteria. At this writing (2006), thesesystems have notscaled down in size sufficiently to necessarily be costeffective for smaller facilities. This will happen overtime, especially as BAS vendors makedata more easilyavailable.An ideal EEMS will adhere to the following criteria:† It collects data from all monitoring and control read more..

  • Page - 665

    Environmental PolicySanford V. BergDirector of Water Studies, Public Utility Research Center,University of Florida, Gainesville,Florida, U.S.A.AbstractEnvironmental policy is designed to reduce the negative impacts of economic activity on water, air, andother natural resources. It is difficult to identify and quantify the damage caused by pollution on humanhealth or inflicted upon sensitive ecosystems, so determining the benefits and costs of remediation policiesis often extremely difficult. read more..

  • Page - 666

    measurements,and values required for the steps:1. Determineappropriateregulatory objectives(through citizen participation in politicalprocessesand community consensus-building).2. Balance thoseobjectives to determineregulatorypriorities.3. Identify and legislate oversight responsibilities forenvironmental agencies.4. Develop (a) mechanismsfor monitoring environ-mental impacts (suchasambient air and waterquality) and (b) methodologies for integrating newscientific understandings of environmental read more..

  • Page - 667

    (oil drilling or coal mining)orinvolve cross-mediaemissions in the consumption phase that can lead tofurther ecosystem damage. Emissions can be from asinglepoint or amobilesource. In addition, they can becontinuous or intermittent (with exposure and impactsdepending on wind and other weather conditions or thepresence of otherchemicals). Thetransportmechanismcan be complicated and involve multiplejurisdictions (aswith SO2 and NOx—emissions leadto“acid rain” or ozoneproblems in downwind read more..

  • Page - 668

    too slowly. Furthermore, citizens might prefer excessivecaution (labeled a“precautionary bias”). On the otherhand, Type II errors can result in regulators imposing highabatement costs onto polluters (and those purchasingassociated products)ina manner that is not cost effective.Arelated issue is whether or notthe environmentalimpact is irreversible. If it is not reversible, acase can bemade that the burdenofproof should be assigned to thosewho assert that relatively higherlevels of pollution read more..

  • Page - 669

    reduction of pollution damages—the cost of pollution)depend on the size of the affected population, incomes(indicating an ability to pay for environmental amenities),and citizen preferences (reflecting awillingness to pay).The benefits can be very difficult to estimate. Consider, forexample, the health benefitsofreduced particulates in theatmosphere, habitat values, and citizen valuations ofmaintaining ahabitat for aparticular species.Physicalbenefitscan be found from dose-response read more..

  • Page - 670

    attacks), one can compare the number of lives saved perdollar spent in abatement activityacross programs. Thus,cost-effectiveanalysisinvolvesfindingthe least-costmethod of achieving agiveneconomic or social objectivesuch as saving livesorretainingunique ecologicalsettings. No dollar value (or explicit measureofavoideddamages)isplaced on that objective.[5] One advantage ofthis approach is that the focus is on minimizing the cost ofmeeting the (politically determined) target. It read more..

  • Page - 671

    economies to emission reductions, it would be mostefficient to have afew firmsreduce emissions. The least-cost way to achieve agiven overall reduction in emissionswill involve differential cutbacks from different firms.Mandate aSpecific Control Technology(Technology-Based Command-and-Control)This “command and control”strategy is not cost-effectivebecause production conditions and retrofitting productionprocesses differ across firms (based on the age of the plantand otherfactors). read more..

  • Page - 672

    environmental regulator and the environmental duties ofthe economicregulator. To avoid regulatory competition,agenciessometimes establishtaskforcesorothermechanisms for identifying and resolving issues thatmight arisebetweenjurisdictional boundaries (acrossstates or between state and federal authorities). Suchcooperation can serve to clarify the division of responsi-bilities and identify regulatory instruments that will mosteffectively meet economic and social objectives.In summary,policy-makers read more..

  • Page - 673

    Evaporative CoolingDavid BisbeeCustomer Advanced Technologies Program, Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD),Sacramento,California, U.S.A.AbstractThis report discusses the principles of evaporative cooling and provides an overview of the different typesof systems currently on the market. It includes diagrams, system comparisons and adiscussion of marketbarriers for direct evaporative coolers, indirect–direct evaporative coolers (IDECs) and the CooleradoCooler.INTRODUCTIONIt is another read more..

  • Page - 674

    cooling systems in Sacramento, California are:† Outside air (a.k.a.“dry bulb”)temperature: 1008F† Wet bulb temperature: 708F(relative humidity 23%)† Desired indoor temperature: 788F.Under these conditions, the lowest theoretical supply airtemperaturethatastandard evaporativecooler couldprovide would be 708F. Realistically speaking, however,most direct evaporative cooling systemswould only be ableto achieve 788F(Fig. 1). To put this into perspective,conventional refrigerant-basedair read more..

  • Page - 675

    barrier since studies conducted by American Society ofHeating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers(ASHRAE) and others have consistently shown that mostpeopleprefer lower humidity levels.Overview of Operation (Fig. 3)1. Water is pumped from the basin(bottom of the unit)and distributed across the top of the evaporativecooling pads. These pads are usually madeofwoodshavings fromaspen trees or otherabsorbentmaterials. Some of the water saturates the padswhile the rest falls back down into read more..

  • Page - 676

    pads are available, they seldom perform as well ashigh-quality aspen pads. Fiber pads usually rangefrom 1to2 in. in thickness. They are disposableandshould be replacedevery 1or2 years.[4]2. Rigid sheet pad coolers:(Fig. 5) this type of cooler,also knownasa “single-inlet cooler,” used to befound only in large commercial applications, but isnow becoming more common in residential appli-cations as well. It uses rigid-sheetpads made fromcorrugated material that allows air to move throughat read more..

  • Page - 677

    of microbes that can cause stains, odors, and productdegradation.Choosing the Right-sized Evaporative CoolerBecausedirect evaporative coolers do not actually removeheat,they are rated by airflow insteadofcooling capacity.According to PG&E, the following formulas may be usedto determine the propersize cooler needed for residentialapplications[5]:Hot dry climate:floor area (in squarefeet)!4CFM persquarefoot (based upon 30 air changesper hour and aceiling height of 8ft)Averageclimate:floor read more..

  • Page - 678

    OverviewofOperation (Fig. 9)1. Water is pumped from the basinand distributedacross the top of the indirect evaporative heatexchanger.The water clings to the surfaceswithinthe wet channels of the heat exchanger as it travelsback down intothe basin.2. The exhaustfan draws working air up through thewet channels. As the workingair comes intocontact with thewater,someofthe waterevaporates and lowers the surface temperature ofthe heat exchanger. The warm moist workingair isthen exhaustedthrough the read more..

  • Page - 679

    from alack of understanding regarding propersysteminstallation, misunderstood maintenancerequirements andpoorlydesigned systems.Some examples:1. Reliability:the water troughs of theindirectevaporative heat exchanger of the IDECshowninFig. 10 are designed to distributewater over theevaporative cooling media. Oncethe troughs arefilled, the water is supposed to overflow across thetopofthe media. Unfortunately,thisheatexchanger was rendered useless by misalignedwater nozzles. This situationmay read more..

  • Page - 680

    air below theambient wetbulbtemperatures(Fig. 13).Advantages of IDECs† Energy efficient—75% energy savings compared toconventional air conditioners.† Offers increased comfort over swamp coolers (lessmoisture added to supplyair).† Provides excellent ventilation and may be used in asimilar manner as awhole house fan (when operated inthe fan only mode).Disadvantages† Doesnot work well in humid climates or on humiddays.† Units and replacement parts are notwidely available.† Requires read more..

  • Page - 681

    conditioned space. In essence this creates a“cascade”effect that enables the Coolerado Cooler to cool the airbelowthe ambientair wet bulb temperature withoutaddingany moisture to the supply air. The patentedCoolerado heat and mass exchanger is designed to takeadvantage of the MaisotsenkoCycle (Fig. 14)and isconstructed from cellulose fiber and ethylvinyl acetate(EVA). The heat exchanger contains both wet and drychannels andseparates incoming airintotwo airstreams: Working Air and read more..

  • Page - 682

    7. Theworkingair is now moving through wetchannels perpendicular or crossflow above andbelowthe dry channels.8. Theheat that is passed from the dry channelisconverted into water vapor.9. Heatfrom the productair has been converted towater vapor and is now rejected as exhausttotheoutside air.10. Theproduct air, which has now traveled thelength of the heat exchanger, enters the con-ditioned space cold and dry.Potential ApplicationsAccording to the manufacturer, the Coolerado Cooler maybe used to read more..

  • Page - 683

    † Reliability is unknown: fewer than 200 units have beendeployed.† Water quality may impact system performanceandmaintenance requirements.SYSTEM COMPARISONRecall thatevaporative coolingsystems incorporateadiabatic cooling. In this process, the heat within the airstream is converted into water vapor—it is not actuallyremoved.Because of this, there is currently no establishedindustry metric forcomparingthe performance ofevaporativecoolingsystemstoconventionalvapor-compressionsystems. read more..

  • Page - 684

    REFERENCES1. Criscione, P. Death of the Swamp Thing: EvaporativeCooling Delivers Dry Air,ETCurrents Number 41, April2005; 1–6. ESource, 1965 North 57th Court, Boulder, CO80301. USA, Tel 303.444.7788 x109, actionURI(http://www.esource.com):www.esource.com.2. Evaporative Cooling. California Energy Commission.Available at: actionURI(http://www.consumerenergycenter.org):http://www.consumerenergycenter.org/home/actionURI(http://www.consumerenergycenter.org):heating_cooling/evaporative.html read more..

  • Page - 685

    Exergy: AnalysisMarcA.RosenFaculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology,Oshawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstractExergy analysis is an assessment technique for systems and processes that is based on the second law ofthermodynamics. Exergy analysis has been increasingly applied over the last several decades largelybecause of its advantages over energy analysis: more meaningful efficiencies are evaluated because exergyefficiencies are always ameasure of the read more..

  • Page - 686

    thermodynamicstexts, e.g.,[9,10] andjournal articlese.g.[11–14] Many applications of exergy analysis havebeen reportedinfields rangingfrompower gener-ation[17,18] andcogeneration[9] to district energy,[19]thermal processes,[20,21] and thermal energy storage[22,23]and on to systems as large as countries.[24,25]Exergy and the Reference EnvironmentExergy quantities are evaluated with respect to areferenceenvironment. The intensive properties of the referenceenvironment in part determinethe read more..

  • Page - 687

    EXERGY ANALYSISExergyanalysisinvolvesthe applicationofexergyconcepts,balances, and efficienciestoevaluate andimprove energyand othersystems.Manyengineersand scientists suggestthat devices are best evaluated andimproved upon usingexergy analysis in addition to or inplaceofenergy analysis.Ajournal devoted to exergy matters entitled TheInternational Journal of Exergy hasrecentlybeenestablished by Inderscience.Some extensive bibliogra-phieshave been compiled, including one by Goran Wall(see the Web read more..

  • Page - 688

    EXAMPLES OF EXERGY ANALYSISAPPLICATIONSThree examples of differing complexity of applications ofexergy analysis are presented:† An electrical resistance spaceheater (a simplecomponent)† Athermal energy storage system (a simplesystemcontaining anumber of components)† Acoal-fired electrical generating station (a complexsystem)Electrical Resistance Space HeaterAn electrical resistance space heater converts electricity toheat at atemperature suitablefor room comfort, and isillustrated in Fig. read more..

  • Page - 689

    allowsprocess inefficiencies to be better pinpointed thanan energy analysisdoes and how efficiencies are to bemorerationally evaluated.Adetailed flow diagram for asingle unit of the station isshowninFig. 2. Thesymbols identifying the streams aredescribed in actionGoTo:690,Table1a–cfor material,thermal, andelectrical flows, respectively, with corresponding data.Fig. 2has four main sections:† Steam Generation.Eight pulverized-coal-fired naturalcirculation steam generators each read more..

  • Page - 690

    section, in actionGoTo:691,Table actionGoTo:691,2. actionGoTo:692,Fig. actionGoTo:692,3a and billustrate the net energyand exergy flows and exergy consumptions for the fourmain process sections.Overall energy and exergy efficiencies are evaluated asEnergyefficiencyZðNetenergyoutputwithelectricityÞ=ðEnergyinputÞ ð3ÞandExergyefficiencyZðNetexergyoutputwithelectricityÞ=ðExergyinputÞ ð4ÞCoal is the only input sourceofenergy or exergy and theenergyand exergyefficiencies are 37 read more..

  • Page - 691

    respectively. The small difference in the efficiencies is dueto the fact that the specific chemical exergy of coal isslightly greater than its energy. Although the station energyand exergy efficiencies are similar, these efficiencies differmarkedlyfor manystation sections.In the Steam Generation section,exergy consumptionsare substantial, accounting for 659MW(or 72%) of the916 MW station exergy loss.Ofthis 659, 444 MW isconsumed with combustionand 215MWwith heattransfer. The energy and read more..

  • Page - 692

    measureofthe potential of asubstanceorenergy form toimpact the environment.The relation betweenexergyand the environment is discussedinthis encyclopedia inan articleentitled“Exergy: EnvironmentalImpactAssessment Applications.”Exergy and EconomicsAnotherarea in whichapplications of exergy areincreasing is that of economics. In the analysis and designof energy systems, techniques are often used that combinescientific disciplines like thermodynamics with economicsto achieve optimum designs. read more..

  • Page - 693

    and assign costs and prices to exergy-related variables.These techniques usually help in appropriately allocatingeconomic resourcessoastooptimize the design andoperation of asystemand its economic feasibilityand profitability (by obtaining actual costs of productsand their appropriate prices).CONCLUSIONExergy analysis provides informationthatinfluencesdesign, improvement, and application decisions and it islikelytobeincreasingly applied. Exergy also providesinsightsintothe “best” read more..

  • Page - 694

    22. Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A. Energy and exergy analyses ofthermal energy storage systems In Thermal Energy StorageSystems and Applications;Wiley: London, 2002; 411–510.23. Rosen, M.A.; Tang, R.; Dincer, I. Effect of stratification onenergy and exergy capacities in thermal storage systems. Int.J. Energy Res. 2004, 28,177–193.24. Rosen, M.A.; Dincer, I. Sectoral energy and exergy modelingTurkey. ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol. 1997, 119,200–204.25. Rosen, M.A. Evaluation of energy read more..

  • Page - 695

    Exergy: Environmental Impact Assessment ApplicationsMarcA.RosenFaculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology,Oshawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstractExergy can help to understand and mitigate environmental impact because exergy is ameasure of thedeparture of asubstance from equilibrium with aspecified reference environment, which is often modeledas the actual environment. Furthermore, exergy is ameasure of potential of asubstance to cause change, sothe exergy read more..

  • Page - 696

    Exergy analysis[1–7] uses the first and secondlaws ofthermodynamics for the design and analysis of energysystems. Exergy is not subject to aconservationlaw, and isconsumed due to the irreversibilities in any process. Theexergy method is useful forattaining moreefficientenergy-resource use, for it enables the locations, types,and magnitudes of wastes and losses to be determined.Therefore, exergy analysisreveals by how much it ispossible to design moreefficient energy systems byreducing read more..

  • Page - 697

    The stable configurations of C, O, and N, respectively, aretakentobethose of CO2,O2,and N2 as they existinairsaturated with liquid water at T0 and P0 (the temperatureand pressure for the reference environment); of hydrogenis taken to be in the liquid phase of water saturated with airat T0 and P0;and of Sand Ca, respectively, are taken to bethoseofCaSO4$2H2Oand CaCO3 at T0 and P0.Reference-SubstanceModelsWith this model, a“reference substance” is selected foreverychemical element and read more..

  • Page - 698

    exergiesevaluated for other process-dependent models orused in environmental assessments.EXERGY, ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTEnergy and the EnvironmentEnergy production, transformation, transport, and end-usehave significant impacts on the earth’s environment.Thepresent world distribution of per capita energy consump-tion suggests that aclosecorrelation exists betweenacountry’senergy consumption and economic develop-ment. But, there does not appeartobeasimplecorrelationbetweena country’s read more..

  • Page - 699

    with phenomena such as pollution and dispersion canbe convertedinto areliable tool on which policydecisions can be based,and are exploring how theenvironmental effects of processes can be linked to orexpressedinterms of exergy changes.Several researchers suggest the most appropriate way tolink the second law and environmental impact is throughexergy because it is ameasureofthe departureofthe stateof asystem from that of the environment. The magnitudeof the exergy of asystem dependsonthe states read more..

  • Page - 700

    environment (e.g., the deaths of fish and plants in somelakes due to the release of specificsubstances in stackgases as they reactand come to equilibrium with theenvironment).Emissions of exergy to the environment can alsointerferewith the net input of exergy via solar radiation tothe earth. Carbon dioxide emissions appeartobechangingthe atmospheric CO2 concentration, affecting the receivingand re-radiatingofsolar radiation by the earth.The relation betweenwaste exergy emissions read more..

  • Page - 701

    4. Sato, N. Chemical Energy and Exergy: An Introduction toChemical Thermodynamics for Engineers;Elsevier: Oxford,U.K., 2005.5. Kotas, T.J. The Exergy Method of Thermal Plant Analysis,Reprint Ed.; Krieger: Malabar, FL, 1995.6. Moran, M.J. Availability Analysis: AGuide to EfficientEnergy Use,Revised Ed.; American Society of MechanicalEngineers: New York, 1989.7. Edgerton, R.H. Available Energy and EnvironmentalEconomics;D.C. Heath: Toronto, 1982.8. Baehr, H.D.; Schmidt, E.F. Definition und read more..

  • Page - 702

    Facility Air LeakageWendell A. PorterUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractBuilding air leakage issues are described in detail in this entry. The advantages and disadvantages of themost popular techniques and materials used to reduce air leakage are discussed. Information concerning themost often missed avenues for air leakage through penetrations and air flow bypasses is also provided.Each major building component that contributes to air leakage, such as floors, ceilings read more..

  • Page - 703

    windows, doors, and utilitypenetrations, and be installedper manufacturer’s specifications.Ahousewrap can help reduce air leakage throughexterior walls, but, by itself, is notacontinuousair barrierfor the entire envelope and, hence,isnot asubstitute forthe airtight drywall approach. Housewraps are primarilyrecommendedasfurther insurance against air leakage and,because they canblock liquidwater (bulkwater)penetration, can help protect abuilding from moisturedamage. In someinstances, the read more..

  • Page - 704

    edgesand penetrations sealed to be effective airbarriers. This material is recommended for useunderslabs. Incorrect application in wall cavities can leadtomold and mildewproblems.† Weatherstripping—Used to seal moveable com-ponents, such as doors and windows.Seal Penetrations and BypassesThe first step in successfully creating an air barriersystemis to seal all of the holesinthe building envelope. Toooften, builders concentrateonair leakage throughwindows, doors, and walls, and ignore areas read more..

  • Page - 705

    under the house to prevent moisture from movingupward from the soil.† Floor Joist—Seal sill plates in basements and unventedcrawl spaces. Caulk or gasket rim or band joistsbetweenfloors in multi-story construction.† Bottom Plate—Use either caulk or gasketbetweentheplate and subflooring.† Electrical Wiring—Use wire-compatible caulkorsprayfoam to seal penetrations.† Electrical Boxes—Use approved caulk to seal wiringon the outside of electrical boxes. Seal betweentheinterior read more..

  • Page - 706

    † Dropped Ceiling Soffit—Use sheet materialand sealantto stop air leakage from attic into the soffit or wallframing, then insulate (see actionGoTo:704,Figs. actionGoTo:704,4–8 for more details).† Chases (for ductwork, flues, etc.)—Prevent air leakagethrough thesebypasses with sheet materialsandsealants (see Figs. 7and actionGoTo:707,9 for moredetails).† Windowsand Doors—Must meet allowable airinfiltration rates found in state building codes.Air Leakage DrivingForcesRequirements read more..

  • Page - 707

    Airtight Drywall ApproachThe airtight drywall approach is an air sealing system thatconnects the interior finish of drywall and otherbuildingmaterials together to form acontinuous barrier(actionGoTo:708,Fig. actionGoTo:708,13).The airtight drywall approach hasbeen used on hundredsof houses and has proventobeaneffective technique toreduceair leakage, as well as keep moisture, dust,andinsects from entering the building.In atypical drywall installation, most of the seams aresealed by tape and read more..

  • Page - 708

    Installation TechniquesSlab Floors† Seal expansion joints and penetrations with aconcretesealant, such as one-part urethane caulk.ExteriorFramed Walls† Seal betweenthe bottom plate and subflooring withcaulk or gaskets.† Install gaskets or caulk along the face of the bottomplate so that when drywall is installed, it compressesthe sealant to form an airtight seal against the framing.Some buildersalsocaulk the drywalltothe top plate toreduce leakage intothe wall.† Use drywalljoint read more..

  • Page - 709

    (forces air into) or depressurizes (forces air out of) thebuilding. When the fan operates, it is easy to feel airleaking through cracks in the building envelope. Mostblower doors have gauges which can measurethe relativeleakiness of abuilding (Fig. 15).One measureofabuilding’s leakage rate is air changesper hour (ACH), which estimates how many times in onehour the entire volume of air inside the building leaks tothe outside.For example, ahome that has 2000 square feetof living area and8-foot read more..

  • Page - 710

    problemsassociated with air leakage can be reduced. Thereductionofa building’s total air leakage requiresanoverall strategy coupled with an appreciationofthetechniques and materials required. Proper implementationof these techniques can result in significant reduction in abuilding’s energy consumption coupled with apositiveeconomicpicture.Much attention has been given to the properuse of airinfiltration barriers or housewraps and their success atreducing unwanted infiltration. More read more..

  • Page - 711

    Facility EnergyEfficiencyand Controls: AutomobileTechnologyApplicationsBarney L. CapehartDepartment of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida College ofEngineering, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.Lynne C. CapehartConsultant and Technical Writing Specialist, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractThis article examines the information and control technology used in new vehicles and points out thepotential for using similar information and control technology in new buildings. The read more..

  • Page - 712

    What is the potential for using reliable,comprehensive,integrated, and inexpensive components in new buildingsto create atransparent and efficient information and controlsystem?What should be done in terms of buying newbuildings? Clearly,progress in adaptingand implementingtechnology for new buildings has along way to go.Nonetheless, societies should demand more technology—alot more.Technologicalimprovementsshouldbestandardfeatures that come with everynew buildingwithoutquestionrather than read more..

  • Page - 713

    building or the various rooms in abuilding? Things thatwould be helpful to know include whether the air handlingsystem filters are dirty, whether the refrigerant is at theproperlevel, whether sensors are workingproperly,whether lights are burned out, or whetherthe doors havebeen left open.The present system in buildings is essentially amanualsystem. Filters are checked by maintenance personnel on atime schedule.Maintenanceworkersoften depend on“human” sensors to notify them of burnedout read more..

  • Page - 714

    group of rooms with two to four occupants. The roomsandoffices in buildings do not have monitoring and self-diagnostic features. They could—the technology, equip-ment, and systems exist—but they are not supplied as astandarditem and they are notavailable in the same waythat options available on new cars are.SystemModulesAs discussed above, the system modules are where thecomputer-based systems reside in new cars. These systemmodules are highly complex and highly important systemsin new read more..

  • Page - 715

    moreequipment and processing powertocorrect thesensorreadingfor thenonlinearityand to providetemperature compensation curvestoget accuratereadings.Today, smart sensors are used to provide these functionsand to output data to amicroprocessor or system module.The sensor outputisinput to the microprocessor and thesensorreadingisdigitized,corrected,temperaturecompensated,and sent out over the standardized com-munications bus.These smart sensors interface directly to the communi-cations bus and read more..

  • Page - 716

    buildingsare held hostagetothe lowest first costsyndrome. Thousands of different construction companiesbuild residential and commercial buildings. Hundreds ofdifferentcompanies build fairly large commercialbuildings. These companies range in size from smallbusinesses to major architecturaland engineering firmsand major construction firms. It is extremely difficult toimplement standardsoftechnologywhenthismanyindividual companies are involved.The fact that mostbuildings are site-built read more..

  • Page - 717

    consider the needs of the individuals living and working inthe box. Acar designer should consider safety whendrawing up plans for anew car. Beyond puttinginemergency exits and sprinkler systems, abuilding designermay not think about how to make the building saferbecause that is not part of the job. Among the questionsthat building designersshould be asking are: “Howcanthis building be made more comfortable, safer, and moreuser-friendly?” “How can occupants interact with thisbuilding to read more..

  • Page - 718

    schools, and the hotel/ motel sector. Theauto industry hascertainlyincorporated many of the newtechnologicalfeatures without needing government intervention.Integrate New Building Technology withthe Desktop Computers and BuildingAutomation System that are AlreadyBeing Installed in New BuildingsThetypes of smartsensors, system modules,andstandardized communications buses that the authors havebeen recommending for use in new buildings shouldbeconsidered an integral part of theoverall read more..

  • Page - 719

    DO NEW BUILDINGS NEED “DASHBOARDS”?The dashboard and instrument panel is the heart of thedriver-car interface.Status informationonthe car’soperation is presented there in easily understood form.Asimilar featureina new building would makesense—not the complex human-machine interface(HMI) orgraphicaluser interface (GUI) from aBAS,but asimplified display for average building occupants andmaybe even one for the building engineer or maintenancesupervisor.Eachfloor of read more..

  • Page - 720

    Facility EnergyUse: Analysis*Klaus-Dieter E. PawlikAccenture, St Petersburg, Florida, U.S.A.Lynne C. CapehartConsultant and Technical Writing Specialist, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.Barney L. CapehartDepartment of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida Collegeof Engineering, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractWhen you do an energy audit, you must have agood understanding of how the energy is used by afacility tomake sure that your energy efficiency recommendations are read more..

  • Page - 721

    costly methods of measuring energyuse. We will detail themajor steps of creating and using an energy balance.We start with data collection, explain the method used toreconcile the simulated use with the historical use patterns,anddiscuss useofthe energybalance formakingrecommendations.WHAT IS AN ENERGY BALANCE?We modeled our energy balance after the traditional massandheat balanceapproach of physics andthermo-dynamics. We realized that it was not sufficient to lookat each energy use system at read more..

  • Page - 722

    autilization factor (uf) to account for the actual time ofuse of that equipment. For equipment in constant use,the utilization factor couldbe0.9 to accountfor 10%downtime due to maintenance. Theutilization factorfor equipment in less than constant use is assigned avalue according to the percent of use time estimated byplant personnel. This parameter can be adjusted, ifnecessary,whenrefining the energy balance.† From the name plate of the equipment, you shouldcollect and record the following read more..

  • Page - 723

    LIGHTINGLocation and Equipment nameWFixturesLampsperFixtureEst. hoursper yearlights usedEst. hoursper yeararea usedA/C(Y/N)EstimatedballastfactorkWaKWhbEstimatedAnnualCost ($/yr)cLightingOfficeLighting lineitemConference room,8'fluorescent60222,025500Y1.150.2855954Lobby andhallway,8'fluorescent60422,0252,025Y1.150.551,118108Office lightingsub-total:0.81,677162Saw MillSawmill, 8' fluorescent95722,0252,025N1.151.533,097251Saw shack, incandescent100112,0252,025Y1.000.1020316Head saw, halogen read more..

  • Page - 724

    AIR-CONDITIONINGLocation and Equipment nameTonsunitsSEERdfhoursper yearkWakWhbEstimatedAnnualCost ($/yr)cA/C lineitemScraggerbooth,window unit1381.02,0004.509,000733A/Csub-total:3.08.0Average COP:2.3A/CTOTALS:4.590009,005akW =tons/unit xnumber of unitsx12xdf/SEERbKWh=kWx CDD /dfcEstimated Annual Cost =kWx$/kW/month x12months/yr+ kWhx$/kWhAIRCOMPRESSORSLocation andEquipment NameHP(rated)unitshoursperyearlfufdfEstimatedEfficiencyNumberof BeltskWakWhbEstimatedAnnual Cost($/yr)cAir Compressors line read more..

  • Page - 725

    have to take into account theballast factor forfluorescent lights and HID lamps. If you cannot obtaininformation that is more accurate, you can estimate theballast-energy use factor to be 1.15–1.20, meaningthatthe ballastconsumes 15%–20% energy in addition tothe rated power of the lamp. See the lighting section ofactionGoTo:723,Fig. actionGoTo:723,1: Energy Balance—Electrical Equipment.† Specific process equipment.Sometimesthe facilityprocess will have specialized equipment that should read more..

  • Page - 726

    is organized in this manner, opportunities for improvementmay becomeobvious. Does the lumberyardneed abettermethod for drying wood to keep up with the cuttingoperations? In another example, we visited aplantthat hadmultiplelines performing similar processes. After we hadorganized the equipmentbylines andanalyzedthediversity factor,wefound that their peak load couldbelowered by managing the maintenance and line change-over schedule.It is very helpful to consider the whole process whenyou are read more..

  • Page - 727

    company uses portablecoolers or alarge number ofpersonal fans in the summer for employeecomfort.FaultyUnderstanding of Equipment UsagePossibly, during the plant visit,you did not properly findouthow or when equipmentisused becauseplantpersonnel may not understandits use. Equipmentrunprimarily during offpeak business hours may be aprimesuspect. Forexample, plant personnel may give you faultyinformation about how personnel on shifts, other than hisshift, actually usethe energy-consuming read more..

  • Page - 728

    (or too high), then increase(or decrease) the motor loadfactor slightly for the lightly loaded motors. However, if thetotal kW is significantly higherorlower than the historicaldemand, then you will have to look for someother reason(see actionGoTo:726,Validating actionGoTo:726,Energy actionGoTo:726,Balance actionGoTo:726,with actionGoTo:726,Historical actionGoTo:726,Use above).To change the energy and poweruse for amotor on theenergy balance, you can change the load factor.Adjusting the read more..

  • Page - 729

    v-belts. Separately, theserecommendations showed atotalenergy savings of about 50%, which seemed highlyunlikely. After reviewing our energy balance, we realizedthat these recommendations were not mutually exclusive.Abefore-and-after energy balance showed that the actualsavings from the combined measures was muchless than50%.In another case, we prepared aseries of lightingrecommendations: T-8 lighting, occupancy sensors, photo-sensors, compact fluorescent lighting, and lower wattagehalogen read more..

  • Page - 730

    Facility EnergyUse: BenchmarkingJohn VanGorpPower Monitoring and Control, Schneider Electric, Saanichton, British Columbia, CanadaAbstractEnergy management practices have evolved significantly over the past decade, in many cases borrowingfrom advances in business management methods and information technology. One key aspect of thiscomprehensive approach to energy management is afocus on setting goals and measuring performanceagainst these goals, aprocess that is often referred to as read more..

  • Page - 731

    unit of production. Environmental aspects that might affectthe application of abenchmark include the major use of abuilding, occupancy, and climate.To help illustrate this concept, some normalized energybenchmarks commonly used are:† Building energy consumption: kWh per square foot (orper squaremeter).† Manufacturing energy consumption: kWhper ton ofproduction.Government organizations, such as Energy Star,Natural Resources Canada, and Rebuild America, offerenergy benchmarks for avariety of read more..

  • Page - 732

    † Production data from existing automationsystems.Many manufacturing organizations record productionvolume usingsomeformofinformation system,ranging from process historians in process controlsystems to shipmentdata in materialresource planning(MRP) systems.† Temperature and humidity data.Sources for this datarange from avariety of publications and online weatherservices and to on-site weatherstations.Electricity and natural gasare the mostcommon formsof energy monitored in benchmarking read more..

  • Page - 733

    also enters the total floor space for each of the fivebuildings.† Select an appropriate referencebenchmark.Theenergy manager decides to use reference benchmarkvalues from the “Benchmarking Your Facilities forGreater Success” document from Rebuild America.[4]This document provides electrical energy consumptionbenchmarks for avariety of building types, based ondata from aU.S. Department of Energy studyin1999.The energy manager decides to use the median annualbenchmark valuefor office read more..

  • Page - 734

    continuous basis as part of acomprehensiveenergymanagement program.Energy benchmarks can provide avaluablesummary of the performance of avariety ofenergy systemsused throughout an organization. Differentinformation users within an organization can be given theenergy data they need in amanner that will help themsupportkey energy management goals. Energy bench-marks can also be supportedwith additional drill-downdetails that help experts use the information to understandthe drivers behind changes read more..

  • Page - 735

    Design Information ViewsThere are avarietyofways to display energy benchmarkinformation and detailed data. Some example informationviews include:† Energy benchmarks in atable.A table is often the bestway to organize and display detailed energy bench-mark values. Atable might be used to show specificbenchmarkvalues for different buildings, tenants, ordepartments. If an energy management plan outlinestargeted reductions in consumption over sometimespan, atable couldbeused to show the yearly read more..

  • Page - 736

    effort will focus on detecting and understanding changesinenergy consumption. The goal of most energy manage-ment programs is to first understand and then controlenergy consumption. The creation of energy benchmarksand baseline consumption profiles are key first stepstowards understandingenergy consumption. Control ofenergy consumption is driven by ongoing energy dataanalysis andtakingthe stepsnecessarytogainanunderstanding of how internal and externaldrivers areinfluencing consumption read more..

  • Page - 737

    Unexpected changesshould be investigated todeterminethe cause.Finally, agreater understandingofenergy systembehavior can be achieved by creating information viewsthat compare different measurements to one another. Someexamples of comparison information views include thefollowing:† Compareenergysystems:A common measurement(such as energyconsumption) or benchmarkfordifferent energy systemsisplaced in achart or tablefor comparison. actionGoTo:734,Fig. actionGoTo:734,2 isanexample of such read more..

  • Page - 738

    vendor’s services group to confirm the setback configu-ration and schedule training for the maintenance staff.CONCLUSIONEnergy management practices have evolved significantlyover the past decade, in many casesborrowing fromadvances in business management methods and infor-mation technology. In the past, there was agreater focuson equipment technology and lessconsideration of themanagement frameworkrequired to set andtrackperformance against goals. Modern energy managementpractices read more..

  • Page - 739

    Facility PowerDistribution SystemsPaul L. VilleneuveUniversity of Maine, Orono, Maine, U.S.AbstractFacility power distribution systems are very diverse. This diversity stems from avariety of items. Designcode changes have resulted in evolving distribution system requirements. Furthermore, the owners andoperators of the facilities have avaried set of concerns (financial, capacity, safety, etc.) that are to beincorporated into apower distribution system’s design. Finally, adesigner’s read more..

  • Page - 740

    The neutral conductor is formed from the configuration oftheutility’s incomingthree-phase transformer.Thetransformer can be configured in adelta or wyearrangement. The terms delta or wye comefrom the factthat the wye configuration looks likethe letter Yand thedelta configuration looks like the greekletter D.Fig. 1shows how incoming power sources can be configured as awye or adelta.As showninthe figure, the center point of the wyeconnection can be physically accessed.Thisisthe read more..

  • Page - 741

    accessible and monitored.Since the delta configurationhas no neutral, aspecial configuration must be employed.GENERAL SYSTEMDESIGN GUIDELINESGroundingGrounding is the most important factor when designing afacility’spower distribution system. Goodgroundingresults in high personnel safety, limits noise affects, andextends equipment life. Although grounding seems like astraightforwarddesign consideration, there are anumberof issues that makegrounding somewhat of an art. In fact,there are read more..

  • Page - 742

    (i.e., they mustall be 500 MCMcopper). Secondly, thecorresponding number of conductors from the otherphasesmust be routed in the sameraceway. This is due to the factthe currentswill be induced in the raceway unless themagneticfields resultingfromthe currentflow arecancelled out.Additionally, the phase conductors have an insulationcovering to prevent faults to ground.The heat generated inthe conductor as aresult of current flowmust be dissipatedthrough the insulation to the surrounding read more..

  • Page - 743

    likelythat the motor has jammed. In either case, theprimary difference betweenthe jam and the fault conditionis that the system reacts in ashort time for sustainedcurrents at theinrushlevel that existlonger thananticipated or trips instantaneouslyfor currents abovethe inrush level. As aresult, manyfacility distributionprotection systemsare equipped with devices that monitorand isolate systems under the instantaneous and short-timeconditions.In addition to the two conditions previously read more..

  • Page - 744

    initial current surge as most protectivedevices cannotoperate fast enough to detect the fault and then operate tointerrupt the fault. In fact, many protectivedevices arerated for 3-cycle or 5-cycle operation which indicates theamount of time it takes for the device to operate.For fuse-type protectivedevices, fault interruption istypicallyaccomplished by ametallic element that meltsdue to the excessive heating causedbythe large currentflow. As aresult, fuses can operate extremelyfast. In read more..

  • Page - 745

    OTHER FACILITY CONSIDERATIONSTransformer RatingsSpecifying transformer parameters is another key concernfor power system designers. The mostimportant parameteris to specify the correct turns ratios so that properlevelsareachieved. Typically, thedesigner will includetransformer taps that can be adjustedwhenthe transformeris de-energized. These taps allow periodicchangesinsupplyvoltagesorloadsand still provide approximatenominal voltages.Another important parameter to specify is the continu-ous read more..

  • Page - 746

    frequencyorvariablespeed drives has enhanced systemefficiency. These drives operate by either adjusting thefrequencyorvoltage of the powersupplysource. Amajordisadvantage of thesedrives is that they tend to create anon-sinusoidaloutputwaveform. This results in harmonicsthat can cause equipment damage. Newer drive topologiesutilize ahighernumber of pulses to create amoresinusoidal outputwaveform. Some drives still requireisolation transformers to keep theharmonics fromtraveling back to the read more..

  • Page - 747

    Federal EnergyManagement Program (FEMP): Operations andMaintenance Best Practices Guide (O&M BPG)*GregoryP.SullivanBattelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,U.S. Department of Energy,Richland,Washington, U.S.A.W. David HuntPacific Northwest National Laboratory,Washington, D.C., U.S.A.Ab ReamU.S. Department of Energy,Washington, D.C., U.S.A.AbstractThe Federal Energy Management Program’s (FEMP’S) Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide(O&M BPG) highlights O&M read more..

  • Page - 748

    or inoperable controls,and otherlosses from poormaintenance are often considerable. Good maintenancepractices can generatesubstantialenergy savings andshould be considered aresource. Moreover, improvementsto facility maintenance programs can often be accom-plished immediately and at arelatively low cost.The purpose of the O&M BPG is to provide theoperationand maintenance/energymanager and prac-titioner with useful information about O&M management,technologies, and read more..

  • Page - 749

    While these elements (operations, maintenance, engin-eering, training, and administration) form the basis for asolid O&M organization, the key lies in the well-definedfunctions each brings and the linkagesbetweenorganiz-ations. Asubsetofthe roles and responsibilities for each ofthe elements is presented in the guide; further informationis found in Meador.[2]Obtain Management SupportFederal O&M managersneed to obtain full supportfromtheir management structure to carry out an read more..

  • Page - 750

    services. TheO&M BPG explores this trend further andoffersguidance on O&M contracting.COMPUTERIZED MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENTSYSTEMS (CHAPTER4)Acomputerizedmaintenance management system(CMMS) is atype of management software that performsfunctions in supportofmanagement and tracking of O&Mactivities. CMMS systems automate mostofthe logisticalfunctions performed by maintenancestaff and manage-ment. CMMS systems comewith manyoptions and havemany advantages over manual read more..

  • Page - 751

    DefinitionsThere are anumber of commissioning approaches that canbe applied to building mechanical/electrical equipmentand systems.New building commissioning:New building commis-sioning (Cx) is ameans to ensure through design reviews,functional testing, system documentation, and operatortraining that systems and equipment in new buildings areoperating properly.Re-commissioning:Re-commissioning (RCx), which issometimes referred to as “retro-commissioning,”isthepractice of read more..

  • Page - 752

    Step 2: Investigation.Duringthisstep thesiteassessment is completed, monitoring and functional testplansare developedand executed, test results areanalyzed,a masterlist of deficiencies is compiled, andrecommendations for improvements, including estimatesof energy and cost savings, are generated and presented forconsideration.Step 3: Implementation.Accepted recommendationsfrom the investigation step are put intoplace in theimplementation step. Actions include making repairs read more..

  • Page - 753

    Steps in Meter PlanningThe development of afederal metering program is highlydependant on asite’s needs, existing metering equipment,and available infrastructure. When it comes to metering,one sizedoes not fit all.Below are some very generalguidelines identifying the steps and actions necessary for aquality metering program. These guidelines summarizeinformation found in AEC;[9] EPRI;[10] and Sydlowski,[8]where more detailed information can be found.† Formalize objectives and read more..

  • Page - 754

    CONCLUSIONSAs FEMP’s O&M program has matured, the O&M BPGhasprovidedvaluable guidancetofederal buildingmanagers, O&M program managers, andbuildingoperations staffs. This guidance provides astarting pointforestablishingclear objectivesand understandingbenefits. It also can be used to (1) establish an effectivelong-range plan that involvesall O&M-related stafffunctions, (2) measureexisting program performance,(3) review and upgrade existing practices,and (4) plan forthe future. read more..

  • Page - 755

    Fossil Fuel Combustion: Air Pollution and Global Warming*Dan GolombDepartment of Environmental, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Massachusetts—Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts, U.S.A.AbstractCurrently, fossil fuels supply about 86% of the global primary energy consumption for transportation,industrial, commercial and residential uses. Due to the combustion of fossil fuels, copious quantities ofpollutants are emitted into the air, which impact the local, regional and global air read more..

  • Page - 756

    lodged deep in the alveoli of the lungs, and hence aredetrimental to our health, whereas the larger particlesarefilteredout in the upper respiratory tract.While there is astandardfor leadconcentrations in the air,this pollutant isno longerroutinely monitored. With the phasing out ofleaded gasolineinthe 1970s, lead concentrations in the airsteadily declined, and allegedly, in the United States,airbornelead no longer poses ahealth hazard. (Ofcourse,leadinits otherforms,suchasinpaint, read more..

  • Page - 757

    of the new PM2.5 standard, new sources may be required toinstallinsteadofanESP aFabric Filter (FF), alsocalled abag house. TheFFconsists of aporous fabric or fiberglassmembrane that filters outefficiently the smallest particles,albeit at an increased cost and energy penalty comparedtothe ESP. The detailed description of the workings of theseemission control technologies is beyond the scope of thisarticle; the reader is referred to the excellent handbooks onthe subject.[1,2]Table 3lists the read more..

  • Page - 758

    POLLUTANT TRANSPORTAND DISPERSIONWhen air pollutantsexit asmoke stack or exhaustpipe(called the sources), they are transported by winds anddispersed by turbulent diffusion. Winds blow from highpressure towardlow-pressure cells at speeds that dependon the pressure gradient. Becauseofthe Coriolis force,wind trajectories are curvilinear in reference to fixed earthcoordinates, although within arelatively short (few to tensof km) distance, wind trajectories can be approximated aslinear. Winds have read more..

  • Page - 759

    Air QualityModelingThe estimation of ambientpollutant concentrations inspace and time due to emissions of single or multiplesources is called air quality modeling (AQM), or source–receptor modeling (SRM). The basic ingredients of AQMare the emission strengths of the sources, meteorologicalconditions, and solar irradiation. Air quality models are ofthe trajectory-type,where the coordinate system movestogether with theplume of pollutants,orgrid-type,where the coordinate system is fixed over an read more..

  • Page - 760

    is emitted because of fossil fuel combustion. Apart of NOxis the NO2 molecule, which splits(photo-dissociates) bysolar ultraviolet and blue photons into NO and atomicoxygen. The photo-dissociationrate is dependent on solarirradiation, which,inturn, is dependent on latitude,season, time of day, and cloudiness. Atomic oxygencombineswith molecular oxygen to form O3.The NO thatis formed in the photo-dissociation is quickly re-oxidizedinto NO2 by peroxy radicals, RO2,present in the read more..

  • Page - 761

    concentrations over urban-industrialcontinents haveimprovedonlyslightly,ifatall.Inlessdevelopedcountries that do not have the means of controllingphoto-oxidant precursors, their concentrations are on asteady increase.GLOBAL WARMINGOf all environmental effects of fossil fuel usage, globalwarming, including itsconcomitant climate change,isthemost perplexing, potentially most threatening, andarguably mostintractable problem. It is causedbytheever-increasing accumulation in the atmosphere of read more..

  • Page - 762

    due to anthropogenic influences,the albedo may changeover time. The remaining70% of solarirradiation heatstheearth’ssurface,land,and oceans. Currently, the globalaverage surface temperature is 288 K(about 158C). Abody (the so-called black body) that is heated to 288 Kradiates 390 W/m2.The earth’s surface radiation occurs inthe far IR. This is calledearth shine. Apart of the earthshine is reflected back to the earth’s surface by clouds andaerosols; another part is first absorbed by read more..

  • Page - 763

    ocean surface waters. Combining all three factors, it isestimated that by the end of the next century, the averagesea levelmay be 30–50 cm higherthan it is today. This canseriously affect low-lying coastal areas, such as TheNetherlands in Europe,Bangladesh in Asia, and low-lyingislands in the Pacific and other oceans.[8]Climate ChangesPredicting globaland regional climatic changes because ofaverage surface temperature riseisextremely difficult andfraught with uncertainties. It is expected read more..

  • Page - 764

    usage; however, they are emitted inadvertently fromenergy using devices, such as refrigerators, air condi-tioners, chillers, and heat pumps. Current concentrationsof the various CFCs are about 0.5 parts per billion byvolume(ppbv), andtheir concentrations are slowlydeclining due to the phase-out of production of CFCs.What Can be Done about Global WarmingGlobal warming could be lessenedbyreducing signi-ficantly the emissions of GHGs into the atmosphere. MostGHG emissions are aconsequence of read more..

  • Page - 765

    their larger cost compared to fossil energy, asubstantialshift to these energy sources cannot be expected in the nearfuture.None of these options can prevent global warming byitself. They have to be taken in combination and on anincremental basis, starting with the least expensive onesand progressing to the more expensive ones. Even if thepredictions of globalclimatechange were to turn outexaggerated, the fact that fossil fuel usage entails manyotherenvironmental and health effects, and the read more..

  • Page - 766

    Fuel Cells: Intermediate and High TemperatureXianguo LiGholamreza KarimiDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, CanadaAbstractThis entry provides an overview of intermediate- and high-temperature fuel cells, including phosphoricacid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells. For each of them, abrief description isgiven of their operational characteristics, acceptable contamination levels, major technical barriers read more..

  • Page - 767

    higheratanoperating temperature above 1808C. However,removal of sulfur is still essential. Further, the PAFCdemonstrates an inferior performance,primarily due to theslow oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode. Therefore,the PAFC is typicallyoperatedata higher temperature(near2008C) for better electrochemical reactivity andsmaller internal resistance, due mainlytothe phosphoricacid electrolyte. As aresult, PAFC exhibits the problemsof both high- and low-temperature fuel cells, and perhapsnone read more..

  • Page - 768

    cathode isAnode :H2 C CO2K3Z H2O C CO2 C 2eKCathode :12O2 C CO2 C 2eK Z CO2K3and the net cell reaction isH2 C12O2 Z H2O:Besides the hydrogen oxidation reaction at the anode,other fuel gases (such as carbon monoxide,methane, andhigher hydrocarbons) are alsooxidized by conversion tohydrogen. Although direct electrochemical oxidation ofcarbon monoxide is possible, it occurs very slowlycomparedtothat of hydrogen. Therefore, the oxidationof carbon monoxide is mainly via the water–gas read more..

  • Page - 769

    Poisoning of the reforming catalyst occurswithin directinternal reformingMCFCs. It is causedbythe evaporationof the electrolyte from the cellcomponents, condensationon the catalyst (which is the coldest spot in the cell), andliquid creep within the cell.Technological StatusMolten carbonatefuel cell technology is in the firstdemonstrationphase,under productdevelopment withfull-scale systemsatthe 250 kW–2 MW range. The short-term goal is to reacha lifetime of 25,000 h, and theultimatetarget is read more..

  • Page - 770

    With the cathode reaction remainingthe same, the cellreaction becomesCOðgÞ C12O2ðgÞ Z CO2ðgÞ:If the fuel stream containsboth hydrogen and carbonmonoxide, as is the case for hydrocarbon reformed gasmixtures—especially from the gasification of coal—theoxidationofhydrogenand carbon monoxide occurssimultaneously at the anode, and the combined anodereaction becomesAnode :aH2ðgÞ C bCO C ða C bÞO2KZ aH2OðgÞ C bCO2 C 2ða C bÞeKConsequently, the corresponding cathode and overall read more..

  • Page - 771

    materials for both the cathode and anode, which have agood thermal expansion match with the electrolyte usedand good electrical conductivity to reduce the ohmicpolarization that dominates the SOFC voltage losses.Another focus of current development is the intermedi-ate-temperatureSOFCs, operating at around 8008Cforbetter matching with the bottoming turbine cycles andlessening requirements for the cell component materials.Again, appropriate materials with adequate electricalconductivity are the read more..

  • Page - 772

    (e.g., heavy-duty transporttrucks),although this appli-cation is still in its early stage.CONCLUDINGREMARKSAsummary of the precedingdescription of the three majortypes of intermediate- and high-temperature fuel cells—namely,the phosphoric acid,moltencarbonate, andSOFCs—is provided in actionGoTo:771,Table actionGoTo:771,1, including operationalcharacteristics and technological status.Phosphoric acidfuel cells are the most commerciallydeveloped fuel cells operating at intermediate read more..

  • Page - 773

    Fuel Cells: LowTemperatureXianguo LiDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, CanadaAbstractThis entry provides an overview of low-temperature fuel cells, including alkaline fuel cells, protonexchange membrane fuel cells, and direct methanol fuel cells. For each of them, abrief description is givenof theiroperationalcharacteristics,acceptablecontamination levels,major technical barriers tocommercialization, technological status, economics, and major read more..

  • Page - 774

    have potential applications in transportation because oftheir low operating temperatures. Consequently, they haveavery short startup period, consisting of only afewminutes. These types of fuel cells are discussed in the firstentry, under the title “Low Temperature Fuel Cells.”Meanwhile, phosphoric acid,molten carbonate, andSOFCsproducing high-temperature heat are morecomplextorun andare better suited forstationaryapplications like combined heat and powergeneration(CHP). Thefuel cells in read more..

  • Page - 775

    † Technical University, Graz,Austria:planning aninvestigation of degradation effects† Zevco, London, England: demonstrationofAFCs formobileapplications, particularlyfor buswith ELEN-CO’s technologyThefollowing is alistofsomeselected technicalapplications and demonstration projects for AFCsinEurope in recent years:† Space applications—AFC system for theEuropean spaceshuttleHERMES (Siemens, ELENCO,VARTA/GHK)—Bipolar matrixAFC system Photon (Ural Electro-chemical Integrated Plant)† read more..

  • Page - 776

    Claims have been madeofsuccessful resolutionofcarbon dioxide poisoning in the AFCs, especially in utilityapplications. Some optimisticestimates indicatethat AFCstack costs are similar to all other low-temperature fuelcell systems. Production costs for the AFC systems seemto be the lowest. Aprice of approximately$400–$500/kWU.S. has been quoted by using present-day technologiesand knowledge in large-scale production. However, small-scale commercial production cost is estimated to be five toten read more..

  • Page - 777

    H2 C 1⁄2 O2 Z H2O C Heat GeneratedC Electric Energy:The current PEMFCsuse perfluorinatedsulfonicacidmembrane (almost exclusively Nafion) as the proton-conducting electrolyte;carbon paper or cloth as the anodeand cathode backing layers; and platinumorits alloys,either pure or supportedoncarbon black, as the catalyst.The bipolar plate with the reactant gas flow fields is oftenmadeofgraphite plate. The stoichiometry is between1.1and 1.2 for the fuel, and 2for the oxidant (oxygen). ThePEMFCs read more..

  • Page - 778

    Technological StatusProton exchange membrane fuel cells have achieved ahigh powerdensity of over 1kW/kg and 1.0 kW/Lforthe stack—perhaps the highest among all typesoffuelcells currently under development. It is alsoprojectedthat the power density may be further improved, tobetween2 and 3kW/L,with unitized metallic (stainlesssteel) bipolar plates.The capital cost varies from themost optimistic estimate of $1500/kW U.S. to the mostpessimistic estimate of $50,000/kW U.S. at the currenttechnology, read more..

  • Page - 779

    gas and steam turbines boast energy efficiency approach-ing 60% (LHV),with avery low capitalcost of $1000/kWU.S. Therefore, the best possibleapplication of PEMFCsystems is to use them in remoteregions, as well as forcombined heat andpower application in residentialsectors.In addition, NASA is testing the feasibility of usingPEMFC power systems for its space programs(mainlyspace-shuttle missions) in place of its three current 12 kWAFC powermodules. As discussedinthe AFCs section,NASAismotivated read more..

  • Page - 780

    production of undesirablepollutants such as carbonmonoxide. The addition of areformer also increasesresponse time.Therefore, direct oxidation of methanol is an attractivealternative in light of its simplicity. The DMFCs utilizing aproton exchange membrane (PEM) have the capability ofefficient heat removal and thermal control through thecirculating liquid, as well as eliminationofthe humidi-fication required to prevent membrane dryout. These twocharacteristics have to be accounted for in both read more..

  • Page - 781

    around908C; the operating pressure ranges from one toseveral atmospheres; and methanol is fed to the cell inliquid form (the so-called liquid-feed DMFCs). Vapor-feed DMFCs have also been considered that operate above1008C—thenheat mustbeneeded to vaporize methanolbefore feeding into the cell because methanol under theroom condition is in liquid form.Acceptable Contamination LevelsThe system is extremelysensitive to CO and hydrogensulfide(H2S). Carbon monoxide may exist as one of thereaction read more..

  • Page - 782

    new membrane with low methanol crossover is akey to thesuccess of DMFCs.Such alow methanol crossover membrane hasanumber of advantages. First, it reduces the methanolcrossover,enhancing fuel utilization and increasing energyefficiency.Second,itreduces theamountofwaterproduced at the cathode, leading to alower activationand concentration polarization, and allowing for ahighercell voltage at the sameoperating current.Third, it allowsfor higher methanol concentration in the fuel stream,resulting read more..

  • Page - 783

    ApplicationsDirectmethanol fuel cells offer apotential for high powerdensity and cold-start capabilities, aconvenience foronboardfuel storage,and compatibility with existingrefueling infrastructure. Therefore, DMFCs are the mostattractive for applications in which storage or generationof hydrogen requires significant effort and has anegativeimpact on the volume and weight of the system.Asaresult, DMFCs have great potential for portableandtransportation applications, including small read more..

  • Page - 784

    Geothermal EnergyResourcesIbrahim DincerFaculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology(UOIT), Oshawa, Ontario, CanadaArif HepbasliDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University,Izmir,TurkeyLeyla OzgenerDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Celal BayarUniversity,Manisa, TurkeyAbstractThis article presents some historical background on geothermal energy resources and their applications, anddiscusses some technical, energetic, read more..

  • Page - 785

    12.9% annually. The total annual geothermal energyutilization became 261,418 TJ (72,622GWh), almost a40% increaseover the 2000data, growingata compoundrate of 6.5% annually. During the past ten years, theinstalled capacity has increased by 12.4%/year and the usehas increased by 8.8%/year. The countries with the largestinstalled capacity and annual energy use are the UnitedStates, Sweden, China, Iceland,and Turkey,accountingfor about 66% of the installed capacity and 60% of theannual energy read more..

  • Page - 786

    In summary, while geothermal energy is generallyconsidered anonpolluting energy source, water fromgeothermal fields may often contain someamounts ofhydrogen sulfideand dissolved metals, making its disposaldifficult. That is why depending on the location and area, acareful treatment is required.Here, actionGoTo:787,Table actionGoTo:787,2 presents asummary of the types ofgeothermal resources, reservoirs temperatures, reservoirsfluids,applications, and systems.GEOTHERMAL ENERGY AND read more..

  • Page - 787

    conductedthrough cost-shared agreements andfalls within the short-to-medium term. Partnersintheseactivities should include avarietyofstakeholders in the energy industry, such as privatesector firms, utilities across the country, provincialgovernments, and other federal departments.2. Technology Assessment:Appropriate technicaldata shouldbegathered in the lab and throughfield trials on factorssuch as cost benefit,relia-bility, environmental impact, safety, and opportu-nities for improvement. read more..

  • Page - 788

    is important for achieving sustainability in the energysectors in both developing and industrialized countries.Geothermal energy can be akey component forsustainable development for three main reasons, as follows:† Theymay generally cause environmental impactmuch lessthan other energy resources. The variety ofgeothermal energy applications provides aflexible arrayof optionsfor their use.† They are considered renewable,and such energyresources can provide areliable and sustainablesupplyof read more..

  • Page - 789

    For ageneral steady-state, steady-flowprocess, thegeneral energy and exergy balance equations can also bewritten more explicitly as_Q C S _minhin Z _W C S _mouthoutð4ÞandS 1 KT0Ts_Qs C S _minðhin K T0sinÞ C _ExdZ _W C S _moutðhout K T0soutÞð5ÞWe cangenerally definethe energy andexergyefficiencies as followsh Z_Enet_Etotð6Þand:j Z_Exnet_Extotð7ÞFor further details of the energy and exergy analysis, seeDincer and Rosen.[12]In addition to the above analysis, several read more..

  • Page - 790

    standard-state values, such as 1atm and 258C. However,these properties may be specified differently depending onthe application. T0 and P0 might be takenasthe averageambienttemperature and pressure,respectively, for thelocation at which the system under consideration operates.Or, if the system uses atmospheric air, T0 might bespecified as the average air temperature. If both air andwater from the natural surroundingsare used, T0 would bespecified as the lower of the average temperatures for read more..

  • Page - 791

    Geothermal fluid collected from the four production wellsat an average well heat temperature of 95.58Cispumped tothe inlet of the heat exchanger mixingtank later amaincollector (from four production wells) with atotal massflow rate of about 47.62 kg/s. Geothermal fluidofintermingling molecules of differentspeciesthroughmolecular diffusion was neglected in thisstudy. As aresult, not only irreversibility of the mixingtank wasassumed equal to zero,but also heat losses from the tankand main read more..

  • Page - 792

    some technical,economical, environmental, and sustain-abilityaspects of geothermal energyhavebeendiscussed, and performanceevaluations tools in termsof energyand exergy analyses for such geothermalenergy systems have been outlined. Acase study hasalso been presented to highlight the importance of exergyuse as apotential tool for system analysis, design, andimprovement.REFERENCES1. Bullard, E. Basic Theories, (Geothermal Energy; Review ofResearch and Development);UNESCO: Paris, 1973.2. Lund, J.W. read more..

  • Page - 793

    Geothermal Heat Pump SystemsGreg TinklerRLB Consulting Engineers, Houston, Texas, U.S.A.AbstractGeothermal heat exchanger technology is the most efficient method of heating, cooling, or refrigerating anyenclosure that can be conditioned. The earth’s thermal mass has an almost-endless capacity to absorb andstore heat. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) first became well known in the energy crises of the 1970s in theUnited States; they had been used in Europe for many years before that. Since then, read more..

  • Page - 794

    conditioning systemswith only resistiveloads. With heat,1kWZ3412.83 Btu. Kilowatts are aunit of flow and not aunit of volume. Volume is usually expressedinkilowattper hour. In European and othercountries, the termkilowatt is used to express the amount of heat that thecooling system or heating system can move.Coefficient of performance(COP) is arelationship ofwatts-outtowatts-inorkilowatts-out divided by kilowatts-in. Receiving 4kWofheat from amachine by buying1kWofenergy from the electricplant read more..

  • Page - 795

    The GHP system’s COPZ4.5whena conventional gasfurnace has aCOP of 0.8.Cooling ModeTo produce4 kW (1.1 ton) of cooling in abuilding, theGHP system uses 1kWofelectricity to reject 5kW(1.7 kBtu/h) in the earth (Fig. 2).½4 Z 1 C ðK5ÞThe GHP system hasanEER of 14 when aconventionalair conditioner (air-cooled) system wouldhave an EERof 9.[1]Example System 2An environmental benefit of aGHP system is GHGemission reduction. To illustrate thisbenefit, consider a350-ton HVAC retrofit project in read more..

  • Page - 796

    † System life.According to ASHRAE, geothermalcooling and heating indoorequipment has aratedequipmentlife of more than 25 years. The exteriorportion of the system—the underground loop field—has arated materials life of more than 100 years.[4]TYPES OF EARTHHEAT EXCHANGERSThe term geothermal usually applies to the technology ofusing water source heat pumps(extendedrange)connectedto athermal mass. The mostwidely used form is composedof several vertical boreholes, tied in parallel, that read more..

  • Page - 797

    geothermal system. Investigation should also be per-formed for localregulations that will impact the project.Sources of information about these systems can be foundthrough the local utilitycompanies, the InternationalGround Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA), theGeothermal Heat Pump Consortium (GHPC),and ASH-RAE, to namejust afew.These systemshave existedinEurope for manyyears,with significant research being done by Lund University inSweden. In the United States, researchhas been performedby read more..

  • Page - 798

    example, the cooling performanceisgoing to be verygood.Onthe otherhand, if adeep-earth averagetemperature is 708F, heating will produce better results.The thermal conductivity of the soils on each particularsite will determine how fast heat moves through thoseparticularsoils in that particular borehole. Remember thatthe soil can vary widely from one site to the next and fromone borehole to another, even at the samejob site. There isno rule of thumb here, and it would be ill advised to try read more..

  • Page - 799

    profileindicates ahigh degree of diversity within the useof the facility.One final factor in the design of the piping system is toremember that—asinany hydronic system—airisitsworst enemy. These systems must be designed with purgeand flush ports. These ports are aset of valves teedinto thesystem to allow an external pump to be attached to thepipe.The minimum flow rate of the external pump mustachieve a2 ft/min flush rate to remove all air from thesystem. It is recommended that afill read more..

  • Page - 800

    Global Climate ChangeAmanda StaudtBoard on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, TheNational Academies, Washington, D.C.,U.S.A.Nathan E. HultmanScience, Technology,and International Affairs, GeorgetownUniversity,Washington, D.C.,U.S.A.AbstractThe global-mean temperature at Earth’s surface has increased by about 0.68C(1.18F) over the past century.Most of this warming is due to the excess greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere by human activitiessuch as fossil fuel use, agriculture practices, read more..

  • Page - 801

    Although we do not normally think of it as aradiativebody, Earth—like all bodieswith anonzero temperature—emitselectromagnetic radiation. For Earth’s temperature,mostofthis radiation is in the form of infrared light. In theabsence of an atmosphere,all the radiation emittedbyEarth would escape to space. The balance of incomingsolar radiation and outgoing infrared radiation wouldresult in aglobal-mean temperature for Earth of 255 K(K188C/08F).However, some moleculesinEarth’satmosphere read more..

  • Page - 802

    longer.[3] Earth’s surface is warmer now on average than itwas at any time during the past 400 years, and it is likelywarmer now than it was at any time in the past 2000years.[4]CLIMATEFORCINGS AND FEEDBACKSFactors that affect climatechange are usefully separatedinto forcingsand feedbacks.Climate forcingsare energyimbalances imposed on theclimate system eitherexternally or by humanactivities.[5] Examples includehuman-caused emissions of greenhouse gases,asdis-cussed in the preceding section, read more..

  • Page - 803

    is of order 0.2 WmK2,although recent analyses have foundlittle secular trend in solarirradianceover the past 30years.[7] Knowledge of solar irradiancevariationsprior to1979 is less certain, as it reliesupon models of how sunspotand facular influences relate to solar irradiance observedsincethen. These models are used to extrapolate variationsback to about 1610, when telescopes were first used tomonitor sunspots. The amount of energy Earth receivesfrom the Sun alsodependsonEarth’s distance read more..

  • Page - 804

    reference gas, CO2 has aGWP of 1, by definition. Over atime horizon of 100 years, CH4 and N2Ohave GWPs of 23and 296, respectively. In otherwords, 1additional kg ofCH4 in the atmosphere absorbs as much radiation as 23additional kg of CO2.However, these numbers change ifthe time horizon shifts.[10] By allowing greenhouse gasesto be compared directly, GWPsenablepolicies that canreduce total climate impact by addressing the least-costabatement options first.[11,12]Atmospheric read more..

  • Page - 805

    ice.[5] These effects are not yet well characterized orquantified.EVIDENCE OF HUMAN-INDUCEDCLIMATE CHANGEBecausewedonot have a“control Earth” against which tocompare the effects of our current changing atmosphere,incontrovertibly linkinghuman activities and observedclimate change is difficult. Scientists therefore rely onmultiple,overlapping evidenceofchanges andthencompare observed patternsofchange with what ourscientific understandingindicates shouldhappen underanthropogenic read more..

  • Page - 806

    Northern Hemisphere has decreased by about 10%–15%since the 1950s. The shrinking of mountain glaciers inmany nonpolar regions has also been observed during the20th Century.ATTRIBUTION OF OBSERVED CLIMATECHANGE TO HUMANINFLUENCEAn important question in globalclimate change is to whatextent the observed changesare causedbythe emissions ofgreenhouse gases and otherhuman activities. Climatemodels are used to studyhow the climateoperates today,how it may have functioned differently in the read more..

  • Page - 807

    physical processes, modelrepresentations of the processes,or in some cases the observations themselves. Hence,climate models contain our accumulated wisdom about theunderlying scientific processesand can be no better thanour observations of the system and our understanding ofthe climate.Fig. 7shows how scientists have used climate models tomakethe case that human activities have perturbed theclimate since preindustrial times. In this experiment,themodelisrun with three different sets of read more..

  • Page - 808

    nature of the variations, providing evidence that humanactivities have causeda significant fraction of warming inthe past 150 years.[10]PROJECTIONS FOR FUTURECLIMATE CHANGEThe IPCC has concluded that by 2100, globalsurfacetemperatures will likely be from 1.4 to 5.88C(2.58F–10.48F) above 1990 levels (Fig. 8) and that the combinedeffects of ice melting and seawater expansion from oceanwarming will cause the global-mean sea level to rise bybetween0.1 and 0.9 m.[10] Uncertainties remain about read more..

  • Page - 809

    Nevertheless,they are nontrivial threatsand representactive areas of current research.Unfortunately,the regions that will be mostseverelyaffected are often the regions that are the least able toadapt.Bangladesh,one of the poorest nations in the world,is projected to lose 17.5% of its land if sea level rises about1m (40 in.), displacing tens of thousands of people.[10]Several islands throughout the South Pacific and IndianOceans will be at similar risk for increased read more..

  • Page - 810

    17. Kabat, P., Claussen, M., Dirmeyer, P.A. et al., Eds.;Vegetation, Water, Humans and the Climate—A NewPerspective on an Interactive System,Springer: Berlin, 2004.18. NRC (National Research Council). Reconciling Obser-vations of Global Temperature Change;National AcademyPress: Washington, DC, 2000.19. Mears, C.A.; Wentz, F.J. The effect of diurnal correction onsatellite-derived lower tropospheric temperature. Science2005, 309,1548–1551.20. Sherwood, S.C.; Lanzante, J.R.; Meyer, C.L. read more..

  • Page - 811

    Green EnergyIbrahim DincerFaculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology(UOIT), Oshawa, Ontario, CanadaAdnan MidilliDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Nigde University,Nigde, TurkeyAbstractThis book contribution discusses green energy for sustainable development and presents some keyparameters and strategies to increase green-energy-based sustainability and the global peace level. Theeffects of technological, sectoral, and read more..

  • Page - 812

    issues relating to greenenergy, the environment,andsustainable development are examined from both currentand future perspectives. The specificobjectives of thisbook contribution can be enumerated as follows:† To help understand the main concepts and issues aboutgreen energy use and sustainability aspects† To develop relationships between greenenergy use andsustainability development† To encourage the strategicuse and conservation ofgreen energy sources† To provide methods for energy read more..

  • Page - 813

    outcome, global stability will probably decrease. Thiseffect is presented as flow chart in Fig. 2. Forinstance,shortagesoffossil fuel reserves and global environmentalproblems will likelylead to global unrest throughout theworld. As aresult, local, regional, and world conflicts mayappearacross the world.To further supportthese arguments, the observed andpredicted consumptions of world primary energy, fossilfuels, and green energy from 1965 to 2050 are displayed inactionGoTo:814,Fig. read more..

  • Page - 814

    For world greenenergy consumption :WGEC Z 29:956 ! Y K 58715 ðR2 Z 0:9985Þð3ÞHere, WPEC is world primary energy consumption(Mtoe);WFFC,world fossil fuel consumption (Mtoe);WGEC, world green energy consumption; Y is time (years);and R is the correlation coefficient.Energy shortageswill accelerate the fluctuations ofenergy prices and economic recessions and decrease livingstandardsand increase theunrestamong countries.Decreased available fossil fuel reserves and increasedfuel costs since the read more..

  • Page - 815

    greenenergy resourcesare inherently clean, there is such adiversity of choices that ashift to renewables carriedout inthe context of sustainable development couldprovide afarcleaner system than would be feasible by tighteningcontrols on conventional energy.[9] Furthermore, being bynature site-specific, they favor powersystem decentraliza-tion andlocally applicable solutionsmoreorlessindependentofthe nationalnetwork. It enables citizensto perceive positive and negativeexternalities of read more..

  • Page - 816

    GREENENERGY ANDSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTSustainability has been called akey to the solution ofcurrent ecological, economic, and developmentalpro-blems by Dincer and Rosen[10] Asecuresupplyofenergy resourcesisgenerally agreed to be anecessarybut not sufficient requirement for development within asociety. Furthermore, sustainabledevelopment demandsasustainablesupplyofenergy resources that, in thelong term,isreadily andsustainably available atreasonablecost and can be utilizedfor all requiredtasks read more..

  • Page - 817

    The relation between green energy and sustainability is ofgreatsignificance to the developed countries as well asdeveloping or less developedcountries. Moreover,examining the relations betweengreen energy sourcesand sustainability makes it clear that green technology isdirectly related to sustainable development. Therefore,attainingsustainable developmentrequires that greenenergy resources be alsoused, and is assisted if resourcesare used efficiently.[4,10] Thus, if sustainable green read more..

  • Page - 818

    reflect their needs.Most research is conducted throughcost-shared agreements and falls withinthe short-to-medium term. Partners in research and developmentshould include avarietyofstakeholders in the energyindustry such as private sector firms, utilities across thecountry, provincial governments,and other federaldepartments.† Assessing technology. Data shouldbegathered in thelab and through field trials on factorssuch as costbenefit, reliability, environmental impact,safety, read more..

  • Page - 819

    program and to select the most appropriate greenenergytechnologies for sustainable development.EXERGETICASPECTS OF GREENENERGY TECHNOLOGIESThe impactofenergyresource utilizationontheenvironment and the achievementofincreased resource-utilization efficiency are best addressedbyconsideringexergy. The exergy of an energy form or asubstance is ameasure of its usefulness, quality, or potential to causechange and provide the basis for an effective measureofthe potential of asubstance or energy form read more..

  • Page - 820

    for researchand development, security, and analysisofgreen-energy-based technologies, and also dependingon the total greenenergy financial budget (Cgeb)asareference parameter.[2]† Practicalapplication impact ratio,(Rpai)(ranging from1to1/3), is based on the provided financial support(Cp,pai)for projection,production, conversion, market-ing, distribution, management, and consumption ofgreen fuel fromgreen energysources, andalsodepending on the total greenenergy financial budget(Cgeb), as read more..

  • Page - 821

    marketing, distribution, management, and consumptionof greenfuel from green energy sources, and alsothegreenenergy budget allocation of acountry (Cgeb);RgeuZ1KQwffc/Qwpec,greenenergy utilization ratio,which is also defined as afunction of fossil fuelutilization ratio (Rffu).Here Qwffc explainsworld fossil fuel consumption (M)and Qwpec world primary energy consumption (M).Global Unrest and PeaceFossilfuelssuch as petroleum,coal, and natural gas,which have been extensively read more..

  • Page - 822

    almost 13.52% in 2006, 14.09% in 2012, 14.58% in 2018,15.01% in 2024, and 15.38% in 2030. However, it isexpected that the fossil fuel utilization ratio will decreaseto almost 86.48% in 2006, 85.91% in 2012, 85.42% in2018, 85.99% in 2024, and 84.62% in 2030. Thus, in orderto increase the greenenergy utilization ratio and to reducetheharmful effectsresulting fromthe fossil fuelconsumption, the investments on greenenergy should beencouragedand the green energy strategies shouldbeputinto practice read more..

  • Page - 823

    increasethe green energy impact ratio and the green-energy-based sustainability ratio.Fig. 8a–c show avariation of the green-energy-basedsustainability ratio (Rges)asa function of year by dependingon the percentages of the green energyfinancial budget as10%, 50%, and 90%, or the effect of the parameters in theCases, respectively. The values of green-energy-basedsustainability ratios were calculated using actionGoTo:816,Fig. actionGoTo:816,4.As showninthese figures, the values of Rges read more..

  • Page - 824

    obtainedwhen Case 1isapplied,asshown in actionGoTo:823,Fig. actionGoTo:823,8a–c. Forexample, the green-energy-based sustainability ratios areestimated to be 9.46% in 2006, 9.86%in2012, 10.21% in2018, 10.50% in 2024, and 10.76% in 2030 in case of 10%of greenenergy financial budget; 13.06% in 2006, 13.62%in 2012, 14.09% in 2018, 14.51% in 2024, and 14.86% in2030 in case of 90% of green energy financial budget.It is important to implement green energy strategiesthrough green energy systems and read more..

  • Page - 825

    † Lifetimes of fossil fuel reserves are extended and realfossil fuel prices, consequently, can be held constant orreduced relative to present prices.† Environmental effectsfromusing fossil fuelsarereduced or prevented because of the utilization ofhydrogen from renewable energy sources and tech-nologies.† Technological developments based on hydrogen fromnonfossilfuels increase andthe requirementoftechnologies based on fossil fuels decrease.† Living standards are probably higher than at read more..

  • Page - 826

    that the utilization of fossil fuels should be reduced, andfossil-based technologiesshouldbegradually convertedtogreen-energy-based technologies.Case 1gives better results than Case 2and Case 3.Therefore, for ahigher greenenergy impact ratio inpractice, Case 1should be applied to increasethe greenenergy sustainability ratio depending on the greenenergystrategies. Moreover,Case1 gives the best results of thegreen-energy-based sustainability ratio depending on thegreen energy impact ratio and the read more..

  • Page - 827

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Gasoline, Hybrid-Electric, andHydrogen-Fueled Vehicles*Robert E. UhrigUniversity of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, U.S.A.AbstractIn another chapter of this encyclopedia (Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Plug-In Configuration), the authorshowed that it was theoretically possible for plug-in hybrid-electric light transportation vehicles to utilizeelectricity provided by electric utilities to displace almost 75% of the energy of gasoline used by lighttransportation vehicles. read more..

  • Page - 828

    electricity or to producehydrogen. This simplificationdoes notmaterially change the relationship betweentheemissions of greenhouse gases by the various processesanalyzed.MODELS USEDFOR ANALYSESThe models to quantitatively evaluatethe greenhouse gasemissions, specifically carbon dioxide, whenelectricalenergy or hydrogen is used to replace gasolineasanautomotive fuel are those used in the author’s previouspublications.[7,8] These models were based on informationprovided by or extrapolated from read more..

  • Page - 829

    The secondhalf of these vehiclesmustalso travel anadditional 5055 km (3139 mi) per year as afull hybridusinggasoline at 12.32 km/l (29 mi/gal). Because theaverage total distance traveled by each car per year is19,749 km (12,264mi), the distancetraveled using gaso-line is 25.6% of the average distanceeach vehicle travels.The other74.4% of this distance is traveledusingelectricity generated by autilityusing nuclear fuels, fossilfuel, solar energy (wind, hydro, or photovoltaicsystems),or renewable read more..

  • Page - 830

    The hydrogen comes from the methaneand the steam. Thesteam reformingreaction is endothermicwith the required206 kJ/mol heat energy normally produced by combustionof some of the methane. The water–gas shift reaction isexothermic,providing 41 kJ/mol heat energythat, ifrecovered, can reduce the amount of methaneburned.Then the methaneburnedhas to provide only the net165 kJ/mol that represents w17% of the total methaneenergy. About3.3 molofhydrogen(w83% of thetheoretical maximum of 4mol of read more..

  • Page - 831

    electricity to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen. If ahigh-temperature gas-cooled reactor or amodern high-efficiency gas-fired combined cycle plantisused, theoverall efficiency in producing hydrogen could approach45%.Aleading manufacturer of electrolysis equipmentindicated that 1MWofelectricity can generate0.52 ton(1040 lb) of hydrogen per day or 0.473 kg H2/kW day(1.04 lb H2/kW day).[5] In the case of SMR, it wascalculated that the hydrogen requiredper year for avehicleusinghydrogen to read more..

  • Page - 832

    The rounded emissions in Table 6for electricity generatedusing oil and coal are greater than for the reference case ofgasoline. However, the emission of aplug-in hybridvehicle where the electricity is generated by nuclear orsolar energy is less than 20% of the reference gasolinecase. Hence, the only way to significantlyimprovethegreenhouse gassituation if plug-inhybridsareimplemented on alarge scaleistouse only nuclearenergy, solar (wind, hydro, or photovoltaic) energy, orrenewables to generate read more..

  • Page - 833

    emit CO2,the only emissions are from the processes usedto produce the hydrogen. Thecarbon dioxide emissions forhydrogen produced by steam methanereforming,electro-lysis, and thermochemical methodologies are given.Perhaps the mostimportant observation is that, contraryto the widespread belief that hydrogen-fueled vehiclesproducenogreenhouse gases, the emissions for hydrogen-fueled vehicles vary widely depending upon the methodused to generatethe electricity or heat to produce thehydrogen.Inthe read more..

  • Page - 834

    Heat and EnergyWheelsCareyJ.SimonsonDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan,Saskatoon,Saskatchewan, CanadaAbstractThis article discusses the construction and operation of heat and energy wheels, as well as theireffectiveness in transferring heat and moisture between air streams. Heat wheels transfer sensible heatbetween two air streams with different temperatures, while energy wheels transfer heat and moisturebetween two air streams with temperature and water vapor read more..

  • Page - 835

    dehumidification) in building applications is often asimportant as heat transfer, especially in warm,moistclimates. The importanceofmoisture transfer is evidentwhenthe cooling of moist air is considered. Forexample,the ideal cooling of air from 358Cand 60% relativehumidity (RH) to 258Cand 50% RH requires four timesasmuchenergy as cooling air from 35 to 258Cwith nochange in moisture level(i.e., humidity ratio). Moisturetransferinair-to-airenergywheelscan significantlyreducethe dehumidification read more..

  • Page - 836

    cycle, the air stream is cooled and the wheel matrix isheated. As aresult, the air leaving the wheel on the supplyside is cooler than the air entering the wheel on the supplyside and therefore less auxiliary energy is required to coolit for use in the building. During the other half of the wheelrotation, the cool exhaust air flows through the wheel.Here, heat is transferred from the warm matrix to the coolexhaustair. This cools the matrix and heatsthe air. Thewarm air is exhausted out of the read more..

  • Page - 837

    Total energy transfer effectivenessfor energy wheels:3t Zactual energytransfermaximum possibleenergy transferZ_msðhi K hoÞjs_mminðhs;i K he;iÞð3Þwhere: 3s is the sensible effectivenessofthe heat/energywheel; 3l is the latent or moisture transfer effectivenessofthe energy wheel; 3t is the total effectiveness of the energywheel; _m is the mass flow rate of dry air (kg/s); T is thetemperature of the air (8CorK); W is the humidity ratio ofthe air (kg/kg); h is the enthalpyofthe air (kJ/kg); read more..

  • Page - 838

    not cause frosting in energy wheels, while heat wheelsmay experience frosting at outdoor temperatures as highas 108C.[26,27]ReliabilityHeat wheels have along history of very good maintenanceand reliability characteristics. The experience with energywheel applications is muchshorter,which may cause somereservations about their long-term performance.Never-theless, there are long-term experiences with desiccantdrying wheels used as supply air dryers. Provided thedesiccant coatings of these read more..

  • Page - 839

    Research[30–32] demonstrates that energyrecovery fromthe exhaust air of office buildings and single-familyresidences is clearly an environmentally friendly solutionin acold climate (Helsinki, Finland). Energy recoverytotally compensates forthe harmfulenvironmentalimpactsthat arise from the manufacture, maintenance,and operation of the heat/energy wheel and the entireair-handling unit. Aventilation unit, with its function ofproviding outdoor ventilation air, but not heating the air,has anet read more..

  • Page - 840

    19. ASHRAE Standard 84 Method of Testing Air-to-Air HeatExchangers;American Society of Heating, Refrigerating andAir Conditioning Engineers, Inc.: Atlanta, 1991.20. Simonson, C.J.; Ciepliski, D.L.; Besant, R.W. Determiningthe performance of energy wheels: Part I—experimental andnumerical methods. ASHRAE Trans. 1999, 105 (1), 188–205.21. Abe, O.O.; Simonson, C.J.; Besant, R.W.; Shang, W.Effectiveness of energy wheels from transient measure-ments: Part II—results and verification. Int. J. read more..

  • Page - 841

    Heat Exchangers and Heat PipesGreg F. NatererUniversity of Ontario Institute of Technology,Oshawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstractThis entry provides an overview of the design and opertion of heat exchangers and heat pipes. Differenttypes of heat exchangers are discussed, including concentric-tube, cross-flow, and shell-and-tube heatexchangers. Methods of analysis are briefly discussed, with correction and geometrical factors for complexconfigurations. Condensers and evaporators are described in more read more..

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    coefficient betweenbothstreams, includingthermalresistances duetoconvection, fouling(duetofluidimpurities such as rust formation), and conduction throughthe pipe wall. Frequent cleaning of the heat exchangersurfacesisneededtoreduce and minimize the adverseeffects of fouling, such as an increased pressure drop andreducedheattransfereffectiveness.Finnedsurfacesproduceadditional thermal resistances in aheat exchanger.These effects are often modeled based on the surfaceefficiencyofa finned read more..

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    andgraphicallydepicted.For example, results ofcorrectionfactorsfor avariety of heat exchangerconfigurationshavebeenpresented andgraphicallyillustrated by Bowman et al.[1] Incroperaand Dewitt,[5]and others. The Standards of the TubularExchangeManufacturers Association (6th edition, New York, 1978)providesadditionalresultsinterms of algebraicexpressions or graphical representations.The competing influences of pressure drop and heatexchange are important considerations in heat read more..

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    be utilizedtoidentify the flowregime based on thecomputedphase fraction. This mapping would distinguishbetweenflow regimes, such as the wavy, annular, and slugflow regimes.Variousdesign features and aspects of maintenance areimportantintermsofthe effective performanceofcondensers and evaporators. Tubes shouldbereadilycleanableona regular basis, either through removablewater heads or other means. Larger flow rates within theheat exchanger can reduce fouling (buildup of scale anddirt on the read more..

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    at the condenser end, heat transfer by conduction occursthrough the wick-to-liquid matrix and container wall to theheat sink. Finally, liquidcondensatereturnstotheevaporator throughthe wick structure (generally laminar)return flow.The working fluid and wick type are important designfactorsina heat pipe. The working fluid should have ahighlatent heat of evaporation,high thermal conductivity, highsurfacetension, lowdynamicviscosity, andsuitablesaturation temperature. Also, it should effectively read more..

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    on the liquid return flow from the condenser to theevaporator. It is possiblethat waves can be generated onthe liquid surface and droplets may be entrained by thevapor flow, since there would be inadequate restrainingforces of liquid surface tension in the wick.Another factor is the soniclimitation. During conditionsof startup from near-ambient conditions, alow vaporpressure within the heat pipe can lead to ahigh resultingvapor velocity. If the vapor velocity approaches sonicspeed,a choked read more..

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    Heat Pipe ApplicationSomchai JiajitsawatJohn DuffyJohn W. WangDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, University of Massachussetts—Lowell, Lowell,Massachussetts, U.S.A.AbstractHeat pipes have been known to be effective heat transfer devices for well over 70 years. They have beenwidely employed in various applications throughout industry. This article addresses various heat pipeapplications in many disparate areas, such as aerospace, medicine, agriculture, transportation, and theautomotive read more..

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    equalizing the temperature of the structure.[1] Becauseofthe demand for reducing spacecraft costswhile maintain-ing high-performance characteristicsofthe spacecraft bus,the mass of satelliteshas to be minimized. Thus, thereductionofspace cooling by increasing heat density is animportant challenge. To achieve this, heat pipes arecommonly used to affect heat transfer and heat redistribu-tion functionsinthe microsatellites.[2]HEAT EXCHANGERSBecauseofflexibility in design, heat pipes can easily read more..

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    the heat sink to effect cooling becomes insufficient tomeetdemands, chiefly because of insufficient space. Theuseofheat pipesinsuchsituations hasmarkedadvantages (see actionGoTo:848,Fig. actionGoTo:848,3).OVENS AND FURNACESOne of the earliest applications of heat pipe technologywas in conventional baking ovens. Previously, flameswereapplied to the firebrick lining the oven which in turntransmitted the heat to the itemsbaked in the oven.Unfortunately, the baked items were contaminated read more..

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    AGRICULTUREIn the process of agricultural production, asoil-freeplanting system is widelyacceptedasanefficient meansof improving production. There are two typesofsoil-freeplanting systems: hydroponic and aeroponicsystems. Theaeroponic system is asoil-free system in which the rootsofthe plants are completely or partially exposedtoair in aplant chamber. The plants are anchored in holes atop apanel of polystyrene foam. Inside the chamber,a fine mistof nutrient solution is sprayed onto the read more..

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    possible to control the extent of heating and, thus, theresulting surgicaleffect. There are twotypesofelectro-surgery: bipolar and monopolar. For bipolar, the devicehas two electrodes. The tissue being treated is placedbetweenthe electrodes,and the electrical energy is appliedacross the electrodes. In themonopolar device, theelectrical energy is applied to asingle electrode appliedto the tissue,with agrounding pad placed in contact withthe patient. The energy passes from the single read more..

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    This is an example of the conversion of kinematicenergyto electrical energy.OTHERHEAT PIPEAPPLICATIONSCutting ToolsCutting processesare beingused in manyfactories. In theprocess, the energysuppliedisconverted to heat energy atthe cutting zone. The heat generated in the tool and workpiece is carriedaway by the workingfluid. Three typesoffluids[15] are commonly used: oil (with additives such assulfur, chlorine, andphosphorus), emulsions, andsynthetics. Although this cooling method read more..

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    4. Leonard, L.V. Review heat pipes in modern heat exchangers.Appl. Therm. Eng. 2005, 25,1–19.5. Feng, Y.; Xiugan, Y.; Guiping, L. Waste heat recovery usingheat pipe heat exchanger for heating automobile usingexhaust gas. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2003, 23,367–372.6. Kwang-Soo, K.; Myong-Hee, W.; Jong-Wook, K.; Byung-Joon, B. Heat pipe cooling technology for desktop PC CPU.Appl. Therm. Eng. 2003, 23,1137–1144.7. Hong, Z.; Jun, Z. Research, development and industrialapplication of heat pipe read more..

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    Heat PumpsLu AyeInternational Technologies Centre (IDTC), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,TheUniversity of Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaAbstractHeat pumps capture heat energy from low-grade heat sources, such as ambient air and waste heat streams,and upgrade to ahigher temperature level for useful applications. This entry includes abrief history,fundamentals, classifications, applications, and performance parameters of heat pumps. Working principlesof the thermoelectric heat read more..

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    where QH,useful heat delivered; QL,heat absorbed;W,work input.The useful heat delivered is always greater than theworkinput to the heat pump for ideal conditions.The technical and economicperformanceofa heatpump is closely related to the characteristics of the heatsource. Table 1lists current commonly used heat sources.Ambient and exhaustair, soil, and ground water arepractical heat sourcesfor small heat pump systems,whereas sea/lake/river water,rock(geothermal), andwaste water are used for read more..

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    † If the fuel used by conventional boilerswere redirectedto supply powerfor electric heat pumps, about 35%–50% less fuel wouldbeneeded, resulting in 35%–50%less emissions.† Around 50% savings are madewhen electric heatpumps are driven by combinedheat and power (CHP)or cogeneration systems.† Whether fossil fuel, nuclear energy, or renewablepower is used to generate electricity, electric heatpumps make far better use of these resourcesthan doresistanceheaters.† The fuel consumption read more..

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    † Absorber† Pump† Solutionheat exchanger† Solutionpressure reducer† Connecting pipesThe absorption system utilizesa sorbent–refrigerantpair. The widely used pairs are Lithium-bromideandwater,and water and ammonia. Aschematicofthecontinuous absorption heat pump system is showninactionGoTo:856,Fig. actionGoTo:856,5. An absorption cycle is aheat-activated thermalcycle. The major exchanges with its surroundings arethermal energy. Asmall amount of mechanical work isrequiredatthe pump to read more..

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    the pressure reduction is essentially isenthalpic. Thesevalves, which are relatively low-cost devices, controlthe liquid working fluid flow to the evaporator by sensingthe superheated condition of the workingfluidleaving theevaporator. Such control ensures that nearly all the avail-able evaporator surface is covered with aforced convec-tion nucleate boilingfilm with consequential excellentheat transfer characteristics in the evaporation process.Reversible circuitheat pumpsfor building read more..

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    fora particular application, andalsopresents therelationships among them.Coefficient of Performance and EnergyEfficiencyRatioSystemcoefficient of performance(SCOP) is defined asoutputheating capacity per unit of power input to thesystem (see Eq. 4).SCOP ZHeating capacityðWÞPower inputðWÞð4ÞSystemcoefficient of performanceisa dimensionlessnumber that measures the performance of aheat pump. Ifthe heating capacity is expressedinunits otherthan W, it iscalledthe heating energy efficiency read more..

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    where L,the load; E,the auxiliary energy supplied to thesolar energy system;and Ls,the solarenergy delivered.Similar to the solar fraction of asolarsystem, the termAEF of aheat pump can be defined as the fraction of theload contributed by the ambient energy, which may becalculated as in Eq.10.AEF ZQH K EpeQHZ 1 KEpeQHZ 1 K1PERZ 1 K1HCOP ! hppð10ÞFig. 12 illustrates the relationship betweenthe AEF andthe PER.Table 2shows the AEFs of aheat pump, which hasan HCOP of 3.5, for various read more..

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    Commercial and industrial applications are† Space heating† Water heating† Swimming-poolheating† Drying and dehumidification† Evaporation and boiling† DesalinationCONCLUSIONThe fundamentals of heat pumpswere presented togetherwith the working principles of the thermoelectric heatpump,the absorption heat pump, the gas compression heatpump,and the vapor compression heat pump.Itshould benotedthat vapor compression heat pumpsdriven byelectricitydominate thecurrent market. Heatpumpsare read more..

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    Heat TransferYunus A. CengelDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, U.S.A.AbstractHeat can be transferred in three different modes: conduction, convection, and radiation. All modes of heattransfer require the existence of atemperature difference, and all modes are from the high-temperaturemedium to the lower-temperature medium. Conduction is the transfer of energy from the more energeticparticles of asubstance to the adjacent, less energetic ones as aresult of read more..

  • Page - 863

    The caloric theory came under attacksoon after itsintroduction. It maintained that heat is asubstance thatcannot be createdordestroyed. Yet it was known that heatcan be generated indefinitely by rubbing one’s handstogether or rubbing two pieces of wood together. In 1798,the AmericanBenjamin Thompson (Count Rumford)(1754–1814) showed in his papersthat heat can begenerated continuously through friction. The validity ofthe caloric theory was also challenged by several others,but it was the read more..

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    Example1.The Cost of Heat Loss througha Roof.The roof of an electrically heated home is 6m long, 8mwide, and 0.25 mthick, and is madeofa flat layer ofconcretewhosethermal conductivity is kZ0.8 W/m K(Fig. 3). The temperatures of the innerand the outersurfacesofthe roof one night are measured to be 15 and48C, respectively, for aperiod of 10 h. Determine the rateof heat loss through the roof that night and the cost of thatheat loss to the home owner if the cost of electricity read more..

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    will be transferred through the material whoseconduc-tivity is to be determined. Then, measuring the two surfacetemperatures of the materialwhen steady heat transfer isestablished and substituting them into Eq. 2together withotherknownquantities give the thermal conductivity(Fig. 4).The thermal conductivities of materials vary over awide range,asshown in actionGoTo:866,Fig. actionGoTo:866,5. Thethermal conductivitiesof gases such as air vary by afactor of 104 from those ofpure metalssuch as read more..

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    theway themoleculesare arranged.For example, diamond,whichisa highly orderedcrystalline solid, hasthe highestknownthermal conductivity at room temperature.Unlike metals, which are good electrical and heatconductors,crystalline solidssuchasdiamond andsemiconductors such as silicon are good heat conductorsbut poor electrical conductors. As aresult, such materialsfind widespread use in the electronics industry. Despitetheir higherprice, diamond heat sinksare used in thecooling of sensitive read more..

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    certain temperature rangesisnegligiblefor somematerials, but significant for others. Thethermal conduc-tivities of certain solids exhibit dramatic increases attemperatures near absolutezero, when thesesolids becomesuperconductors. For example, the conductivity of copperreaches amaximum value of about 20,000 W/m Kat20K,which is about50times theconductivity at roomtemperature. Thetemperaturedependenceofthermalconductivity causes considerablecomplexity in conduc-tion analysis. Therefore, it is read more..

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    bulk fluid velocity. Typical values of h are giveninTable 2.RADIATIONRadiation is the energy emitted by matter in the form ofelectromagnetic waves (or photons) as aresult of thechangesinthe electronicconfigurations of the atoms ormolecules. Unlike conduction and convection, the transferof energy by radiation does not require the presence of anintervening medium. In fact, energy transfer by radiation isfastest(at the speed of light) and it suffers no attenuation inavacuum. This is how the read more..

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    incidentradiation not absorbed by the surface is reflectedback.The difference betweenthe rates of radiation emitted bythe surface and the radiation absorbed is the net radiationheat transfer. If the rate of radiation absorption is greaterthan the rate of radiation emission, the surface is said to begaining energy by radiation. Otherwise, the surface is saidto be losing energy by radiation. In general, thedetermination of the net rate of heat transfer by radiationbetweentwo surfacesisa read more..

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    High Intensity Discharge (HID) Electronic LightingKenE.Patterson IIAdvanced Energy Innovations—Bringing Innovation to Industry,Menifee, California, U.S.A.AbstractElectronic High-Intensity Discharge (E-HID) lighting systems are the “high frequency” wave of the future.Traditional and inefficient magnetic HID systems are increasingly being replaced by anew paradigm inlighting, E-HID. In addition to becoming apopular alternative in alighting designer’s arsenal of practicallighting read more..

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    life. Quiet operation and control of the inherent strobo-scopicnature of magnetic ballastand MH lamps areadditional advantages.As recent as 2005, many lighting “experts” thoughthigh-frequencyE-HID could not successfully “drive” thenew CMHlamps. However, at least one E-HID ballastmanufacturer has received certification to operate CMHlamps, opening the door to even greater innovation inceramic ballasts and lamps in the future.[6]Types of Electronic BallastsThere are two types of read more..

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    As aresult, colorconformity suffers, lumen depreciationincreases, and more regular relamping is required.Efficacy ComparisonAs an example, let’s evaluate the number of lamps,lumens,and system wattsrequired to generate3.4 millionmean lumens—enoughtolight a60,000 ft2.warehouse orretail facility at 50 fc. Fig. 1compares E-HID ElectronicCeramicand ElectronicPSsystems to ElectronicFluorescent T5/HO,400 WMagnetic PS and aconven-tional magnetic 400 WMHM/59 system.The CMHand PS systems light the read more..

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    Due to its improved ignition methodology, lumenmaintenance, and increased operating efficiencies, high-efficiency electronic ballasts should be includedasanoption for every new or retrofit magnetic job. At fullpower,a high-efficiencydimmingelectronic ballastallowsafacility lighting designer to drop down in lampwattage (between 50 and 200 less lamp wattsper fixturethan acomparable magnetic system). More importantly,controls allow the system wattsand light leveltobeevenlower and fixed until read more..

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    applications where frequent on/offcycling is used forenergy savings. Furthermore, aslow embedded micro-controller can also adverselyaffect lumen maintenance.In Fig. 3, the glow to arc capture for the “C”ballast is20 times faster than that of the “A” and “B” ballasts.Ballast “C’s” glow to arc transition is 0.054 scomparedtothe “A” and “B” ballasts at 1.03 seach.FULL-LIGHT OUTPUTAn electronicballast with an optimized ignition, stabil-ization, operation, and dimming for read more..

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    powerenvelope is nearing 1.1 kW while the current peaksare 9C amps. This methodology of using power pulsingwill result in inconsistent performancethat will varydepending on the lamp design. New high performancedesigned lamps, running near their peak LPW conditions,will be affected negatively. This can be better understoodby examining the incremental LPW curve in Fig. 4for twodifferent lamp designs:This figure showsthe results of apower dynamic(change in LPW)analysis of the “C” read more..

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    over the lamp’s thousands of hours of operation. An HIDlamp operatesatits best when there is uniformity andsymmetry. Fig. 5showsa positive and negativehalf-cycleon the“C” ballast that hasmirror symmetry. Thissymmetry, in combination with the uniformity of thepower envelope seen earlier, results in alamp that willexperience an ideal operating condition over its life.LUMENDEPRECIATIONAs explained earlier, the “C” ballastappears to have beenoptimized to drive gas plasma loads while others read more..

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    ballasts. The lower depreciation of the “C” ballast is adirect result of optimized operational conditions to reduceor eliminate the mechanismsthat destroy the life andperformance of HID light sources.DIMMING LIMITS AND PERFORMANCELamp manufacturers limit dimming to 50% in core-and-coil ballasts and “other electronic” ballasts. For the pastdecade, the Ballast “C” manufacturer has been workingclosely with major lamp manufacturers on certification,dimming warranties, and the research read more..

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    terms of actual performance characteristics as seen in thisanalysis.Most consumers seeking anew car shop wiselyandcompare the features, functions, benefits, gas mileage, etc.before they make adecision. Why, then,shoulda lightingsystem end-user buy an E-HID ballastjust because thelabel says “electronic”? As this discussion illustrates, thereare significant differencesbetweenE-HID ballasts. Whatis on the inside is vastly more important than what it sayson the outside.REFERENCES1. Hammer, E. read more..

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    HVAC Systems: Humid ClimatesDavid MacPhaulCH2M HILL, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractIn humid climates, two of the functions of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system areessential—providing proper dehumidification and positive building pressurization—to prevent moistureproblems. Although concepts for dehumidification are being discussed and taught to HVAC designers,the HVAC designer must always consider the impact of part-load conditions on the relative humidity read more..

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    prevent dehumidification problems in buildings. Dehumi-dificationproblemstypically occur because these systemsare controlled based on sensible loads, and under part-loadconditions, moisture loadsmay be the largest coolingloads on the system.CASE STUDY DEMONSTRATING POORHUMIDITY CONTROLConsider the vertical stacking fan-coil unit showninactionGoTo:881,Fig. actionGoTo:881,2. This type of unit is installedinthousands of hotelrooms throughout the world. In this case, the units wereused in ahotel read more..

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    Fig. 2 Fan coil unit used to provide cooling and ventilation in hotel, Honolulu, Hawaii.Fig. 3 The fan coil unit does not provide cooling or dehumidification when the thermostat is satisfied.HVAC Systems: Humid Climates84110.1081/E-EEE-120043192—7/5/2007—20:29—VELU—225298—XML Taylor &Francis EncyclopediasHeatInde© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC read more..

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    unit with acapacity of approximately 6000 Btu/h isrequiredtocoolthe room in thelate afternoon.Unfortunately, the fan-coilunits come in limited sizes,and the designer mustselect aunit with ahighercapacity thanneeded—inthiscase, approximately7500 Btu/h.The unit is oversize by approximately25%.To determine the run time (theamount of time the unitprovides cooling) of the fan-coil unit for atypical guestroom at the hotel, we can compare the sensiblecoolingrequiredwith the sensiblecooling capacity read more..

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    closes the valve on the cooling coil. Needless to say, guestsin theserooms found conditions very uncomfortable, andhousekeeping staff spent additional time cleaning linensand drapes to remove mold growth caused by the highhumidity levels.In this case, the room’s high relative humidity levelswere entirely predictable. Asimple comparison betweenthe cooling load requirements (both sensibleand latent)and the cooling capacity of the fan-coil unit immediatelyrevealed that the unit would not run long read more..

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    room and is controlled by the thermostat. The coil itself isnot physically separated; the piping providing chilledwater is modified to provide the two partsofthe coil.Separating the outside air from the return air separatesthe latent portion of the cooling (the outside air load) fromthe sensibleportion of the cooling (thereturn air loadfrom the room)and allows for properhumidity control inthis small unit, even with the unit oversizing.This fan-coilunit would have cost about an additional$100 read more..

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    pressurization are notfollowed. Hotelsare excellentexamples because they contain alarge number of pressurezones (eachroom in ahotel is surroundedbyfire-ratedfull-heightwalls) andgenerallycontain theirHVACsystems within the room. In this case,a hotelbegan tosuffer from mold growth, and odors were notedsoon afterconstruction was completed.Fig. 10 shows the design of the hotelHVAC and exhaustsystems. The guest room is served by apackaged terminalair conditioner (PTAC) installedina sleeve through read more..

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    If the owner had waited to correct these problems,serious moldgrowth and damage couldhave occurred.Fig. 12 shows the result of waiting through one summerseason beforecorrecting the problems: large amounts ofmold growth on the back side of the gypsum wallboard.This piece was removed from the partition wall betweenroomsapproximately 4ftfromthe perimeterwall.Extensive and costly remediation workwas required atthis hotel.CONCLUSIONSProvidingproperdehumidificationand maintainingpositive read more..

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    Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Plug-In Configuration*Robert E. UhrigUniversity of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, U.S.A.Vernon P. RoanUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractThe introduction of and wide-scale utilization of specifically designed plug-in hybrid vehicles has thepotential to reduce the use of petroleum for the production of gasoline fuel by 50%–75%. Further, this canbe accomplished without significantly degrading vehicle performance and operability compared to read more..

  • Page - 888

    emphasisonplug-in hybridvehicles using batteries thatare charged primarily with electricity generated by utilities.WHAT MAKES HYBRID VEHICLES BOTHRESPONSIVE AND EFFICIENT?The reason that hybrid vehicles can be designed to accele-rate so well is that torque provides acceleration. Torqueproduced by agasoline engine increases with engine speedfrom alow value at low rpm to amaximum (depending onthe engine design) perhaps in the 3000–5000 rpm range,after which it falls offsomewhat. However, in an read more..

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    TODAY’S HYBRID VEHICLESThe first modern production hybrid-electric vehicle wasintroduced to the Americanpublic as the Toyota Prius,with the HondaCivic and Insight hybrids following closebehind. The success of the Prius, as evident by the longwaitingtimefor delivery,has convincedToyota toschedule 100,000 Priusmodels for the U.S. market in2005 and to introduce two additional hybridmodels—thepopular lightSUV, the Highlander, and apremium SUV,the Lexus RX400h.Toyota and Hondahave read more..

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    in the United States. ThePriusand the new Ford Escapehybrid are full hybrids. The Civic and Insight modelsintroduced in the late 1990s, the HondaAccord hybrid, andthe DodgeRAM Diesellight-truck hybrid scheduled to beintroduced in 2005are mild hybrids. The ChevroletSilverado and GMC Sierra are micro hybrids that are tobe introduced in 2005.[1]From the standpoints of fuel economyand tailpipeemissions, asomewhatcounterproductive trend hasappeared with some of the more recent hybrids. In read more..

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    will be reduced in relation to the percent of light vehiclesthat are not plug-in hybrids).This mode involves chargingthe batteriesofahybrid overnight, usingelectricity from anelectrical outlet typicallyinthe owner’sgarage. We assumethat when batteries are fully charged, these hybrids canoperate using only the electric motor for at least the first35 mi. Forthistype of operation, the controls of current fullhybrids would need to be modified so as to not use thegasoline engine to recharge the read more..

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    $0.054 per mile, still little morethan half the $0.10 permile for standardvehicles using$2per gallon gasoline.Adding this tax wouldincreasethe annual cost ofelectricity from $328 to $493, thereby decreasing theannual savings to $419.The annual savings for gasolineat$2per gallon aresubstantial, but they may not be large enough to justify theadditional cost of aplug-in hybridvehicle. However, if thecost of gasoline increases to $4 or $5 per gallon—pricesthat are common in Europe todayand read more..

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    operators of hybrid and electricvehicles. Given the largepetroleum fuel and pollution reductions of the plug-inhybrids described above, additional incentives such asreduced or no taxes on electricity used to charge batteries athome would seem appropriate—at least in the early years ofimplementation. The federal government has alarge vestedinterest in promoting anytechnologythatdrasticallyreduces the consumption of transportation fuels, therebyreducing importationofpetroleum. Governmental read more..

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    Independent PowerProducersHemmatSafwatProject Development Power and Desalination Plants, Consolidated Contractors InternationalCompany, Athens, GreeceAbstractThe historical evolution of the independent power producers (IPPs) is reviewed. The stakeholders of atypical IPP under along-term power purchase structure are described. The roles of the various participantsin aproject of this type are summarized. The various stages of an IPP—from development to plantconstruction and plant operation—are read more..

  • Page - 895

    use of alternative and renewable energy sources in thegeneration of electricpower.Outside the United States, the liberalization of theeconomies of variouscountries led to atrend of shiftingelectric utilities from public (government)ownership to aprivate or mixed(government-private) ownershipstructure.In the Middle East, because of the lack of water,theemergence of independent water and power producers(IWPPs) is noted. The IWPPs have grown to megaprojectsinvolvinglarge-capacity“power read more..

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    Owner/DeveloperThe owneristhe investor who will own the plant.Typically, the owner/investor invests in the form of equityas aportion of the total investment in the project. The otherportion is adebt portion.The owner/investormay be asingle entity, but typicallythe ownerisa group ofinvestors with different equity sharing. There also may beprincipal investors, together with investors with minorityshares.The developer is the manager of the effort to realize theproject from its inception to read more..

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    LendersTypically, nonrecourse financing is followed. Generally,the owners/investors contribute part of the total costCAPEX(Capital Expenses) in the project,that is theinvestment, this couldbeofthe order of 20%–30%, andhence the owners/investors raise the remainder throughdebt finance. Depending on how large the debt is, theremay be anumber of lenders,and there may be multipledebt trancheswith different lenders and different con-ditions: term, interest rate, start of repayment, and read more..

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    the charge is specified in X $/kW per monthfor thecapacity charge and Y $/kW per month for the fixed O&Mcharge.On the other side, the variable charges—generallytermed energy charges—relatetothe net electrical energytaken by the offtaker; thus,these charges are based on theelectrical energy in kilowatt-hour per month.These charges are brokeninto two types: fuel chargesand O&M variablecharges. Thefirst charge relates to thecosts of the fuel used to producethe electrical read more..

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    DevelopmentPhasesThe sponsors forming the group that is to bid for theproject agreeonthe roles each group memberistoundertake, and, on the sharing among them, this generallytakes the form of ajoint development agreement. Thesharing of externalcosts for consultantsretained by thegroup is addressedinthis agreement.The preparation of the bidinresponse to the RFP is thefocus of the first phase of the development.Exhibit 1 Risk MatrixRiskIPPEPCcontractorO&McontractorOfftakerFuel supplierSite read more..

  • Page - 900

    During this phase,the technical activities focus on theselection of the plantconfiguration and conclude with anEPC agreement with the EPC contractor.The EPC agreement represents the basis on whichthe group bids in terms of the plant performance at siteconditionsand at differentloads/dispatch.Technicalconsiderations alsocover the degradation in the per-formance with time.The technical considerations alsoextend to address the anticipated O&M. The technicaldata is then used as input to the read more..

  • Page - 901

    continues to be debated betweenadvocates of privatizationand proponents of public/regulated electricity.TechnologyThe advances in gasturbine andcombinedcycletechnology have propelled the growth of IPPs around theworld, particularly with the increased use of natural gas tofuel manyIPPs. Renewable IPPs are also gaining alargersharedue to increased awareness of usingcleaner powergeneration to protect the environment.Asthis trendcontinues to emerge, hydro and wind power are seeingsteady read more..

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    Industrial Classification and EnergyEfficiency*Asfaw BeyeneDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, San Diego State University,San Diego, California,U.S.A.AbstractIn this article, energy consumption data for 300 manufacturing plants in Southern California are collectedand analyzed by standard industrial classification (SIC) code. The results show that in order of magnitude,combined heat and power (CHP), variable speed drive (VSD), and compressed air systems offer the largestopportunities to read more..

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    Riverside, and Los Angeles. The NAICS code has beensuggested to replace the SIC code (Table 1).The combined electric consumptionofthe 300surveyed plants was 1318 GWh/year 14% of the plantsused no natural gas or used anegligible amount. Atotal of1996 energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) wererecommended, where 61% of the plants did not offernatural gas savings. The remaining39% madeacombinedtotal gas savings of 16,101,416 therms/year Thetotalsavings are about $19 million for electric and about read more..

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    electricity with natural gas burners where the technologyallows. Switching the energy source is knowntosave largeamounts in Southern California because of the high cost ofelectricity and demand charges. This may continue to bethe case unless the price of natural gas rises sharplyrelative to the price of electricity. Variable speed drivesoffer the third largest energy saving opportunity. Nine ofthe 20 largest energy saving opportunities in all the surveyare related to CHP, eight to VSD,and three read more..

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    CHPs in the United States started in 1978 whenthe U.S.Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) wasformulated, allowing excessenergy produced by CHPs tobe sold back to the main grid. These guidelines gaveimpetus to increased use of CHPs, which until then wasrestricted by rules that favored atight monopoly in thepowermarket.According to Energy Information Agency(EIA), by 1996, the UnitedStates had an estimated 51 GWof installed CHP capacity, about 6% of the total U.S.electric generation.[2] read more..

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    EnergyInformation Agency conducts asurveyofnonutility powergenerators on ayearly basis to collectdata on CHPs exceeding1 MW. Other data collected byDOE and independentresearch institutes are sporadic,fragmental, and limited in their outreach.The most difficult regulatory hurdle is probably the newsource review (NSR) and the prevention of significantdeterioration (PSD), particularly in nonattainment areas,cities where pollutant levels exceed the nationalair qualitystandard. The NSR requires read more..

  • Page - 907

    of the CHP market and technology remains to be seen. Tofoster CHP, interconnection standards must be betterregulated and asingle and simple stream of process to easeand simplifyexisting complex permitprocedures shouldbe established.VSD for VariableLoad ApplicationsSynchronous motors are powered from afixed-frequencyelectrical source, i.e., they turn at afixed rounds per minute(RPM). If such machines always operated at full capacitythere shouldbenoreason to employ VSDs. However, theyoften run read more..

  • Page - 908

    has to rely on expensive audits which can be biased if thevendorshave amotiveand market interest in their ideas.More aggressive training programs and workshops canhelp in technology awareness and transfer of efficienttechnologies to the manufacturing floor. More creativeways of distributingincentives to aggressivelypromotereplacement of aging and inefficient equipment will alsohelp small and medium sized manufacturing plants thatoften lackfundingtomodernize their plants. Low interestrate read more..

  • Page - 909

    † Thegross annual sales perplantannualenergyconsumption.† The total annual sales per employee.These values were calculated and graphed as afunctionof the SIC code. In addition, the last three values wereplottedfor four SIC codes of 3089, 3672, 3679, and 3728,which are the four mostfrequently surveyed plants bySDSU/IAC. The graphsshowed that they vary drasticallyforeach SICgroup. Onlya fewplantshavefairlyconsistent energy use per employee. Standard industrialclassification 33 has somewhat read more..

  • Page - 910

    knowledge of the airflow rate, it is not possible, forexample, to size the heat exchanger for heat recovery.Another area of challenge is the complexity of controlsystems. For example, VSDsoffer significant savings inareas where the load varies considerably, by matching theenergy input to the load insteadofsupplying aconstantamount of energy above the maximum point of the cycle.However, VSDs require thorough expertise in selectingthe signal input to the device, protecting the system read more..

  • Page - 911

    eliminate the hazardous nature of such high temperatureexhaust. More research on VSD applications in other areascan alsoexpand its applications. Regulatorysupports likeemission credits for all documented energy savings ordeveloping amethodology to assess and quantify theenvironmental impact of energysaving measures in termsof NOx and CO2 reductions can alsobevery useful toreducethe energy intensityofmanufacturing plants.The SIC classification may be useful to compareproducts and industry read more..

  • Page - 912

    Industrial EnergyManagement: Global TrendsCristia´nCa´rdenas-LailhacarDepartment of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville,Florida, U.S.A.AbstractThis entry details energy usage and savings in industry are areas of interest, particularly for large energyusers. This interest becomes more important when the associated costs of energy rise at values larger thanexpected, making it aconcern for all size and types of facilities. Therefore, the goal becomes to read more..

  • Page - 913

    chainofenergy usage, energy savings are affectingourlives and our environment.Specifically, each time thatenergy (or water) is consumed,some fuel has been burned,and some pollutants are released into the atmosphere.These pollutants, whatever their origin and concentration,are moved aroundthe globe through the atmosphere via jetstreamsthat do not exclude any countries or people; rather,they affect theplanetasawhole.For some yearsnow, research has shown an increaseinthe amount ofacid rain, and read more..

  • Page - 914

    Some countries in Latin America and the Caribbean,like Chile, are taking similar steps through their nationalenergy agencies, as is their Comision Nacional de Energia(CNE), and its Ministry of Energy and Mines, whichpromotes energy savings andincentivestoinstallcogeneration systems, for example. The same is true forColombia. Other nations in this region, like Ecuador,promoteenergy researchand offer companies the option ofdonating 25% of their taxes on power to institutions(including educational read more..

  • Page - 915

    chapter will show the importanceofanenergy balance(EB)inthe EM program.The EM program scheme shownin Fig. 2considersthe analysisofcurrent energy bills (toseek patterns and obtain real costs of demand and energy),an EB and, from there, the options for proceeding throughcurrent and/or new trends to pursueand implement energysavings projects. No matter the routefollowed, bothconsider the EB to be mandatory.It mustbepointed out that both trends pass throughanEB and consider the implementation of the read more..

  • Page - 916

    ENERGY SAVINGS: ACASESTUDYWe will consider Florida orange and grape industry—oneof the largest manufacturing sectors in this state—energyusage[14] as acase study. Thecost of manufacturing citrusjuice dependsonthe cost of growingand picking the fruitfrom the groves, extracting fresh juice, and producingconcentrate. We will show that areview of operations canhelp to improve procedures, and efficiency, and generateinteresting savings. In this study, we analyze the generalbackground of read more..

  • Page - 917

    indeed avery good practice to stay in close touch with theutilitycompany and its available programs.Energy DataTable 2showsenergy usage and the cost of electricity andnatural gas for the same four facilities. It becomes clearthat, on average, the cost of electricity is very reasonable.However, there are still someexceptions due to smallelectric utilities,asshown by the rates of plant D. Thisdifference sometimes cannot be changedbythe facility, asit is geographically dependant. Wouldde-regulation read more..

  • Page - 918

    fluctuations due to the nature of their business.Additionalsavings recommendations, which are not listedhere, weremade in the areas of waste handling and productivityenhancement.Data AnalysisBased on the data shown, we are now in apositiontoestimate potential savingsfor thetypeoffacilitiesconsidered, with the caveat that they are suggestions thatshow trends (and that they represent afraction of thisFlorida industry). To show potential savings, we considerthe average of energy savings andthe read more..

  • Page - 919

    NEW TRENDS: DESCRIPTORS FORENERGY SAVINGSIn this section, we analyze how electric energy is used bydifferent pieces of equipment in the facilities. Obviously,some consumemoreenergythanothersand, as aconsequence,are morerelevantfor an energy conservationstudy, and to describeenergy consumption in the plant.Accordingly, we recognize this by first classifying theenergy consumersbythe kind of equipment, as we did inactionGoTo:918,Table actionGoTo:918,4 (1ZLighting; 2Zmotors, 3ZAC, etc.), read more..

  • Page - 920

    It contains an amazing amount of information for over10,000 inventorymotorsfrom15different motormanufacturers.Air Master D1.0.9Air Master has alarge suite of compressed air offeringsthat allow the user to explore possibilities for improvingthe compressed air system performance and operationthrough energyefficiency measures.PSAT: Pumping Assessment ToolBeingvery thoroughsoftware, PSAT will compute,accordingtoinput data,the optimal energy-efficientpump motorfor the user,given auser optimization read more..

  • Page - 921

    generates waste that is fuel for the other. An exampleisbiogas, where the manure (waste) generated on an animalfarm can become the fuel source(biogas) of any facilitythat can use gas in its process. In this case,symbiosis hasthe added valueofsolving ahealth problem that resultsfrom piling-upexcreta. These symbioticpossibilitiesshouldbeexplored thoroughlybyenergy managers.CONCLUSIONSWe have presented areview of the current energy usagepatterns of anumberofFlorida juice(orange read more..

  • Page - 922

    4. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP): actionURI(http://www.eere.energy.gov):www.actionURI(http://www.eere.energy.gov):eren.doe.gov/femp Browse around this website and explorethe possibilities; The University of Florida IndustrialAssessment Center website: actionURI(http://www.ise.ufl.edu):www.ise.ufl.edu/iac (accessedon November 12, 2006).5. Florida Department of Revenue, P.O. Box 7443, Tallahas-see, Florida 32314-7443.6. Porter, M.E. America’s green strategy. Sci. Am. 1991, read more..

  • Page - 923

    Industrial Motor System Optimization Projects in the U.S.*Robert Bruce LungResource Dynamics Corporation, Vienna, Virginia, U.S.A.AimeeMcKaneLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Washington, D.C., U.S.A.Mitchell OlszewskiOak Ridge National Laboratory,Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.AbstractThis study examines data from 41 industrial motor system optimization projects implemented between1995 and 2001 that were developed into Department of Energy (DOE) case studies to determine the effectof the energy read more..

  • Page - 924

    because it is an absolute measureofthe value or expectedvalue of an investmentinconstant dollar terms. It thereforeportraysthe annual energy savings from the projects asinterest payments on abond, and can be used to comparetheperformance of expenditures on motorsystemimprovementprojectstothe performance of otherpotential uses of financial capital. If the 10-year NPV ofproject savings exceeds the project cost, the project will beconsidered successful.The IRR of project cash flow is the compound read more..

  • Page - 925

    becomes $40,526,000, the CRR of project cash flow is46%, and the simplepaybackis2.07 years. Because of theoutlyers, median rather than average values of projectcostsand savings are provided in actionGoTo:924,Table actionGoTo:924,1. Using theaggregate data, the NPV and CRR are also calculated for5- and 15-year project lives. Forthe 5-yearproject life, theNPV figure is positive but smaller than the total projectcost.The CRR figure reduces to 32% and the simplepaybackstays the same. In the read more..

  • Page - 926

    facilities’ projects. This higher cost is reflected by the factthat the weighted average of the non-IOF facilities’ projectcosts is over 25% greater than that of the IOF facilities’projects.Capital Spendingvs. Re-engineeringThe other salientfeatureabout many of the projects in thestudy was the degreetowhich equipment replacement andspending on capitalequipment was significant in manyprojects. Spending on capitalequipment was equal to orgreater than 70% of the total project cost in 31 of read more..

  • Page - 927

    obviated the need for previously anticipated equipmentpurchases. However, the re-engineering projects’ resultsdo suggest that large capital equipment expenditures arenot anecessary condition for energy efficiency.The results in actionGoTo:926,Table actionGoTo:926,3 display the NPV of projectsavings for 5- and 15-year project lives to show how therates of return differ with time periods that are 50% shorterand 50% longer than the 10-year baseline project life.However, these time framesmay not read more..

  • Page - 928

    performed them that total $1.2 million. When the incentivepaymentswere factored out of the results, the averagesimple payback for these10projects increased by 28% to6.5, and the IRR of project cash flowdecreased by anaverage of 33% to 46%. When added to the total energysavings achieved,the indirect benefits from motor systemoptimization projects present acompelling case for theirimplementation.Drivers of Motor System ProjectsAlthough each of the projects in the studyyielded energysavings, not read more..

  • Page - 929

    CONCLUSIONThis study’s intent has been to estimate the impact onindustrial competitiveness resulting from motor systemoptimization projects. Theimpact of 41 motor systemoptimizationprojectswas evaluatedindividuallyandcollectively using three metrics:NPV, IRR, and simplepayback. The main findingsare that:† Amajority of the 41 projects was successful accordingto the study’s criteria.† Projectsthat were implemented in energy intensivemanufacturing plants obtained agreater rate of read more..

  • Page - 930

    Insulation: FacilitiesWendell A. PorterUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractIn this entry, insulation materials and techniques are described in detail. The advantages and disadvantagesof the most popular materials and their manufacturing processes are discussed. Information concerning newand emerging techniques and materials is also included. The concept of abuilding envelope is explainedand descriptions of each major building component, such as floors, ceilings and walls, read more..

  • Page - 931

    of plastic. MEPS is used in several alternative buildingproducts discussedinthis chapter,including insulatedconcreteforms and structuralinsulated panels (SIPs).† Extruded polystyrene (XPS), also afoam product inrigid board form,isa homogenouspolystyreneproduced primarily by threemanufacturers withcharacteristic colors of blue,pink, and green.† Polyisocyanurate, foil-faced rigid board, is insulatingfoam with one of thehighest available R-valuesper inch.† Closed-cell, high-density read more..

  • Page - 932

    —Extrudedpolystyrene,polyisocyanurate, andpolyurethane—use primarily hydrochloro-fluoro-carbons (HCFCs), which are 90% less harmfultothe ozone layerthan CFCs. Some companies aremoving to non-HCFC blowing agents.—Open-cell polyurethane,including the productsmade by Icynene, Inc. and Demilec, Inc., aswell as the newer soy-based foams—use water,which is much less detrimental than otherblowing agents actionGoTo:933,(Table actionGoTo:933,2).INSULATION STRATEGIESIn general, commonly used read more..

  • Page - 933

    Table 2 Comparison of insulation materials (environmental characteristics and other information)Type ofinsulationInstallationmethod(s)R-value perinch (RSI/m)aRaw materialsPollution frommanufactureIndoor air qualityimpactsCommentsFiber insulationCelluloseLoose fill; wall-spray (damp);dense-pack;stabilized3.0–3.7 (21–26)Old newspaper,borates, ammoniumsulfateVehicle energy use andpollution fromnewspaper recyclingFibers and chemicalscan be irritants.Should be isolatedfrom interior spaceHigh read more..

  • Page - 934

    Table 2 Comparison of insulation materials (environmental characteristics and other information) (Continued)Type of insulationInstallationmethod(s)R-value per inch(RSI/m)aRaw materialsPollution frommanufactureIndoor air qualityimpactsCommentsFoam insulationPolyisocyanurateFoil-faced rigidboards; nail-base withOSB sheathing6.0–6.5 (42–45)Fossil fuels; somerecycled PET;pentane blowingagent; TCPP flameretardant; aluminumfacingEnergy use duringmanufacturePotential healthconcerns read more..

  • Page - 935

    Exterior Rigid FiberGlassorFoam InsulationRigidinsulation is generally more expensive per R-valuethan mineral wool or cellulose, but its rigidity is amajoradvantage actionGoTo:936,(Fig. actionGoTo:936,3). However, it is difficult and expensiveto obtain R-values as high as in framed walls.Interior Foam Wall InsulationFoam insulation can be installedonthe interior of concreteblockwalls actionGoTo:936,(Fig. actionGoTo:936,4); however, it must be covered with amaterial that resists damage and meets read more..

  • Page - 936

    wood-framed houses.According to an NAHBResearchCenterstudy, costs are estimated to increase by 1%–8% oftotal house cost over awood-framed house.Lightweight ConcreteProductsLightweight,air-entrained concrete is an alternativewall system (Fig. 7). Autoclaved aerated concrete(AAC),sometimesreferred to as precast autoclaved aeratedconcrete(PAAC),which can be shipped either as blocksor panels,combineselevated R-values (compared tostandardconcrete) with thermal mass.2!4Wall InsulationThroughout the read more..

  • Page - 937

    compression, while sidestapling interfereslesswithdrywall installation.The idealsolution should focus on where the kraftpaper(vaporretarder)israther than on howitisinstalled.[7]The face stapling questionisanappropriatequestion innorthern or “heating-dominated” climates. In northernareas, vapor retarders should be installed on the “warm”side of the wall cavity. In southern or “cooling-dominated”climates, the vapor retarder should be on the outside surfaceof the wall cavity. read more..

  • Page - 938

    foam panelsonto which structural sheathing, such asoriented strand board (OSB), cement fiber board, orvarious types of metal have been attached. They reducelabor costs, and because of the reduced framing in the wall,they have higher R-values and lessair leakage thanstandardwalls.SIPs are generally four feet wide and eighttotwelvefeet long. There are awide variety of manufacturers,eachwith its ownmethodofattaching panels together.Procedures for installing windows, doors, wiring, andplumbing have read more..

  • Page - 939

    such as metal framing, has grown. While metal framingoffers advantages over wood, such as consistency ofdimensions,lack of warping, and resistancetomoistureand insect problems, it has distinct disadvantages from anenergy perspective.Metalframing is an excellentconductorofheat.Buildings framedwith metal studs and plates usuallyhave metal ceiling joists and rafters, as well.Thus, theentire structure serves as ahighly conductive thermal grid.Insulation placed betweenmetal studs and joists is read more..

  • Page - 940

    soffit. Vents should provide air movement across the entireroof area (Fig. 13). There are awidevariety of productsavailable, including ridge, gable, soffit, and mushroomvents.To allow for proper airflow in attic spaces, it is commonpractice to install arafter baffle at the soffit. This willprevent insulation from sealing offthe airflow from thesoffit vent to the atticspace.The combination of continuous ridge vents along thepeak of the roof and continuous soffit vents at the eaveprovides read more..

  • Page - 941

    insulation bag to determine the number of bags toinstall. Table 5shows asample chart for celluloseinsulation. Cellulose is heavier than fiberglass forthe same R-value. Closerspacing of roof joists andthicker drywallisrequired for larger R-values.Check this detail with the insulation contractor.Weight limitsand otherfactorsatR-38 insulationlevels are showninTable 5for the three primarytypes of loosefills.6. Avoid fluffing the insulation (blowing with toomuch air) by using the proper read more..

  • Page - 942

    Preventing Air Flow Restrictions at the EaveOne problem area in manystandardroof designs is at theeave, where there is not enough room for full R-30insulation without preventing air flow from the soffit ventor compressing the insulation, which reduces its R-value.Figs. 17 and 18 show several solutions to this problem.Ifusing atruss roof, purchase raised heel trusses that formhorizontal overhangs.Theyshouldprovide adequateclearance for both ventilation and insulation.In stick-built roofs, where read more..

  • Page - 943

    insulation panels are used over the atticdeck, as showninFig. 19.However, to achieve R-30, four to seven inches offoam insulation are needed. Ventilation is also aproblem.In homes where exposed raftersare desired, it may bemoreeconomical to build astandard, energyefficientcathedral ceiling, and then add exposeddecorative beamsunderneath. Note that homes having tongue-and-grooveceilings can experience substantially more air leakage thansolid, drywallceilings. Install acontinuous air read more..

  • Page - 944

    of the roof sheathing. Heatthen transfers by radiationacross the attic space to the next material—either the topof the atticinsulation or the attic floor. Aradiant barrier,properly installed in one of many locations betweentheroof surface and the attic floor, will reduce radiant heatflow. Thermal insulation on the attic floor resiststhe flowof heat throughthe ceilinginto the living space below. Therate at which insulation resists this flowdetermines theinsulation’s R-value. The amount read more..

  • Page - 945

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTSMany thanks to Kyle Allen, an engineering student at theUniversityofFlorida, because withouthis persistentefforts, the publication of this article would not havebeen possible.REFERENCES1. Energy Efficient Building Construction in Florida,FloridaEnergy Extension Service, University of Florida, 2005.Adapted with permission, Gainesville, FL.2. Jeffrey, T.; Dennis, C. ABuilder’s Guide to Energy EfficientHomes in Georgia;Georgia Environmental FacilitiesAuthority; Division of Energy read more..

  • Page - 946

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC):Coal- and Biomass-BasedAshokD.RaoAdvanced Power and Energy Program, University of California, Irvine, California, U.S.A.AbstractGasification or partial oxidation in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) consists of convertingan often “dirty” fuel, such as coal, biomass, or refinery residues that cannot be directly used in gas turbines,to aclean gaseous fuel that meets engine specifications and environmental emissions read more..

  • Page - 947

    particlestogether to form agglomerates; while in thetopofthe gasifier, where gasificationreactionspredominate, temperatures are lower (18008F–19008For 9808C–10408C). Gases leaving the gasifier areessentially free of hydrocarbons heavier than CH4.Thermal efficiency of this type of gasifier tendstobelower since syngas carriesmore of feed (coal orbiomass) bound energy as sensible heat than movingbed gasifiers,while specific O2 consumption tendstobe higher. Carbon conversion read more..

  • Page - 948

    † Particle Size—Lower limitonfines fraction in feed to moving bedgasifiers;may require briquetting.† Free Swelling Index—Can cause plugging in moving bed gasifiers;mayrequire astirrer.SYNGAS TREATMENTRaw gas leaving agasifier is either cooled by heatexchangers while generating steam or directly quenchedwith water.The cooled gas is purified by further treatmentsto remove contaminants such as particulates, alkalis,chlorides, and nitrogenand sulfur compounds. Variouscontaminants that read more..

  • Page - 949

    Metal CarbonylsMetal carbonylsmay be capturedbyactivated carbon.Carbon particles accompanying syngas, leaving thegasifier, and collecting in barrier filters located upstreamof the raw syngas scrubber may alsocapture carbonyls.Rectisol solvent capturescarbonylsbyconverting theminto sulfides.Mercury, Arsenic, Cadmium and SeleniumMercury,arsenic,cadmiumand seleniumtypicallyvolatilize within the gasifier and leave with the rawsyngas.Sulfided activatedcarbonhas been used to removemercury read more..

  • Page - 950

    andcapitalcostbyabout 30%.Integration of themembrane unit with agas turbine capable of roughly50% air extraction (not possiblewith current large-scalemachines) is required for this technologytobeeconom-ical, with the feed air to the membrane being the extractedhigh-pressure air (preheated by directly firing syngas). Gasturbinesalsocapable of receiving depleted air from themembrane unit are required. Alarge-scale membrane unitwith acapacity of 2,000 ST/D (1800 MT/D) is expected tobe available read more..

  • Page - 951

    from the gas turbinesisfed to triple-pressure HeatRecoverySteamGenerators (HRSGs), which providesuperheated and reheated steam to acondensing steamturbine.Necessary general facilitiesrequired include coolingwater systems, instrument air, and flare.CoproductionAmajor advantageofanIGCCisthata number ofco-productsmay be produced to improveprocess econ-omics. Fig. 2depicts variousproducts andco-products thatmaybeproduced. Advantages includethe following:† Economiesofscale of larger plants† read more..

  • Page - 952

    IGCC VERSUSPULVERIZED-COAL BOILERFUTURE TRENDSIn thecaseofhigh-rank coals, economicsare typicallyinfavorofanIGCCwhencomparedtoa supercriticalcoal-fired boiler plant, with environmentalconstraints verystringent. Thecostof90% or greatervolatilemercuryremovalfroma coal IGCC is aboutatenth of that from apulverized coal combustion plant.[13] In addition to lowercost,gasification-based mercuryremoval is more efficientthan removalofmercury aftercombustionbecause thevolume of read more..

  • Page - 953

    of theGasification Technologies Conference,San Francisco,CA,October 1999.10.Paisley,M.A.; Irving,J.M.; Overend, R.P. Apromisingpoweroption—Theferco silvagas biomassgasificationprocess—operatingexperienceatthe burlington gasifier.Proceedingsofthe ASME TURBOEXPO, NewOrleans,Louisiana,June4–7,2001.11.Rao,A.D.; Verma, A.;Samuelsen,G.S.Acidgas removaloptionsfor thefuturegen plant. Proceedingsofthe ClearwaterCoal Conference,Clearwater, FL,April 2005.12.Rao,A.D.; Stobbs,R.Anevaluation of coal read more..

  • Page - 954

    IntelliGridSMClark W. GellingsElectric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, California, U.S.A.Kurt E. YeagerGalvin Electricity Initiative, Palo Alto, California, U.S.A.AbstractThe IntelliGrid (IntelliGrid is aservice mark of the Electric Power Research Institute.) is afully functionalpower delivery system that incorporates sensors, communications, enhanced computational ability, andelectronic control. It delivers reliable, digital-grade power to meet the needs of an increasingly read more..

  • Page - 955

    The goal of the IntelliGrid is to create anew self-healing paradigm forpower deliverysystems,withautomated capabilities that can anticipate many potentialproblems, reducerecovery time when unexpecteddisturb-ances occur, andenhance performance of normaloperations.To reach this goal, three primary objectives of the self-healing grid need to be achieved:† Dynamically optimize the performance and robustnessof the system† Quickly reacttodisturbancesinsuch away as tominimize impact† Effectively read more..

  • Page - 956

    The next step in creating aself-healing grid will involveaddition of Intelligent Network Agents (INAs) that gatherand communicate system data, makedecisions about localcontrol functions (suchasswitching aprotective relay),andcoordinate such decisionswith overall systemrequirements. Becausemostcontrol agents on today’spower systems are simply programmedtorespond todisturbances in predetermined ways—by switching offarelay at acertain voltage,for example—theiractivity mayactually read more..

  • Page - 957

    † Power electronics-based controllers† Power market tools† Technology innovation† The EnergyPort† Value-addedservicesIncreased Power FlowReal and reactive power flows in large integrated powertransmission systems are constrained by voltage andpowerstability criteria. In manycases, the limitsdictatedby these stability criteria are far below the “inherited”thermal capacityoftransmission corridors. Even with theadoption of stability measures, power flow levels couldstill be belowthe read more..

  • Page - 958

    † Lighting† Recycling processesThe EnergyPortAssuming that electricity infrastructures are integratedandrealizing the ability to connectelectricity consumersmorefully with electronic communications will depend onevolving aconsumer portal to function as a“front door” toconsumersand their intelligent equipment. TheEnergy-Port would sit betweenconsumers and wide-area accessnetworks. The EnergyPort would enabletwo-way com-munications betweenconsumers’ equipment and energyservice read more..

  • Page - 959

    International Performance Measurement and VerificationProtocol (IPMVP)*James P. WaltzEnergy Resource Associates, Inc., Livermore, California, U.S.A.AbstractIt is in some ways astrange curiosity that the “microprofession” of measurement and verification hasgenerally ignored the financial side of the question of demonstrating the performance of an energy retrofitproject. That is, acomponent which is conspicuously absent from the International PerformanceMeasurement and Verification read more..

  • Page - 960

    savings). Thepotential consequences forthe facilitymanager are fairly obvious and ominous in thisscenarioand would be avoided by any facility manager with anysense at all.Then the astute facility manager, will have educatedupper management in such away that they understand thattotal energy cost is aproductoftwo components:consumption and rates,and that cost may stay the sameor even increaseatthe sametime that “savings,” betterknownas“cost avoidance,” is beingachieved.This “cost read more..

  • Page - 961

    Table 1 Average electrical cost analysis (based on time-of-use (TOU)/savings)Time of use (TOU) group: 1Date: 10/31/02Description: 24 ha day operationINIT: HKPeriod (TOU)TimeAvailablehoursper dayOcc.hoursper dayPercentagein use (%)Hours ofuseper dayaDaysperweekWeeksperseasonDaysperseasonbHoursofuseKilowatthour unitcost ($)Totalenergycost ($)Peakdemandcost ($)cPartdemandcost ($)cMaxdemandcost ($)cSeason: summerOff-peakM/F 24:008:308.58.5!100Z8.5526.212810880.0505955.0400.002.55Part-peakM/F8:30 read more..

  • Page - 962

    Table 1 Average electrical cost analysis (based on time-of-use (TOU)/savings) (Continued)Actual rate scheduleRate: PG&E E19SEffective: 1/1/98Summer ($)Winter ($)Demand charges ($/kW)Max peak13.350.00Max part-peak3.703.65Max demand2.552.55Energy charges ($/kWh)Peak0.087730.00Partial-peak0.058100.06392Off-peak0.050590.05038Results of analysisTotal demand (kW) cost$155Total energy (kWh) cost$500Total cost$654Total cost/kWh$0.075Average cost/kWh w/o demand$0.057All calculations assume a1 kW read more..

  • Page - 963

    Table 2 Average electrical cost analysis (based on time-of-use (TOU)/savings)Time of use (TOU) group: 3Date: 10/31/02Description: night lighting from 8 P.M.to1 A.M.INIT: HKPeriod (TOU)TimeAvailablehoursper dayOcc. hoursper dayPercentage inuse (%)Hours ofuse perdayaDays perweekWeeks perseasonDaysperseasonbHours ofuseKilowatthour unitcost ($)Totalenergycost ($)Peakdemandcost ($)cPartdemandcost ($)cMaxdemandcost ($)cSeason: summerOff-peakM/F 24:00 read more..

  • Page - 964

    Table 2 Average electrical cost analysis (based on time-of-use (TOU)/savings) (Continued)Actual rate scheduleRate: PG&E E19SEffective: 1/1/98Summer ($)Winter ($)Demand charges ($/kW)Max peak13.350.00Max part-peak3.703.65Max demand2.552.55Energy charges ($/kWh)Peak0.087730.00Partial-peak0.058100.06392Off-peak0.050590.05038Results of analysisTotal demand (kW) cost$44Total energy (kWh) cost$68Total cost$112Total cost/kWh$0.088Average cost/kWh w/o demand$0.054All calculations assume a1 kW read more..

  • Page - 965

    Table 3 Average electrical cost analysis (based on time-of-use (TOU)/savings)Time of use (TOU) group: 2Date: 10/31/02Description: typical office usage from 7 A.M.to7 P.M.INIT: HKPeriod (TOU)TimeAvailablehours perdayOcc. hoursper dayPercentage inuse (%)Hours ofuse perdayaDays perweekWeeks perseasonDaysperseasonbHours ofuseKilowatthour unitcost ($)Totalenergycost ($)Peakdemandcost ($)cPartdemandcost ($)cMaxdemandcost ($)cSeason: summerOff-peakM/F 24:00 read more..

  • Page - 966

    Table 3 Average electrical cost analysis (based on time-of-use (TOU)/savings) (Continued)Actual rate scheduleRate: PG&E E19SEffective: 1/1/98Summer ($)Winter ($)Demand charges ($/kW)Max peak13.350.00Max part-peak3.703.65Max demand2.552.55Energy charges ($/kWh)Peak0.087730.00Partial-peak0.058100.06392Off-peak0.050590.05038Results of analysisTotal demand (kW) cost$155Total energy (kWh) cost$204Total cost$359Total cost/kWh$0.118Average cost/kWh w/o demand$0.067All calculations assume a1 kW read more..

  • Page - 967

    Table 4 Variable air volume cost avoidanceDay typeWeekday costRate schDate: read more..

  • Page - 968

    energy use of the motor, when compared with the originalor baseline energy use, calculatethe energy units saved,andapply therate scheduleapplicableduringthatwindow of time.If areal-time system of data gathering and analysis isemployed, then this valuing of energy units saved wouldalso be in real time. However, the approach is just aseffective in valuing the energy units saved even if it isapplied after the fact to energy data gathered in real time,but analyzed at alater time.actionGoTo:967,Table read more..

  • Page - 969

    then,inthe veracity of the unitsofenergy and the time-related patterns of energy use in the model.Assumingthatthe simulation tool used forthemodeling has the ability to incorporate and apply therate schedules in use, both models may be run withwhatever current rate schedule is in effect, and veryaccurately calculatethe operation cost of the baseline andthe retrofit facilities. Avoided cost, then,issimply thedifference betweenthe two.CONCLUSIONThe bottom line of all theseefforts, again, is to read more..

  • Page - 970

    Investment Analysis TechniquesJames W. DeanOffice of Strategic Analysis and Governmental Affairs, Florida Public Service Commission,Tallahassee, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractThis entry explores various investment evaluation techniques with special attention to their application inenergy investments. Key components of the techniques are described, including the concept of the time-value of money, discount rates, and the role of risk and its consideration in performing afinancialassessment of read more..

  • Page - 971

    computational simplicity. The paybackperiodisthenumber of years (or months) until the revenue streamequals or exceedsthe initialproject outlay. Thistechnique is frequently used in advertisementtoconvincepotential customers how shrewd apurchase might be. Forexample, assume aconsumer were to spend $500 forthe installation of atticinsulation to make his house moreenergy efficient. If this investmentsaves $100 ayear inenergy costs, then the simple payback period would befiveyears.Payback analysis read more..

  • Page - 972

    expenditures to average these out. Forprojectsthat requiregreaterscrutinyorfor managing actualconstructionbudgets, more discrete time periods such as months orquarterscan be used as the unit of analysis. Of course, thediscount rate should be adjusted to reflectthe compound-ing impactsofthe more discrete time periods.Another complexity involved with cash inflows andoutflowsisensuringthatinflation is appropriatelyaccounted for in the analysis. In performing net present-value analysis, there read more..

  • Page - 973

    where rD is the required interest on debt, T is theappropriate marginal tax rate, D is the amount of debtthat is financed, rE is the expected return on equity, and Eis the equity value. It is important to note that the marginalcost or last-source cost of capital is the correct factor to useas the discount rate for new investments. This discount ratewould be the appropriate ratetouse in any present-valueanalysis as long as the variousprojects under considerationpossessed similar risk read more..

  • Page - 974

    As the analyst assigned to evaluate the two projects,you are told that the company’scost of capital is 5%. Youare directed to prepare an NPV and IRR analysis and tomake arecommendation to the board of directors. Thehandy spreadsheet functions indicate that at 5% cost ofcapital, the NPVs for Project Aand Bare $624.06 and$859.71, respectively. The IRR function on the spread-sheet produces an IRR of 11% for Project Aand 10% forProject B. Because both projects have positive NPVs andtheIRR is read more..

  • Page - 975

    than the underlying cost of capital, then both projects yieldpositive returns and should be undertaken. If the actualcost of capitalis10%, then as previously noted, Project Bis only marginally cost effective. If the actual cost ofcapital was 10.1%, Project B’s NPV turns to a-$12. At thispoint, the 10% IRR is lower than the cost of capitalandProject Bshould not be undertaken. Again, Project A’sIRR of 11% exceeds the required cost of capital andremains aviable investment.Let’s return to the read more..

  • Page - 976

    The conventional decision rule states that afirm shouldundertake all projects with positive NPVsand IRRs thatare greater than the discount rate. However, in situationswhere projects are mutually exclusive, IRR should becarefullyevaluatedbefore usingitasthe primaryindication of aproject’s profitability. Despite the wide-spread use of IRR,practitioners of investmentanalysesshouldemploythistechnique onlyasasecondaryevaluation tool to net present-value strategies.This entry has provided an read more..

  • Page - 977

    LEED-CI and LEED-CS: Leadership in EnergyandEnvironmental Design for Commercial Interiors and Coreand ShellNick SteckyNJS Associates, Denville, New Jersey,U.S.A.AbstractThe U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) has followed up on its very successful Leadership in Energyand Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) rating system with two new systems—onefor Commercial Interiors (CI) and the other for Core and Shell (C&S). (U.S. Green Building Council read more..

  • Page - 978

    LEED-CILeadershipinEnergy and Environmental for CommercialInteriors addresses the specifics of tenant spaces primarilyin office, retail, and industrialbuildings. It was formallyadopted in the fall of 2004. The companion rating,LeadershipinEnergy and Environmental Design forC&S, is currently beingballoted, andadoptionisexpected in the fall of 2006. Together, LEED-CI andLEED-CSwill establishgreen building criteriaforcommercial office real estate for use by both developersand read more..

  • Page - 979

    determinethe level of rating that abuilding will earn,ranging from Green at the lower level to Silver, Gold,and Platinum.Sustainable Sites. Themaximum number of possiblecredits is 7. The following credits are very similar to whatwas described in the LEED-NC section.Prerequisites.None in this category.Credits† Site Selection. Up to 3credits available; requires theselection to be aLEED Certified Building or to locatethe tenant in abuilding that has in place two or more ofthe following: read more..

  • Page - 980

    use in the tenant spaces and negotiating alease whereinthe tenant pays the energy bills,which are not includedin the rent. The purposeofthis is to highlight to thetenant the actual costs of energyand thereby encourageconservation. In thealternativeCaseB,installcontinuous metering for energy end uses such aslighting systems and controls, constant and variablemotor loads, Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) appli-cations, chiller efficiencies at variableloads, coolingloads, boiler efficiencies, and read more..

  • Page - 981

    Theseproduct categories areadhesives andsealants,paints andcoatings, carpet systems, compositewoodand laminate adhesives, and systems furniture andseating.† IndoorChemicaland PollutantControl.1 point;minimize theexposureofoccupants to potentialcontaminates andchemicalpollutants that canadverselyaffect IAQ. Methodstoachieve this includeentrywaysystemssuchasgratestotrapdirt. Wherehazardousproducts maybeused, such as janitorial closets, providededicatedexhaustsand spillcontainment.† read more..

  • Page - 982

    LEED C&S points distributionSustainablesites25%Waterefficiency8%Energy &atmosphere23%Materials &resources18%Indoorenvironmental quality18%Innovation &design8%Four levels of certificationCertified23–27 pointsSilver28–33 pointsGold34–44 pointsPlatinum45–61 pointsLEED Core and Shell, C&S,Technical ReviewThe format of LEED C&S is similar to LEED-NC and CI.There are prerequisites and credits. There are the fivebasiccategories of credits: Sustainable Sites, Water read more..

  • Page - 983

    Water Efficiency. No prerequisites are requiredinthissection. Atotal of 5credits is available in this section.Credits† Water Efficient Landscaping. Up to 2credits available.The first credit is for areduction of 50% or more in theuse of potable water for landscaping, calculated fromthe midsummer baseline consumption. The secondcredit is for the use of nonpotablewater for irrigation orthe use of no irrigation through the careful selection oflandscaping vegetation.† Innovative Wastewater read more..

  • Page - 984

    infrastructure, usually part of the Building AutomationSystem, BAS. This is to measurebase building energyconsumption for electricity and other services for leastone year of postconstruction occupancy. Thesecondcredit is available for tenant submetering to provideongoing tenant responsibility for energy bills.Again,this can be done throughsensors that are part of the BAS.† Green Power. 1credit; requiresthat at least 35% ofC&S base-building electricity comes from renewableenergy sources by read more..

  • Page - 985

    † Low-Emitting Materials. Up to 3points available. Fourcategories of low-emitting materials are listed here. Theintent is to reduce the indoor air contaminants that maybe odorous, irritating, or harmful—essentially strivingto have an indoor environment with aminimum ofVOCs and other irritating substances. Categories areadhesives and sealants, paints and coatings, carpetsystems, compositewood,and agrifiberproducts.Compliance with two of these categories earns 1credit.Compliance with three read more..

  • Page - 986

    NC 2.0 madethe best possible document at the time,theyrecognized that changing forces in the global effort forsustainability wouldrequire the evolution of LEED. Thus,LEED has incorporated the innovation credits, whichencourage and rewardcreativity, risk-taking, and inno-vation. LeadershipinEnergy and Environmental Designcan be amended in afashion similar to aconstitutionalamendment. Allstakeholders, essentiallyall USGBCmembers, have not only the opportunity, but also theresponsibility to vote on read more..

  • Page - 987

    LEED-NC: Leadership in Energyand Environmental Design forNewConstructionStephen A. RoosaEnergy Systems Group, Inc., Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.A.AbstractThe Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEEDe)Green Building Rating System is aset ofrating systems for various types of construction projects. Developed by the U.S. Green Building Council(USGBC), the rating systems evolved with the intent of helping to “fulfill the building industry’s vision forits own transformation to green read more..

  • Page - 988

    which identifies potential solutions. Allofthese concernsevolvedpriortothe 1992U.N.ConferenceontheEnvironment and Development, which resulted in theRio Agenda 21 and clarified the concept sustainability.In regard to thebuilt environment, architecturaldesignersrenewed their emphasis on fundamental designissues, including site orientation, day lighting, shading,landscaping, and morethermally cohesive building shells.Notions of “sick building syndrome” and illnesses likeLegionnaires’ read more..

  • Page - 989

    performance, and to ask the right questions at the start of aproject.”[10] The first dozen pilot projects using the ratingsystem were certified in 2000.THE LEED-NC RATING SYSTEMThe USGBC’sGreenBuildingRating System is avoluntary, consensus-developedset of criteriaandstandards. This rating system evolved with agoal ofapplying standards and definition to the idea of high-performancebuildings.The useofsustainable tech-nologies is firmly established within the LEED projectdevelopmentprocess. read more..

  • Page - 990

    Water efficiency credits comprise 7.2%ofthe totalpossiblepoints. With the goal of maximizing the efficiencyof water use and reducing the burdenonwater municipalsystems, points are credited for reducing or eliminatingpotable water use for site irrigation, capturing and usingrainwater for irrigation, and using droughttolerant orindigenouslandscaping. This sectionofthe LEEDstandardalsoaddresses abuilding’sinternal waterconsumption. Points are available for lowering aggregatewaterconsumption read more..

  • Page - 991

    ASSESSING LEED-NCThe LEED-NC process has numerous strengths. Perhapsthe greatest is its ability to focus the ownerand designteamonaddressing select energy andenvironmentalconsiderations early in the design process. The LEEDdesign process brings architects, planners,energy engin-eers,environmental engineers, and IAQ professionals intothe program at the early stages of design development. Theteamadoptsa targeted LEED rating as agoalforthe project. Astrategy evolves based on selected criteria.The read more..

  • Page - 992

    illusionaryenergycostsavings.Finally,the M&Vprocedures in the 2001 IPMVP have undergone revisionand were not state-of- the-artatthe time that LEED-NCwas updated in May 2003. Forexample, thereisnolongeraneed to exclude OptionA as an acceptable M&Valternative.The LEED process is not warrantedand does notnecessarily guarantee that in the end, the ownerwill have a“sustainable” building. While LEED standards are moreregionalized in locations where local zoning and buildinglaws apply, read more..

  • Page - 993

    Life Cycle Costing: Electric PowerProjectsUjjwal BhattacharjeeEnergy Engineering Program, University of Massachusetts—Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts,U.S.A.AbstractLife-cycle cost (LCC) assessment involves the estimation of major expected costs within the useful life of apower system. Life-cycle cost estimation facilitates investment decisions before acquiring or developingassets associated with apower project. Life-cycle cost analysis allows comparison of different investmentalternatives and read more..

  • Page - 994

    whilethe corresponding valuein2002 was39%.[8]Wind has made substantialinroads into the utility scalecommercial electricity supply during the last 10–15 years.In recent years, distributed grid-tiedresidential solarphotovoltaic (PV)power systems have been demonstratingviabilitydue to state-(and utility-) offered financial(and fiscal) incentives, especially in Japan,Germany,and several states in the United States.In terms of the complexities involved in the LCCcalculations, thosefor asmall PV read more..

  • Page - 995

    and consumables), operation and maintenancecosts, debtservicing costs, etc. (the environmental costs associatedwith emissions and solid wastes during the operation of thecoal powerplanthave not been considered in this study).These are explained in detail in “Methodology forCalculation of the Life-Cycle Cost.”METHODOLOGY FOR CALCULATION OF THELIFE-CYCLE COSTIn this section, aframework for the calculation of LCC hasbeen developed. The LCC considers costsassociated withtwo phasesofapower read more..

  • Page - 996

    Table 2 Capital and noncapital costs of energy projectsCapital cost categoryNoncapital cost category520-MW coal power projectSteam generatorErection testing and commissioningTurbine generatorConstruction insuranceBalance of plantEngineering and overheadsMechanical SystemsPreliminary expensesCoal handling plantLand and site developmentAsh handling plantOwner’s engineers expensesCooling towers and circulating water systemOperators trainingOther mechanical systemsStart-up fuelElectrical read more..

  • Page - 997

    EPV Z 356 ! ESH ! PVcap ! hinv! ð1 K fT;dÞ ! ð1 K fwÞð1bÞPVcap is the capacity of the PV system in kW, hinv isinverter efficiency, and fT,d and fw are the fraction of therated module output adjusted for temperature dust load,and wire loss, respectively. The values of these parametersare given in AppendixB.The ESH varies with the systemtilt angle. It is usually least at 908 system tilt, the maximumbeingatthe latitude angletilt. However, ESH available atthe latitude C158 anglehas been used read more..

  • Page - 998

    its gth component (e.g., legalexpenses). fl is the fraction ofCCi,j and NCCi,g fundedthrough the loan. Afraction of fl isfm,representing the mth upfront financing charge. fi,j,k,n isthe fraction of Ci,j suppliedinthe kth month and n is themaximumnumber of months required for its constructionand commissioning. fi,g,k,n is the fraction of NCCi,g phasedin the kth month and fo represents afraction of fl associatedwith the oth progressive financing charge.Equity finance is the provision of money read more..

  • Page - 999

    that for long-term loans. Thetotal interest on workingcapital (IWC)can be calculated as:IWC Z iwc !XVCi !bi12C LR !g12ð7Þwhere iwc is the annual interest on working capital and VCiis the ith component of the variable cost (e.g., costs of coaland oil and the “operation and maintenance” cost) forwhich the provision of workingcapitalisrequired. bi is thenumber of months of working capitalneeded, correspond-ing to VCi.Loan repayment is the valueofannual loanrepayment and g the number of months read more..

  • Page - 1000

    state financial incentives on RE technologies) which hasbeen emerging as an effective mechanism to increasetheshare of RE in astate’s energy mix. Typically, the financialincentives offeredbythe federalagenciesonREtechnologies are: the accelerated depreciation for costrecovery,renewable electricity production tax credit, etc.The state-offered FIs are: sales tax rebate, income taxcredit, property tax exemption, system cost buy-downrebate, etc. In addition, the applicability of FIs read more..

  • Page - 1001

    assumed to be availed by the buyer of the system in the veryfirst year it is purchased. However, the income tax rebate isgenerally offered with the provision to carry it forward formorethan one year (usually for 3–5 years).DEPACCL ZXNACCLKDEPtZ11½1 C ðd K eÞ tK1 ! PC! rACCLKDEP;tð11eÞAccelerated depreciation of the project assets has been auseful mechanism that allowsa commercial (and/or anindustrial) entityanearly recovery of the project costs. Forexample, the current provisions allow read more..

  • Page - 1002

    certain percentage (10%–15%) of the contractual amount ispaid to thecontractorasmobilization advances tocommence activities. The balance paymentsare madeprogressively, based on achieving predetermined projectconstruction and commissioning milestones.The annual electricity tarifffor coal and wind powerplants follow asimilar trajectory, except that the electricitytarifffor awind powerplantishigherthan that for the coalpower plant, as shown in Fig. 2a and b.For both coal and wind power projects, read more..

  • Page - 1003

    reduction of as muchas65% of the LCC of electricityfrom the system (Fig. 4). When several otherFIs, such asfederal and state income tax rebates, state sales andproperty tax exemptions, and the sale of RE creditsgenerated from the electricity produced by the system areconsidered, the LCC of electricity from the PV system isnegative (Fig. 4).Similarly, the LCC of electricity from the 50 MWwind power project is significantly reduced whentheeffect of FIs is considered. Theaccelerated read more..

  • Page - 1004

    (i) the development, construction, and commissioningphase and (ii) the operation phase. Theenergy projectsconsidered were: (i) a520-MW coal powerplant; (ii) a50-MWwind powerproject; and (iii) a3-kWpgrid-tiedresidential PV system. The LCC assessment considerscosts associated with the debt servicing, variablecosts,interest on workingcapital,depreciation, annualoperationand maintenance cost, etc. Most of thesecosts are applicable for large (or utilityscale) powerprojects and the effect of read more..

  • Page - 1005

    (Continued)O&M cost,includinginsurance charges(as %ofcapitalcost)%2.52.5Financing chargesManagementagreement fee%1.1251.125Commitmentfee%0.0750.075Bankguaranteecommission%1.61.6Bankguaranteefee%3.153.15Financialadvisoryfee%1.51.5Source: From Elsevier Science Ltd. (see actionGoTo:1006,Ref. actionGoTo:1006,3).APPENDIX B: INPUT VALUESFOR LIFE-CYCLECOSTANALYSIS OF A3-KWP PV SYSTEMParametersUnitValueWire lossesFraction0.02Inverter cost$/kW885PV system lifeYear25PV system sizekWp3PV system read more..

  • Page - 1006

    (Continued)Civil worksAccess and diversionroad1.3Ash disposal areadevelopment10.5Staffresidential facility4.0Temporary construction11.6In-plant civil works45.9Miscellaneous fixedassets1.7Noncapital costErection,testing, andcommissioning40.1Construction insurance4.1Engineering andoverheads23.4Preliminary expenses2.8Land and sitedevelopment4.2Owner’s engineersexpenses2.0Operator’s training0.7Start-up fuel1.8Legal expenses2.1Establishment cost4.1Duties and taxes17.2Source:From Elsevier Science read more..

  • Page - 1007

    Life Cycle Costing: EnergyProjectsSandraB.McCardellCurrent-C Energy Systems, Inc., Mills, Wyoming, U.S.A.AbstractLife cycle costing for energy projects is described as adecision-making tool for energy projects, withseveral examples and aspreadsheet that can be used as atemplate for calculations. The focus of the chapteris on the principles of life cycle costing to provide managers and professionals amethodology to compare avariety of complicated projects having different costs and read more..

  • Page - 1008

    benefits, as well as the associated time valueofmoney,returning asingle value for the total life cycle cost of theenergy project.Net present value(NPV):The NPV is atraditionalfinancial analysistool that takes all cash flows expectedfrom aproject and discountsthem back to the present;positive numbers are generallyseen as worthwhileinvestments.Payback period:The simplepaybackperiod (PB periodor simple payback) is atraditional measure used inevaluating energy projects. The calculation divides read more..

  • Page - 1009

    transportthe product. Although LCA drawsfrom thelegacy of LCCA,itisa different tool that focuses on theglobalenvironmental costs and benefitsofaparticularproduct.THE FRAMEWORK OF LIFE CYCLE COSTINGThe concept of life cycle costing is one that is in fact familiarto us all. When we purchase acar, for example, we do basicresearch on fundamentals: fuel efficiency, maintenancerecords, and resale value. We consider our driving patternsand the length of time we plan to have the vehicle. That read more..

  • Page - 1010

    be placed. Also, maintenance costs are quite high inrelation to comparable facilities, and that information toowill be useful in defining the energy projectstoberecommended for the facility.Forthe HVAC system, anyunit with an energyefficiency rating (EER)ofsix is about half as efficient asit should be—which provides agreat deal of scope forreduced utilitycosts in both heating and cooling seasons.This is particularly true because the unit runs 24 ha day,all year long, so the increased read more..

  • Page - 1011

    quantified in some way (reduced employee sick days frombetter air quality and lessmold, for example). It is possibleand increasingly common, however, for the valueofsuchintangible factorstobeincludedinLCCA by weightingthe variables in astatistically appropriate way,byratingthe importance of several intangiblefactorsand thengrading each alternative for its performanceagainst thosefactors.When the proposed project or alternative projects havebeen defined (whichispredominantly the responsibility read more..

  • Page - 1012

    The coststobeconsidered for an energy-project LCCAanalysisgenerally can be described as follows:† First costs. Depending on the project, this could beconstruction cost,purchase or otheracquisition cost,installation costs, etc.† Operations costs. These include the following:—Maintenance costs—Repair costs—Subunitreplacement costs (as in the replacement ofabulb in alight fixture)—Utility costs† Replacement costs† End-of-life valueorcost, whichmight includedisposal,demolition, or read more..

  • Page - 1013

    Table 4 Lighting retrofit example, Stage 1(Current situation) and Stage 2(Proposed situation)Stage 1(current situation)Stage 2(proposed situation)Description100 fixtures; 2bulb 4ftlong 34-Watt T12 FLfixtures with magnetic ballasts, 1⁄2 lensesbroken, fixtures need cleaning but otherwiseOK, fixture wattage 84, personnel unhappywith light provided; fixtures 2years oldT8 lamps and electronic ballasts, to be installedin the same fixture; all fixtures to be cleaned.Total wattage 59, read more..

  • Page - 1014

    Life cycle costing can be used in different ways,depending on the situationand the circumstances:† With new buildings (and principally through computermodels incorporatinglife cyclecosting),design,systems, site placement, materials, equipment choice,and otheroptions can be modeled and evaluated so thatthe best possible choices are made, both in constructionand in operating cost.† With existing buildings, LCCA can be used to:—Compare the current situationwith that proposedunder several read more..

  • Page - 1015

    When the data hasbeen input into the spreadsheet,Microsoft Excel or asimilar program is used to calculatethe life cycle cost of the proposed project based on thatinformation.Based on the assumptions shownabove and with thecost and benefit calculations assigned to their particularyears, cash flows for each year are first summed for eachyear and then discounted back to the present. In Excel, thiscan be done by usingthe NPV formula, which allows bothdiscount rates and differential cash flow by read more..

  • Page - 1016

    † Loadcalculation andHVAC sizing tools: Hap,TRACE, DOE-2, BLAST, VisualDOE, EnergyPlus† Economic assessment tools: BLCC,Quick BLCC.CONCLUSIONLife cycle costing analysis is atool that combinesfinancial, technical, and otherinformation consideredover time to facilitatedecision-making. The variables inuse, the cost of whole projectsorsystems, and regulatoryrequirements can makethe use of complex computermodelingvital.The principles of LCCA, however,arerelatively simple and straightforward. The read more..

  • Page - 1017

    Lighting ControlsCraig DiLouieLighting Controls Association, National Electrical Manufacturers Association, Rosslyn,Virginia, U.S.A.AbstractAutomatic lighting controls have become astandard feature in new construction due to prevailing energycodes. Advancements in technology now enable abroad range of globalized and local, automatic andmanual control strategies to generate energy savings and support visual needs.INTRODUCTIONLighting controls are an essential part of everylightingsystem. The read more..

  • Page - 1018

    Daylight harvesting is used to enable lighting systemsto respond to ample available daylight by dimming orsome level of switching.Lumen depreciation compensationtakes advantage ofthe fact that mostlighting systems are overdesigned toaccount for agradual reduction of light outputoflamps asthey advanceinoperating age. Similar to daylightharvesting, this strategy entails measuring available lightin the space and dimming the light outputtomaintainaconstant level.Demandcontrol involves switching or read more..

  • Page - 1019

    typesofoperation. Manualcontrolsrequire immediatehumanintent to turn the lighting on or offoradjust itsoutput. Automatic controlsinitiate actions for lightingsystems based on registeredeventsorprogramming.Control options can be grouped as switchingcontrols,dimming controls, and integrated lighting control systems.Switching controls turnlights on and off, and manyperform other functions as well. At aminimum,everyspace shouldbeequipped with manual switching to permitoccupants or facility operators read more..

  • Page - 1020

    Occupancysensors are automatic switches that controllighting based on the presence or absence of people(seeactionGoTo:1021,Figs. actionGoTo:1021,5 and actionGoTo:1022,6). Their primary function is to switch electricillumination offautomatically in an unoccupied space afterthe last person leaves that space,saving energy (seeTable 4). Atiming control provides light for aperiod oftime after the area is vacated.Photocellcontrols respond to changesinambient light.When the ambient light level falls to read more..

  • Page - 1021

    Fig. 4 Lighting control panel installation.Source: From HUNT Dimming.Fig. 5 Occupancy sensors.Source: From Leviton Manufacturing.10.1081/E-EEE-120041648—5/5/2007—13:19—GANESHV—222715—XML Taylor &Francis EncyclopediasLighting Controls981InvLight© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC read more..

  • Page - 1022

    Low-voltage wiring provides inherent wiring flexibilitywhile also providing the foundation for simplelightingautomation (Fig. 7).Step-level HIDcontrols:step-levelHID lightingcontrolsare relay systems that operate mercury vapor,metal halide, and high-pressure sodium lightingateitherfull lightoutput or less (e.g., 50%) (actionGoTo:1023,Fig. actionGoTo:1023,8).Dimming controls are available for most typesoflighting. They can be integrated into automatic lightingcontrol systemsand can be used read more..

  • Page - 1023

    preheat the electrodesmoreaccuratelytominimizedamage to the electrodesduringthe startupprocess(according to aprogram), and therefore can optimizelamp life. While supplyingthe preheat voltage,the ballastminimizesthe lamp voltage,therebyreducingglowcurrent during thisphase with its associated degradingeffect on lamp life. As aresult, programmed-start ballastscan provide up to 100,000 starts, idealfor applicationswhere the lamps are frequently switched, such as spaceswith occupancy read more..

  • Page - 1024

    dimming ballasts. They can be interfacedwith othermicroprocessor-based centralized lighting control systemsor buildingautomation systems. These systemscanperform all of the functions that are important to energyoptimization. They can sense conditions in each area orzone andcontrol lighting to yield maximum energyefficiencywithoutaffecting visual comfort or otherconditions (actionGoTo:1025,Fig. actionGoTo:1025,13).Microprocessor-based centralized programmablelightingcontrol:amicroprocessor-based read more..

  • Page - 1025

    is designed principally for lighting, it is capable ofhandling otherloads. Photocells and other controlscanbe integrated into the system.Microprocessor-based programmable controllers canbe integrated into networked lighting control systemsthatallow schedules and otherprogrammable functions to beentered and then changedfrom acentral operator console.Networked systemsalso allow input from devices such asmasterswitches, photocells,occupancy sensors,tele-phones,orload-shedcontactstocontrol relays or read more..

  • Page - 1026

    Adaptability:for projectsinexisting facilities, lightingcontrolsshouldbeevaluated based on how well they canbe adapted to the facility, and how advantageous they willbe. Forexample, can the new control system be interfacedexisting local controls, or will the controls have to bereplaced? If daylight harvesting is of interest, is theresufficient daylight to warrant it? Adaptability applies notonly to applying controlstoexisting spaces; but alsotoensuring,inboth existing spacesand new read more..

  • Page - 1027

    Table 5 Selection of controls for various types of spaces: room by room analysisSpace typeUse patternIF.THEN.Cafeterias orlunchroomsOccupied occasionallyDaylighted.Consider daylight-driven dimming or on/offcontrolOccupied occasionallyConsider ceiling-mounted occupancy sensor(s).Make sure minormotion will be detected in all desired locationsClass roomUsually occupiedoccasionally occupiedMulti-tasks like overhead projectors,chalkboard, student note taking and reading,class demonstrationsConsider read more..

  • Page - 1028

    Table 5 Selection of controls for various types of spaces: room by room analysis (Continued)Space typeUse patternIF.THEN.Laundry roomsOccasionally occupiedRequires high light levels, yet lights are usuallyleft onConsider occupancy sensorsLibraries—readingareasUsually occupiedDaylight.Consider automatic daylight-driven dimmingLights left on after hoursConsider centralized controlsLibraries—stack areasOccasionally occupiedStacks are usually unoccupiedConsider ceiling-mounted sensor(s)Lobby or read more..

  • Page - 1029

    Utility rebates and incentives:anumber of utilitiescontinue to offer financial incentives for organizationsthat upgrade their lighting systems. The incentive maytake the form of cash for installing approved technologiesor cash perremoved unitofenergyconsumptionor demand.Electrical design:lighting control systemsshouldbedesigned usingall appropriate code rules and designpracticesrelatedtooverload, short-circuit protection,grounding, and other safety concerns. Be sure the controlsystem can read more..

  • Page - 1030

    control because low-voltage components such as light-level sensors are present.Equipmentlocation:asthe designerlocates thecontrols, he or she shouldask if their placement isappropriate. Controls should be easy to locate and accessfor use or maintenance. Partitions and walls will affect thecoverage patterns of sensors. For occupancy sensors, beaware of space considerations that couldresult in falsetriggering. The“brains”oflighting control systems shouldbe mounted near the lighting panelboards read more..

  • Page - 1031

    includesensuring that (1) light-level or delay-time setpoints are set, (2) dip switches are set, (3) sensors areaimed for maximum accuracy,(4) presetdimmingscenesare set, and (5) the system is tested to makesure it functions as intended. Commissioning andcalibration of lighting controlsare essential if energysavings are to be achieved and maintained. Occupancysensors with sensitivity set too high can fail to saveenergy, but occupancy sensors with too low asensitivityor too short adelay time can read more..

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    RESOURCESThe following web resourcescan be useful for learningmore about lighting and lighting controls:REFERENCES1. LCA Guide to Lighting Control;The Lighting ControlsAssociation: Rosslyn, VA, 2000.2. NEMA Guide to Lighting Controls;Lighting ControlsAssociation: Rosslyn, VA, 1992.3. Typical Lighting Control Applications;Federal EnergyManagement Program. actionURI(http://www.eere.energy.gov):http: read more..

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    Lighting Design and RetrofitsLarryLeetzowWorld Institute of Lighting and DevelopmentCorp./Magnaray International Division, Sarasota,Florida, U.S.A.AbstractLighting designers must consider certain parameters in all retrofit lighting projects. They must also examinespecific needs for specific (task) applications. Lighting systems should seek to maximize good lightingquality as well as energy efficiency.INTRODUCTIONThis article will provide overall general guidelines for theselection of read more..

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    system for agiven situation. Understanding the humanvisual response system and applying this information tooutdoor and commercial/industrial indoor designs willallow the designer to provide substantialenergy savingopportunities, while also improving visual acuity (Fig. 1).The central area,calledthe fovea,contains mainlycones.See Fig. 2.Rods and cones are spread throughout the entire retinalarea. Cones provide color sensing while rods provideacuity, or accuracy sensing. Rods and cones work read more..

  • Page - 1035

    discomforting and sometimes disabling. Standard headlightcoloration with “brights-on” alsocausesdiscomfort ordisabling conditions. Becausemost cars use the warmercolorheadlights, thesenew halogen (cooler color) head-lamps stand out more due to their uniquecoloration. Thesame factors of color and glare involved in headlights forroadway lighting mustbeconsidered for any task,indoorsor out.LIGHT WHERE YOU NEED IT, WHEN YOUNEED ITThere are other factors and systems to consider forconserving read more..

  • Page - 1036

    lamps, now maintain90C%inlumen outputfor 90%lamp life. No othersources maintainthat muchefficiencyto date, including “induction” systems.Induction SystemsArelatively new lighting system has been developed thatuses electrodelesslamp sources with inherent long liferesults (50,000–100,000h). Thedriver or ballastisbasically thesametypeofdevice that operates amicrowave oven to provide light output from the source.The driver/ballast cost is very high at this writing,and it issuggested that the read more..

  • Page - 1037

    of the system and the size of the facility. If an EMS is notused,thenthe proper operation of thecomponents(photocells, motion sensors, switches,etc.)mustbeperiodically verified.DESIGN PARAMETERSEach lighting application has arecommended range oflighting levels.Inother words, there is no one specific lightlevelthat has to be used for any given application. Themostrecent IES LightingHandbook/2000 provides agivenlevelofrecommended light levels (footcandles or lux)alongwith achartormatrix of read more..

  • Page - 1038

    provide avisual effectivenessmeasurement. See the chartbelow for basicmultiplyingfactorsfor various lampsources. Thevisual effectivenessreadout can be two tothree times higher than just the photopic method of lightmeasurement (today’smethod of measuring). This meanswe have been and are wasting from 33 to 66% of ourlighting energycostsusingtoday’s light meters! This issomething we can no longerafford to do. The CIE(Commission Internationaledel’Eclairage), who createslighting standards, read more..

  • Page - 1039

    internationallyacceptedterm is candela. Thedifferencebetweenthe candela and the old internationalcandleissosmallthatonlymeasurementsofhighprecision areaffected. From 1948 to 1979, the unit of luminous intensitywas defined in terms of acomplete (blackbody) radiator.From this relation, Km and K’m,and consequently thelumen, were determined. One candela was defined as theluminous intensityof1/600,000 m2 of projected area of ablackbody radiator operatingatthe temperatureofsolidification of read more..

  • Page - 1040

    Programmed start ballasts keep lamp life where itbelongs. AcombinationofW1PL50,W2PL50, andW4PL50, all having the same multi-lamp, multi-voltageballastwas used. Now only one lamp type and one ballasttype are neededinmaintenance inventory.More savings!Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of highintention, sincere effort, intelligent direction and skillfulexecution; it represents the wise choice many.REFERENCES1. Lighting Handbook, 8th Ed. Illuminating Engineering Societyof North read more..

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    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)Charles P. IveyAiken Global Environmental/FT Benning DPW,Fort Benning, Georgia, U.S.A.AbstractThe world has an abundant supply of natural gas, estimated at roughly 6000 TCF in areas with little or nolocal demand. This stranded resource has little value unless it can be delivered to areas of high demand thatare willing to pay the price of production and delivery. This entry discusses the liquefied natural gas (LNG)export terminals, LNG ships, LNG receiving terminals, read more..

  • Page - 1042

    one of the following: (a) acascade cycle usingseveralsingle-component refrigerantsor(b) amodified cascade cycle that circulates ablendofrefrigerants in asingle refrigerant circuit. Bothtypes use rotating compressors with large fuel gasconsumption. The cost of constructingthesefacilitiesand operating efficienciestypicallydeterminewhich process is selected for agivenlocation. Fuel gas can be as high as 8%–12%ofthetotal throughput.2. By permitting the gas to do work through theuse of an read more..

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    depending on the type of storage, the amount of insulationused, and the size of the container. In addition to boiloffdue to storage heat gain, flash vaporscan be generated inthestoragetankduringliquefaction, resultingfrompressure reduction on LNG that is not subcooled beforeenteringthe tank from theliquefactionplant.Bothoccurrences generate vapors that need to be recoveredusingcompressors to prevent atmosphericventing.Two areas of interest have indicated adefinite need forlarge-volume storage read more..

  • Page - 1044

    The double-wall, flat-bottomed tank—theconventionalconfiguration for above-ground metal tanks—isreally atank within atank, with the annular space betweenthe twofilled with insulating materials of various types. The innertank, in contact with the LNG, is made of materialssuitable for cryogenic temperatures of K2608F(K1628C)and the design loadings of the LNG.The outertank servestheprimarypurpose of containing gaspressure andinsulating materials that surround the innertank.Theouter tank read more..

  • Page - 1045

    instrumentation for process measurement, control, andsafety are important considerations.Regasification requiresthe following major operations:1. Pumping LNG from storage to distribution ortransmission system pressures.2. Vaporizing liquid to gas.3. Controlling process flow, pressure, and temperature.4. Odorizing and metering the sendoutstream.The physical surroundings, sendoutrate, and specifictype of LNG facility (base-load as compared with peak-shaving) would determine which method of read more..

  • Page - 1046

    An example of acryogenicrecovery or cold utilizationvaporizer system is one that would appealtototal-energycompanies or utilities that supply both natural gas andelectrical power. Thegas sourcewould be LNG, and thepower would be generated with gas-fired turbines.The process can be described as having the followingfeatures:1. The production of horsepower by means of agas-fired turbine driver.2. The continuous vaporization of LNG with the largequantity of low-quality heat available from the read more..

  • Page - 1047

    Fig. 6 These new facilities will play avital role in meeting existing and projected natural gas demands.Fig. 5 Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport ship.Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)100710.1081/E-EEE-120042145—5/5/2007—13:18—GANESHV—223899—XML Taylor &Francis EncyclopediasLiqMobil© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC read more..

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    In the ensuing years, the widespread highway movementof LNG has becomecommonplace and has established anenviablerecord of safety and reliability.CONCLUSIONThe LNG industry has been akey player in the U.S. naturalgas supplysystem since the early 1960s, used primarily inapeak-shaving role.Ithas been provedthattheliquefaction, transportation, storage,and regasification ofstrandedresources of natural gas constitute an economi-cally feasible solution to declining domestic productionand resulting read more..

  • Page - 1049

    Living Standards and Culture: EnergyImpactMarcA.RosenFaculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology,Oshawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstractEnergy is linked to living standards and culture in complex ways and these relations are examined in thisarticle. First, living standards and culture are described. Energy use is described and its relation topopulation and urbanization is examined. The environmental impact of energy use is described and theimpact of energy read more..

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    ENERGY USEPopulation and Energy UseWorld population is expected to increasefrom 6.2 billionin 2003 to about 10.5 billion in 2050.[23–26] Economicdevelopment will likely continue to grow, with globaldemand for energy services expected to increase from1990 levels by as muchasanorder of magnitude by 2050,while primary-energy demands are expected to increaseby1.5–3 times.The world population’sshareofdeveloping countries isabout 77%, and thisisexpected to reach about 85% by2050. Yet developing read more..

  • Page - 1051

    Table 3 Key social indicators for selected latin and caribbean countries (1998)ArgentinaBoliviaBrazilColombiaDomincanRepublicHaitiHondurasMexicoNicaraguaPopulationTotal population (millions)36.17.9165.940.88.37.66.295.84.8Average annual growth (1992–1998)1.32.41.41.91.82.12.91.72.8Urban population%oftotal population896180736434517455Annual growth1.63.32.02.52.83.94.91.93.2Life expectancy at birth (years)736267707154697268Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)196033234071363036Child read more..

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    world consumption of coal and othersolid fuelsincreasedannually at an averagerateof1.6%to3067 Mtoe.Hydraulic and nuclear energy are also expected to remainimportant,and the use of renewable energy sources isexpected to reachabout 100 Mtoeby2010. Selectedglobal environmental and energy-relatedsocioeconomicdata for the “capacity constraints case” is presented inTable 6.Table 5 Past and projected global energy consumption (based on IEA capacity-constraints case)Year1971199220002010Primary read more..

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    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTOFENERGY USEEnvironmental concerns associatedwith energy useimpact living standards and range from pollutant emis-sions,hazards,and accidentstothe degradationofenvironmental quality and natural ecosystems.[7–18]In the 1970s, concerns about energy use mainlyfocusedon economics and the availability of areliable supplyofenergyresources. Most countries begantoaddressenvironmental problemsinthe 1980s, adopting laws andpolicies aimed at coordinating economicdevelopmentwith read more..

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    Ecosystems are fragile and resourcesare scarce inmany regions, and ecosystemprotectionrequiresthatenergy activities be carefully managed. Air, land,andwater are being degraded in mostareas, and life-formssuch as mammals, birds, reptiles,plants, and aquatic lifeare threatened. Many of theseconcerns are associated withenergy use, but in manycountries energy options arelimited. Energy is either imported usingforeign exchange,which might also be used for purchasing items such aseducational read more..

  • Page - 1055

    as in the case of an “oil price shock” or adisaster such as adrought. To successfully mobilize the resources neededtoreducethe risks associated with energy use and relatedenvironmental considerations, society mustperceivethepotential long-term consequencesassociated with presentbehavior patterns. Translating the future threatsassociatedwith continualincreases in energyuse andcarbonemissions into immediate priorities is and will likelyremainone of the most difficult challenges facing read more..

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    which strategicplansprove to be acceptable or are able tobe implemented in different countries dependsinlarge parton cultures and living standards. However, the degree towhich acountry adopts such aplan also can affect itsfuture living standards and cultural development.ILLUSTRATION OF CONNECTIONBETWEENENERGY ANDSOCIETY/CULTUREThe country of China has presented in recent yearsone ofthe most notable examples of the importance of therelation betweenenergy and societal living standards andculture. read more..

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    25. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.Energy: The Next Fifty Years;OECD: Washington, DC,1999.26. World Energy Council. Global Energy Perspectives to 2050and Beyond;World Energy Council: London, 1995.27. Graedel, T.E.; Allenby, B.R. Industrial Ecology;PrenticeHall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995.28. MacRae, K.M. Realizing the Benefits of CommunityIntegrated Energy Systems;Canadian Energy ResearchInstitute: Calgary, Alberta, 1992.29. Wilbur, L.C. Handbook of Energy Systems read more..

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    Maglev(Magnetic Levitation)Kevin C. CoatesTransportation &Energy Policy, Coates Consult, Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A.AbstractAs the fairly recent deployment of two different maglev transport systems in Asia has unequivocallydemonstrated, the use of magnetic levitation for suspension and transportation propulsion is not only costeffective, but also introduces higher levels of system reliability not possible with other transportationtechnology. This entry provides asnapshot review of some of the read more..

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    this makes it aperfect technology for travel distancesbetween50and 1000 km (30–600mi), especially whentriptimes, reliableoperations, overall environmentalimpact,energy consumption, and safety are combinedfor consideration (see Fig. 2).In addition, a500-mile maglev line couldmakeafewstopsalongits route to service those smaller communitiesthat the airlines simply fly over. Aone- or two-minute stopis all that would be required at each station. Several trainsaday would reconnect thesesmaller read more..

  • Page - 1060

    eliminating electricity generation plantemissionsmeans that all electric-powered transportationbecomes that muchcleaner.Naturally, maglevsand other electric-powered modes are undeniablycleaner to operate alongtheir ROWs than anycombustion-powered mode).7. Increasingly constricted world oil supplies arecausing higher fuel prices that negatively impactU.S. transportation and the overall economy.8. Higher fuel prices will inevitably give way to fuelshortages as world demand read more..

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    During the first half of the 20th century, the decision to“invest” federally in the construction of anationalnetworkof airports—and to create anationally fundedand operatedair traffic control system to manage the flight connectionsbetweenthem—put the first nail in the coffin for long-distancetrain travel in America. The Federal-Aid High-way Act of 1956 provided for a65,000-kmnationalsystemof interstate and defense highways. This act soon put thekiboshonmost medium- and read more..

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    would take approximately three hours, regardless of mostweatherconditions. This means, of course, that few peoplewould ever fly theseroutes again,thus freeing valuablerunway slots for longer-haul flights and obviating the needfor expensive airport expansion projects. Indeed, thecountry’sseveral ongoing, federally funded, multibillion-dollar airportexpansionprojects representalogicalpotential sourcefor future maglev funding ($20 billionwas the total system cost estimated in the early 1990s read more..

  • Page - 1063

    (about6 in.) above the guideway during travel.ThisGerman-developed Transrapid high-speedmagleviscalledanelectromagnetic suspension (EMS) system.The secondcommercial maglev deployed this centuryis alow-speed HSST version (Linimo) in Nagoya, Japan,which is also an EMS, but its two key elements are thereverse of the Transrapid EMS system (see Fig. 7).Electromagnetic suspension is essentially an electricmotor brokendown to its two key elements: the rotor andthe stator. In atypical electric motor, read more..

  • Page - 1064

    long-term stability of foundations under dynamic loads(including earthquakes), analysis of the entire foundation-supportbeam system, and optimization of the foundationsystemsfor cost-effective design. Deformation consider-ations include immediate settlement,primary settlementdue to consolidation, plastic settlements resulting fromsecondary consolidation or creep, total plastic settlementsdue to dead load,total settlementsdue to cyclical loadsfromvehicle operations,elastic settlementsdue read more..

  • Page - 1065

    AirporttodowntownShanghaiwill take only acomfortable 10 min by maglev and cost less than halfthepresent fare forthe hour-long taxiride—andconsidering how harrowing Shanghaitaxi rides can be,riding the maglev will be much safer.While the Shanghaiproject was under way, anotherattraction maglev system was beingbuilt in Nagoya,Japan.This was the low-speed HSST, or Linimo,maglev.The Linimo began commercial operations in March 2005to coincide with the start of the 2005 WorldExpo. ThisHSST 100 has read more..

  • Page - 1066

    Although maglevs were conceived in the early 20thcentury, it wasthe rapidadvancement in computerprocessing in the late 20th century that reallypropelledmaglev development forward and transformed it intotoday’s premier transportationoption. Maglev transportissimply alogical next step in our society’s electrical andtransportation evolution (see Fig. 10).As maglev systems continue to comeonline aroundtheworld, and as the price of oil continues to climb, questionssurrounding this seemingly read more..

  • Page - 1067

    Management Systems for EnergyMichael L. BrownEnergy and Environmental Management Center,Georgia Institute of Technology,Savannah,Georgia, U.S.A.AbstractOrganizational energy management hasgenerally adapted aproject-oriented focus, withsuccessdetermined by the number of projects completed. While successful energy management projects must bepart of aviable energy management program, organizations must also broaden their focus to enable energymanagement to adapt to constantly changing business read more..

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    that experts in the field have collectively deemed state-of-the-art. Amanagement system which follows the modelor conformstothis standardisbuilt on afirm foundation ofstate-of-the-art practices.[2]The PDCA management cycle sets the stage for asystem to manage organizational change and it serves asthe process followed in all management system standards.The “plan” element of amanagement system involvesrecognizing aproblem or opportunity and planning theactions necessary to solvethe problem read more..

  • Page - 1069

    of stakeholders. In the case of the ANS for energymanagement (originally developed by the Georgia TechEnergy and EnvironmentalManagement Center), stake-holders included well-knownexperts from associationsrelated to energy and/or water;commercial energy users;consultants from energy engineering, energy technology,or management systems; educators (nonprofit) providingtraining in energy and/or waterconservation andmanagement;energyservice companiesserving asenergy brokers or providers of energy read more..

  • Page - 1070

    with their ongoing training and documentation process,which are already in place.Operatingmanagement systems are routinely subjectedto internal checksfor conformance (also referred to asinternal audits). During the internal audit, the managementsystem is examined by organizational employees to ensureconformity with the standard. Internal audits serveatleasttwopurposes. First, audits familiarize organizationalemployees with the management system standard andtherelatedprocesses read more..

  • Page - 1071

    accreditedcertificationbodies, knownasaccreditedcertificates, may be perceived in the market as havingincreased credibility. An organization can decide to fullyimplement amanagement system yet elect nottoconduct aregistration auditwith an accredited auditor. If this isaccomplished, the organization can still have afunctioningmanagement system, but will not have certification froman independentregistrar, which, in somecases, can offer acompetitive advantage.The registration process for read more..

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    fully developed or widely implementeduntil sometimeinthe next decade.CURRENT ENERGY MANAGEMENTSYSTEMSTANDARDSAs discussedpreviously, management systems in generaland management systems for energy in particularmustfollow adefined approval process to be adopted asinternational standards. The normal development processfor amanagement system standardisfor one or morenationalstandards to be developed first. As internationalinterest in energy management grows, an internationaltechnical committee is read more..

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    be preferred. Fig. 4illustratesthe 2005 process-orientedstandard.Standard ElementsactionGoTo:1074,Table actionGoTo:1074,2 describes the elements of the revised standard,ANSI/MSE 2000:2005. The standard is clearly organizedaccording to the PDCA cycle, as shown by elements 6.0,7.0, 8.0, and 9.0. In addition to the PDCA segments, thestandard alsocontainstwo elements (4.0 and 5.0) that mustexist to support these activities. Element 4.0, ManagementSystemfor Energy,containsrequirements necessary read more..

  • Page - 1074

    MANAGEMENT DRIVERS[10]Afundamental questionregarding ANSI/MSE2000 or anyother management systemis:Whatfactorsinduceanorgani-zation to apply such astandard? Theimplementation ofastructured, well-defined management system for energyhas been showntooffer an organization numerous benefits.HigherEnergy Management PerformanceTraditionally, energy hasbeen treated with acrisisapproach. Crisis energy management tends to focus onquickdecisions andoftenhigh-risk solutions to theproblem.ANSI/MSE 2000uses read more..

  • Page - 1075

    Improved Energy Efficiency, ReducedCosts,and Greater Consistency in FocusANSI/MSE 2000 emphasizesimproving purchasingpractices, operating performance,and equipment mainten-ance over intensive capitalinvestment. Focusing on theselow-cost, low-risk options improves organizational energyefficiency thus reducing energy costs, extends the life ofenergy assets, maximizes organizational value of projects,and optimizesthe impact of considered capitalinvest-ments. Documentation of read more..

  • Page - 1076

    thewholefacilityand brings credibility to energymanagement efforts. To achieve registration to theANSI/MSE2000:2005 standard, uppermanagementmust be committed to the energy program and demonstratethis commitmentthrough participation and support.Lack of Focus and Shifting PrioritiesAlack of focus and shifting management priorities arecommon problemsencountered by energy managers.Althoughthe energy managermay have aclearfocus, organizational management usually facesquicklychanging priorities. read more..

  • Page - 1077

    gainshave been made, but any drop in the total cost forenergy is attributed to the energy crisismanagement effort.Unfortunately, after some improvement is achieved, topmanagementisquicktomove on to morepressingproblems and these improvements are then lost. Imple-menting an ANSI/MSE 2000 management system requiresan organizational commitment to continuous improve-ment, implying the institutionofa management structurewherein gainsare maintained and new opportunities arepursued.Limited Resources read more..

  • Page - 1078

    implementation.Inaddition,managementdecided toformallyregister the ANSI/MSE 2000 standardsothatits use and results couldbeused as amarketing tool toemphasize C&A Floorcovering’s position on energy andenvironmental issues.Why ANSI/MSE2000?ANSI/MSE2000 is an ANSencompassing atotalapproach to energy management.Itcoversboth technicaland management aspects of asystem to manage andcontrol the purchase, storage,use, and disposal of energyand water utilities. The standardprovides structure for read more..

  • Page - 1079

    Selected the MSE TeamThe first approach to assembling the MSE Team was to usean already existing group, but maintenance people on thatteamhad no additional time for the implementationproject. Thereasons for the ANSI/MSE 2000 requirementsof abroad-based teamand necessary resource support(including time) became clear. By June 2001, ateamoftenpeoplefrom upper management,engineering, mainten-ance, purchasing, and technical services personnel wereappointed as the MSE team. Becauseofthe tight read more..

  • Page - 1080

    The body of the manual is only nine pages,allowingflexibility for operational differences within the plants.Developing Procedures and Work InstructionsTo tailorthe system to theparticular facility, theimplementation teamformalized or developed writtenprocedures for thoseoperations affecting energy cost,consumption, or disposal (including emissions and wastestreams).Initially, this was intimidating, as the energyteam felt they wouldhave to write procedures for the entireplant. Later, the number read more..

  • Page - 1081

    metrics be selected early in the planning stage. Regularmonitoring and measurement provide muchofthe dataneededfor project evaluation. In each case, the energycoordinator(as head of theMSE team) verifies theeffectivenessofthe project after implementation as wellas the resulting operational changes.The energy management system also ensures that anyoperational or policy changesare fed back into thesystem’s documentation. Thedocument control system iselectronic, so the mostcurrent procedures and read more..

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    Manufacturing Industry: Activity-Based Costing*J. Michael FernandesMobile Platforms Group, Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A.Barney L. CapehartDepartment of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida College ofEngineering, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.Lynne C. CapehartConsultant and Technical Writing Specialist, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractTraditional accounting and product costing methods usually take energy costs, put them into the categoryof overhead, and read more..

  • Page - 1083

    the second stage cost drivers allocate apercentage of anactivity cost pool to each productorcost center based onthe percentage by which that productorcost center usesthe activity. The sum of the allocations to aproductorcostcenter is the total cost of the product or total cost allocatedto the cost center. Second stage drivers assign coststoproducts or cost centers.The different typesofcostsassigned are unit, batch, product, organizational, andcorporate costs. These secondstagecost drivers read more..

  • Page - 1084

    analysisare the kilowatt-hours consumed by lighting,cooling, motors,production machines, and miscellaneoususe for each of the four activities. For example, the lightingkilowatt-hourcostdriver formanufacturingis332,466 kWh of lighting per year. Oncea cost driver isdetermined for aspecificactivity, the cost associated withthat particulardriver can be determined and allocated tothat activity cost pool.The total energy cost for any group of equipment suchas lighting is calculated based on the total read more..

  • Page - 1085

    thus had alighting cost of $27,328.68. The warehouse waslighted by 36 185-watt lampsfor 6240 h, andused49,872 kWh at alighting cost of $4,099.32. Theshippingand receiving area is located in the warehouse and takes uphalf of the warehouse floor space; therefore, half of thelighting cost was allocated to the warehouse activityandhalf to the shipping and receiving activity. Thegeneraloffice was lighted by 176 40-wattlamps for 2040 hatanactivity cost of $1,446.06.Next, the cooling or air read more..

  • Page - 1086

    energy consuming activity;the production machineusage.This cost was allocatedtothe manufacturing floor activity.Table 3summarizes all of the energy costs allocated tothe four activities. Thetotal warehouse activity energycost is $9327.06;the total shipping and receiving activityenergy cost is $4022.46;the total general office activityenergy cost is $16,246.14; and the total manufacturingfloor activityenergy cost is $153,657.48. Notethat themanufacturing activity consumes over 80% of the read more..

  • Page - 1087

    cutting—$34,931.04. This cost allocation data will giveDouble Envelope, an idea of which cost centers areconsuming the most energyresources. By identifying acenter’s consumption, thecompany can decide ifreductions shouldbemade.To show the impact of activity-based costing in thisapplication, it is useful to compare the ABC allocationwith the cost allocations that would be obtainedwith thetraditional cost allocationofall overhead—includingenergy costs—using laborhours. What we have read more..

  • Page - 1088

    increaseproduction and also increaseproduct quality, thedata from ABC allows determinationofthe bottom linecost component of energy per unit of production. Thus, alarge capitalinvestment in new equipment and newprocesseswhich reduces the energy cost component ofspecific products can often be justified usingthe ABCmethod.In the DoubleEnvelopeexample, thenumber ofindividual products is so large that the ABC energy costdata has only been developed for the six major costcenters.However, even with read more..

  • Page - 1089

    4. Cooper, R. The rise of activity-based costing-part one: whatis an activity-based cost system? J. Cost Manag. 1988,Summer.5. Cooper, R. The rise of activity-based costing-part two: whendo Ineed an activity-based cost system? J. Cost Manag. 1988,Fall.6. Cooper, R. The rise of activity-based costing-part three: howmany cost drivers do you need, and how do you select them?J. Cost Manag. 1989, Winter.7. Cooper, R. The rise of activity-based costing-part four: whatdo activity-based cost systems read more..

  • Page - 1090

    Measurement and VerificationStephen A. RoosaEnergy Systems Group, Inc., Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.A.AbstractMeasuring and verifying utility patterns is acomplex, multifaceted process that often involves anengineering assessment of energy usage and costs. Measurement and verification (M&V) methodologies areused in performance-based contracts, project commissioning, and for certain project certifications.Thankfully, numerous technologies and methodologies are available to measure and read more..

  • Page - 1091

    loggers,infrared thermography,metering equipment,monitors to measureliquid and gaseous flows, heat transfersensors, airbalancingequipment,CO2 measurementdevices, andtemperature sensors. Remotemonitoringtechnologies are alsoavailable.With the widespread useof digitaland wirelesstechnologies, costs for monitoringequipment have been decreasing as the capabilities ofmonitoring technologies continue to improve.In addition to improvements in measuring equipment,two primary M&V protocolshave been read more..

  • Page - 1092

    meters, and pressure switches; communications equip-ment; or programmable controllers. Options CorD mayinvolve installation of remotemonitoring and connectionsto existing digital energy management systems. Morecomplextechnologies simplyrequire more data gathering,calibration, maintenance, and data management (software)capabilities.THE MEASUREMENT AND VERIFICATIONPROCESSImplementing M&Vstrategies in energy performancecontracts is ameans of verifyingthe achievement ofenergy cost savings read more..

  • Page - 1093

    includedaspart of the final contract. The purpose of theM&Vplan is to identify and codify the procedures,methodologies, measurementdevices, standards, andprocesses that will be used to effect the M&Voftheprogram. As aresult,the applicable M&V standard mustbe identified in the M&V plan.Asa minimum, thecomponents of theM&V plan typicallyinclude thefollowing:† Term of the M&V project and the term that applies toeach savings component.† List of applicable facilitiesand read more..

  • Page - 1094

    STEP 4: PROVIDING APOST-IMPLEMENTATION REPORTAfter the physical implementation of the project,a post-implementation report is developed and provided. Thisreportdocuments thedifferences betweenwhatwasinitially intendedtohave been installedand whatwasactually installed. As aresult, one purposeofthis reportisto identify and resolve discrepancies between the intent ofthe project scope of work and the actual implementedproject scope.This requires areview of the final proposaland acomparison of scope read more..

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    In the future, it is likelythat M&V will prove to beuseful for abroader range of technical applications. Asdigitaltechnologiesbecome more widely used, it is likelythat the cost of data accumulation and management willdecline as the accuracy of measurements improves. Inaddition, M&Vreportingstandards are likely to be refinedand become more standardized.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThis entryisarevised andexpandedversionofapreviously publishedarticle entitled “Measurement andVerification for the read more..

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    Measurements in EnergyManagement: Best Practicesand SoftwareTools*Peter BarhydtArctic Combustion Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario, CanadaMark MenezesEmerson Process Management (Rosemount), Mississauga, Ontario, CanadaAbstractThis article will focus on considerations—often overlooked—which can have asignificant impact onmeasurements used in energy management. Users will learn how to optimize the accuracy and repeatabilityof gas and steam flow measurements, minimize flowmeter permanent pressure read more..

  • Page - 1097

    be easily verified. Auser who is not confident that aDP-flowmeter is accurate can simply:† Physically inspect the primary element (plate,Annu-bar, venturi, etc.) to ensure no damage.† Verify the calibration constant for the primary element(beta ratio, etc.).† Using apressure source, verify that asimulated zeroand full-span DP input into the secondary element (DPtransmitter) provides the correct 4–20 mA output.Thesame approachisavailable on newer vortexflowmeters:† Physically read more..

  • Page - 1098

    Temperature can also vary, even with saturated steam.As the steam flows, it loses pressure to friction,but—assuming well-insulatedpipes—cannot lose enthalpy.This means that it mustgain superheat,further reducingdensity.Temperature variation is even more significantwith gases, since they are often sourced from ambient(outside) air, and gas pipes are rarely insulated.To eliminate the impact of these variations, the “bestpractice” for any gas or steam flowapplication is tocontinuously read more..

  • Page - 1099

    upstream of the regulator. Applicationswhere PPL hasvaluefall into three general categories:Increaseinfluidpressure and/or flowrateZincreasedproduction rate.Flowmeterinlinewitha variable speed/frequencydriveZreduced energy cost.Newprojects—smaller pumpsand compressorsZreduced capital cost.Oncethe user identifies applications where reducingflowmeter PPL can provide value, the next stepistoquantify the ROI achievable by replacing the existing orproposed technologywithlow-PPLtechnology. read more..

  • Page - 1100

    high-density multiplexers. Newer multiplexer solutions(Fig. 7) use industry standards for communication, such asFoundation fieldbus and Modbus,avoiding proprietarydevices with their risk of long-term obsolescence.CONCLUSIONAs users look to better manage energy flows, some often-overlookedbest practices that shouldbeadopted include:† Ensure sufficient straight pipe or use conditioningorifice plates or reducer vortex meters.† Ensure correct orifice plate centering, or use self-centering read more..

  • Page - 1101

    Mobile HVAC Systems: Fundamentals, Design,and InnovationsAlex V. MoultanovskyAutomotive Climate Control, Inc., Elkhart, Indiana, U.S.A.AbstractAvehicle heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system is not just desirable, but it is also necessarystandard equipment for vehicles manufactured today. This system provides cab-crew comfort and isimportant for safety by ensuring demisting of the cab environment and defogging of windows in all kinds ofweather. This entry is asequel to the entry read more..

  • Page - 1102

    and sensible heat transferred,QsðWÞ Z Gðkg=sÞ ! Cp:aðJ=ðkga$KÞÞ ! DTðKÞ;ð2Þwhere G,anair mass flow rate (kg/s) of dry air; Dh,anenthalpychange of the air (J/kg); Cp.a,a specificheat ofthe air (J/(kga K);and DT,the temperature change of the air.Flow RateConversiontokg/sFor most coil heat transfer applications, flowrates are notgiven in kg/s (or kg/h). Instead,units are chosen that areconsistent with thoseused in the application offans,pumps,valves, and other components of the read more..

  • Page - 1103

    Now take the difference betweenmoisture in and moisturecondensed; this valueismoisture out. Then locate theintersection of grains of moisture per kilogramofdry air(moisture out) and dry-bulb temperature (average airdischarge temperature from the thermocouple grid on thecore face) on the psychrometric chart. Follow this pointover to the left to find the corresponding enthalpy (h2).The Dh is the difference in enthalpy (h1Kh2). Multiplythis number by Gtoobtain the air-side cooling capacity(power) read more..

  • Page - 1104

    evaporator; Ga,the air-flow rate; and Cp.a.,the specific heatof air at constant pressure.Even from this short example, the calculation of heattransfer evidently is inaccurate to begin with, becauseEq. 5isempiricaland, thus, inexact;then the heat transfercoefficient, a,has been identified inaccurately from theimprecise heat balance equations. In addition to the hugenumber of variables that must be taken into account duringthe coil design process, as described earlier, one morepoint should be read more..

  • Page - 1105

    above, at the same air-flow rate, the heat transfer is definedby the surface area of the evaporator. Based on thisstatement, Moultanovsky 2001[6] presented the construc-tion of anomogram that serves as an interconnectionbetweenthe dimensions or, to be more specific, the size ofthe frontal area of the evaporator, air-devicetotal heattransfer, and the evaporator’s outersurface temperature.This nomogram enablesthe designer to choose thepreliminary inverse selection (design optimization) read more..

  • Page - 1106

    and/or by utilizing empiricalequations that take intoconsideration the coolant physical properties and flow.That is why identification of the heat flux or heat transfercoefficient on the basis of IHTP methods with accuratetemperature measurement on the surface of the heater coremakes it possible to get precise results on the thermalparameters under study.[3,6] The fluxidentified in such away is afunction of aspecific heater core itself. Theobtainedheat flux (or heat transfer read more..

  • Page - 1107

    ABFig. 1 Electrified, self-contained, secondary loop, hermetically sealed mobile HVAC system. (A) Schematic with electrical heatingelements. (B) Complete system diagram with coolant fuel heater, internal and external components, and power package.Source: From Courtesy of ACC Climate Control, Inc.10.1081/E-EEE-120042978—5/5/2007—14:33—RATHNAS—223901—XML Taylor &Francis EncyclopediasMobile HVAC Systems: Fundamentals, Design, and Innovations1067LiqMobil© 2007 by Taylor & Francis read more..

  • Page - 1108

    regulations have an effect on manycategories of vehicles,includingtrucks, motor coaches, transit buses, and shuttleand school buses.Anaverage truck idles approximately2400 h/yr, burning about 2400 gal of fuel during thatperiod. Assuming that 1gal of fuel costs $3, the cost of 1truck idling its engine is about $7200/yr. Total idling timefor all Class 8trucks in the UnitedStates is about 1billionh/yr, which accordingly results in 1billion gal of diesel/yror $3 billion. If the trucks are not read more..

  • Page - 1109

    devices. Allvehicles benefit from efficientcooling andheating.[7]ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe author wishes to acknowledge the support of ACCClimateControl, Inc., which allowshim to use materialsand documentsthat are the propertyofACC ClimateControl.REFERENCES1. Hewitt, G.F.; Shires, G.L.; Polezhaev, Y.V. InternationalEncyclopedia of Heat and 20 Mass Transfer;CRC Press:New York, 1996.2. Kurosawa, I.; Noguchi, I. Development on ahigh efficiencydrawn cup type evaporator core. In Automotive ClimateControl read more..

  • Page - 1110

    Mobile HVAC Systems: Physics and ConfigurationAlex V. MoultanovskyAutomotiveClimate Control, Inc., Elkhart, Indiana, U.S.A.AbstractVehicle heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are necessary standard equipmentin today’s manufactured vehicles. These systems not only provide comfort to the cab crew, but alsoare an important safety feature that ensures ademisted cab environment and that can defog thewindows in all kinds of weather. This entry provides the reader ashort read more..

  • Page - 1111

    Global factors ambient conditions of the various mar-kets that the vehicle will operate in. (CompareNorth America with Europe for ambient loads.)Heattransfer transfer of heat from liquid to air; this heatis directly proportional to the difference betweenthe temperatures of the liquid and air enteringthe transfer system for agiven rate of liquid flowand airflow measured in kg/s or kg/hr and thatheat removed from liquid is equal to the heatgiventoair.Heating/defrosting system the system used to read more..

  • Page - 1112

    expansion device) of the liquid refrigerant (8Cor K).Superheatthedegrees of temperatureabove thesaturation temperature (based on theoutletpressure of the evaporator) of the vaporizedrefrigerant (8CorK).Expansion device avalveorfixed orifice in the refriger-antcircuitwith thepurposeofmeteringrefrigerant into the evaporator, inducing alargepressure drop and causing achange of state.Compressor adevice that pumpslow-pressure refriger-ant vapor out of the evaporator by suction,raisesits read more..

  • Page - 1113

    have an HVACsystem located in the frontofthe vehicle,but most buses, truck sleeper cabs, vans, and other vehiclesare equipped with arear HVACsystem.Overthe years, the HVACsystem has been greatlyimproved in the design of heat transfer surfaces, plumbingsystem,compressor, andair distribution. Today, theHVACsystem is not only of important value to thevehicle, but also, very often it is necessary equipment(e.g., for ambulances and fire trucks).Standards in alargevarietyofindustries include read more..

  • Page - 1114

    The features of the evaporation process are based on thetheoretical principlesofthe reversed Carnot Cycle (actionGoTo:1113,Fig. actionGoTo:1113,1),which actually represents the ideal refrigeration cycle.From the features of this cycle immediately follow thenecessaryconditions for the best-performance evaporationprocess, which are constant pressure and temperature ofthe refrigerant on the evaporation line of the pressure–enthalpydiagram (Fig. 1). In view of this statement, it isclear that all read more..

  • Page - 1115

    exchangertype in greatpart dependsupon spaceavailability.The same note has to be madewith regard to thefrontal area of the device. The frontal area shouldbeseparated from the wholeapparatus because on onehand,the surface areaisa very greatfactorininfluencing the evaporator and heater capacity—thatis, the greater this area, the better the heat exchanger’sperformance. On the otherhand, the frontal area of theheat exchanger is limited (again) by the space availablefor the device.SYSTEM read more..

  • Page - 1116

    temperature) and alow side (lowpressure and temperature).High side:from compressor discharge outlet to condenserto receiver/dryer (TXV system)toexpansion device inlet.Low side: expansion device outlet to evaporator coil toaccumulator (OT system)tocompressor inlet.SYSTEMCOMPONENTSAND DUTIESCompressorThe primary types of compressors used in the mobileHVACindustry are piston (most usable; see Fig. 4), rotary(worklikerotary engines), and scroll(work likesuperchargers).The compressor is the heart of read more..

  • Page - 1117

    CondenserThe two major typesofcondensers are tube and fin(Fig. 5A) and parallel flow condensers (Fig. 5B). There arealso serpentine-type condensers, which usually are notused as often as the othertwo types. Primarycondenserfunctions are to releaseenough heat to the outside air tocool the refrigerant from ahot gas to aless-hot liquid.Thecondenser must have air blowing across it at all times bymeans of afan and fan shroud.The condenser allows for the removal of heat or energyfrom the truck cab read more..

  • Page - 1118

    schematic of aTXV system is shownin actionGoTo:1115,Fig. actionGoTo:1115,2. There aretwo typesofTXV devices: capillary bulb (externallyequalized; Fig. 7A)and block(internally equalized;Fig. 7B).The expansion valvecontrols the amount of refrigerantsprayed into the evaporator; otherwise, liquid refrigerantwould be allowed to enter the compressor,which couldcause severedamage. The valve responds to changes in heatload conditions, and actually, TXV operates in response tosuperheat.Increased heat read more..

  • Page - 1119

    The advantagesand disadvantages of an OT system vs aTXV system will be discussedlater in this section.AccumulatorAn OT system actionGoTo:1116,(Fig. actionGoTo:1116,3) is equipped with an accumulator.Accumulators (Fig. 9) vary in style, but they all do thesamejob and do it the same way.The accumulator is aliquid vapor separator that stores (accumulates) excessrefrigerant that comes out of evaporator so that it does notreach thecompressor. Usually, accumulatorcontainsdesiccant that dries read more..

  • Page - 1120

    38C–68C. Basically, the evaporator confirmsthat the ACsystem is performing to expected specifications bymeasuringthe airtemperature as it leaves theheatexchanger.The Supporting CastThermostatsThermostats (Fig. 11A) sense the evaporator surface andprotect coils from freezing (also see Fig. 10A).The threebasic types of thermostats are rotary, cable controlled, andfixed setting. Thermostatsturn the clutch on and offbysensing evaporator temperature.A probe inserted into theevaporator (Fig.11B) read more..

  • Page - 1121

    These devices protect the AC system against low andhigh pressures, senselow refrigerant in thesystem,identify low voltage,measure some otherrefrigerantsystem parameters, and generatespecial codes whenanyof those parametersgoes to adangerous range and shut offsystem accordingly.Afew other supporting parts are fittings, hoses,andwater/heater valves.TXV SystemvsOTSystemThe expansion valve is amuchmore complex device thanthe orifice tube, and it offers awider range of control.However, our read more..

  • Page - 1122

    National EnergyAct of 1978Robert R. NordhausVanNess Feldman, PC, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.AbstractThe National Energy Act (NEA) of 1978 was passed by U.S. Congress in response to the energy crisis of the1970s. It was designed to resolve adisjointed national energy policy and empower the United States withgreater control of its national energy destiny. The NEA and its progeny established energy efficiencyprograms, tax incentives, tax disincentives, energy conservation programs, alternative fuel read more..

  • Page - 1123

    In thetransportationsector, the NEPproposedinitiatives to reduce the demand for gasoline and othertransportation fuels.Inenergyefficiency,the NEPproposed areductionofenergywasting in existingbuildings, an acceleration in the development of manda-tory energy efficiency standards for new buildings, and theestablishmentofmandatory minimum energy efficiencystandards for major appliances. In the electric industry, theNEP proposed the removal of major institutional barriersto cogeneration and to read more..

  • Page - 1124

    these provisions never had any practical effect because ofchanging market conditions, and in May 1987, Congressrepealedthem.CURTAILMENTIn the NGPA,Congressplayed adirect role for the firsttime in establishing asystem of curtailment priorities toallocate the gas supplies of interstate pipelines in theirsupply shortages. Becauseofthe improvedsupplysituations of the interstate pipelines, these provisionsalso had little practical effect.EMERGENCY AUTHORITYAND TRANSPORTATIONThe grant of presidential read more..

  • Page - 1125

    First, imposition of astandby gasoline tax at up to50 centsper gallon was proposed if nationaltargetsforreduction in gasolineconsumption were notachieved.Second, the Presidentproposed aCrude Oil EqualizationTax (COET) that would have imposed atax equal to thedifference betweenthe ceiling price for price-controlledcrude oil and the average cost of crude to refineries. Third,consumptiontaxes on industrialand utility uses ofpetroleum products and natural gas were proposed. Thepetroleum tax, which read more..

  • Page - 1126

    energyconservation program forexistingbuildings,highlighted by atax credit for amounts spent on residentialenergy conservationinvestments. Utilities were to bedirected to offer energy conservationservicesfinancedbyloans that would be repaid through utilitybills.For thelow-incomesector, direct grants totaling almost $530million wouldbeprovided for conservation investments.There were other loansand grant programs, includingmandatory efficiencystandardsfor newbuildings,afederal building read more..

  • Page - 1127

    REFERENCES1. Natural Gas Policy Act,Public Law No. 95-621, 1978.2. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act,Public Law No.95-617, 1978.3. Energy Tax Act,Public Law No. 95-618, 1978.4. Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act,Public Law No.95-620, 1978.5. National Energy Conservation Policy Act,Public Law No.95-619, 1978.6. Ad hoc Committee on Energy, National Energy Act,1977.7. National Energy Plan P.52, Senate Committee on Energyand Natural Resources, Publication No. 95-16, May 1977.8. Natural Gas read more..

  • Page - 1128

    Natural Energyversus Additional EnergyMarcA.RosenFaculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology,Oshawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstractEnergy forms can be categorized in many ways, with one of the categories being natural or additionalenergy. Natural energy includes energy received directly and indirectly from the sun and energy derivedfrom other natural forces while additional energy includes nonrenewable resources as well as energy formsthat do not exist read more..

  • Page - 1129

    various energy-conversion processes(e.g., water electro-lysis, reforming of natural gas, coal gasification). Never-theless, hydrogen is often erroneously referred to as anenergy source, especially in discussions of its potentialfuture role as achemical energy carriertoreplace fossilfuels.NATURAL ENERGYNatural energy includesthe solar radiation incidentonthe earth and the energy forms that directly result fromthat radiation.Natural energy alsoincludesthe energysupplied by other natural forces read more..

  • Page - 1130

    relatively constant,the energy accumulation term is zero.Therefore, the energy output is equal to the energyinputfor the planet.Global warming is caused by adisruption in the earth-sun energy balance. The main cause of global warming isincreased releases of atmospheric “greenhousegases”thatabsorb radiation in the 8–20 mmregion. When greenhouse-gas concentrations increaseinthe atmosphere,energyoutputfrom the earth and its atmosphere (Fig. 1) isreduced while energyinput remains constant. read more..

  • Page - 1131

    The secondmain categoryofadditional energy isenergy currencies that do notexistnaturally.They includesuch basic energy forms as work, electricity, and thermalenergy. The latter can include either heat or aheatedmedium like steam or cold water.Thermal energy in theform of heat or cold can be transportedtousersover longdistances in district heating and cooling systems. Districtheatingsystems usecentralizedheating facilities toproducea heated medium which is transportedtomanyusersconnected alonga read more..

  • Page - 1132

    Hydrocarbon fuel C AirðmainlyO2 and N2Þ / CO2C H2O C N2 C Other substancesThe other substances are leftover reactants and otherreaction products. The reaction for stoichiometric combus-tion (i.e., complete combustion with abalanced amount ofreactants and no reactions that yield other products)ofageneral hydrocarbon (CmHn)inair (treated as onlynitrogenand oxygen) can be written asCmHn C ðm C n=4ÞðO2 C 3:76N2Þ / mCO2C n=2H2O C 3:76ðm C n=4ÞN2Here, m and n are variables that take on read more..

  • Page - 1133

    are sustainable. Amajor barrier to renewable energysources is that they are usually morecostly to use thannonrenewableenergy sources such as fossil fuels, althoughthis observation is not trueinsome niche applications.The useoffossil fuels leadstocombustion emissions.Problematic pollutants are generally lower for fuelshavinghigherhydrogen-to-carbon atomicratios,sonatural gas ismorebenign than oil, which is more benign than coal.There are no emissions during normal operation of read more..

  • Page - 1134

    efficiency by storing energy betweentimeswhenitisavailable and whenitisneeded.ImprovedBuilding EnvelopesThe energy efficiency of abuilding can be improved byincreasing insulation to reduceheat infiltration in summerand heat loss in winter, applying weather stripping andcaulkingtoreduce air leakages,and utilizing advanced andhigh-efficiency windows. The latter reduceheat losses byusing multiple glazingsthat are sometimes separated byinsulating gases or avacuum,electronic andphoto-sensitive read more..

  • Page - 1135

    3. Organization for Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentWorld Energy Outlook;OECD: Washington, DC, 1998.4. Handbook of Energy Systems Engineering:Production andUtilization;Wilbur, L.C. Ed.; Wiley: Toronto, 1985.5. Niele, F. Energy: Engine of Evolution;Elsevier: Oxford,U.K., 2005.6. O’Callaghan, P.W. Energy Management;McGraw-Hill:New York, 1993.7. Goldemberg, J.; Johansson, T.B.; Reddy, A.K.N.; Williams,R.H. Energy for aSustainable World;Wiley: New York,1988.8. Wright, S.E.; Rosen, M.A. read more..

  • Page - 1136

    Net MeteringSteven FerreySuffolk University LawSchool, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.AbstractEighty percent of states have adopted net metering, aregulatory innovation to implement decentralizedrenewable power alternatives. Net metering provides the most significant boost of any policy tool at anylevel of government—both qualitatively and quantitatively—to decentralize American power sources.Forty states to date are implementing net metering. Net metering, legally, if not physically, runs read more..

  • Page - 1137

    (QFs) governed by the federal Public Utility RegulatoryPolicies Act of 1978 (PURPA), which precludes sales ofexcesspower generated by QFs at rates in excessofthepurchasing utility’s avoided cost.FERC defines avoided costs as “the incremental coststoan electric utility of electricenergy or capacity or bothwhich, but for the purchase from the QF or QFs, suchutilitywouldgenerate itselforpurchase from anothersource.” The Iowa court alsoruled that if thesesmallgenerating facilitiesare not QFs read more..

  • Page - 1138

    waste (MSW)trash-to-energy technologies as eligiblebecause of an objection to the burning of municipal trash(as opposedtolandfilling or recycling trash). Afew stateswith significant in-state coal industriesinitially definedcoal as an eligible renewable technology. In short, themanner in which states define eligible technologies issubject to state policy discretion.States also vary greatly with regard to how large eligibleinstallations are. While moststates limit the size to read more..

  • Page - 1139

    (Continued)StateEligible technologyEligible customerslimitsSize limitsPriceIndianaRenewables andcogenerationAll customer classes%1000 kWh/monthMonthly NEG granted toutilitiesIowaRenewables and MSWAll customer classesNo limit per systemMonthly NEG purchasedat avoided costKentuckyPV, hydro, and windAll customer classes%10 kWNED carried to nextmonthLouisianaRenewables, fuel cells, andmicroturbinesAll customer classesResidential %25 kw;Commercial andAgriculture %100Not specifiedMaineMSW, read more..

  • Page - 1140

    CONCLUSIONStates are allowed to utilize largely invisible transactionsthrough the rate base to subsidize projects through netmetering without FERC oversight. Net metering andbilling policy constitute the mostimportant of four policysupports for the renewable energy industry initiatives inthe United States. In addition to net metering and billing,almost two dozen states have elected to establish renew-able portfolio standards and/or system benefit charges thatsupportrenewable energy trust read more..

  • Page - 1141

    Nuclear Energy: EconomicsJames G. HewlettEnergy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy,Washington, D.C., U.S.A.AbstractThis article attempts to answer the question: “Is Nuclear Power Economic?” There are two major factorsinfluencing the economics of nuclear power, and since major uncertainties with both of them exist, it isimpossible to give an unqualified answer. The first factor is the cost of building the nuclear power plant.Analysis has found that costs must fall from read more..

  • Page - 1142

    (e.g., apump)and the associated laborinstallationexpenses would first be estimated, with the total derivedby simply adding all the component costs. Factors suchas bad weather or laborstrikesalmost always occur butare typically not incorporated in the bottom-up estimates.To account for this, acontingency allowance is generallyincluded. (The contingency is typicallya fixed percent ofthe baseline cost.) This approach has been used for manyyears and, many times, will provide accurate estimatesfor read more..

  • Page - 1143

    was just approved by the NuclearRegulatory Commis-sion (NRC), and the latter is in the initial stages ofNRC review.Unfortunately,none of these units have been builtanywhere in the world, so there is no information onrealized costs, and, thus, bottom-up cost estimates mustbe examined. According to the vendors’bottom-upestimates, they think (or hope, rather)that, eventually,plants with thesedesigns couldbebuilt for about $1000–$1400 per kW.[5] It must be noted that, historically,similar vendor read more..

  • Page - 1144

    power is treated as “different”because manyofthecomponents are highlyradioactive. Thus, to protectpublic heath and safety, the NRC also regulates thedismantlement of the plant once it is retired. The NRCmust approve afirm’s decommissioning plans, insurethat the residualsite radiation meets NRC requirements,and oversee the actual plant dismantlement. In total, thecost of dismantling aplantand restoring the site isabout $400–$600million per unit.The high-level waste from anuclear power read more..

  • Page - 1145

    Becauseofall of theseuncertainties, the analysisusestwo real discount rates of betweenabout 5and 11% (referto Table 1). The11% real after-tax discount rate assumesthat building and operating any power plant is fairly risky,and is roughlyconsistent with ones used to examine airlineindustry investments. This rate is also consistent withactual rates used by firmsincompetitive industries.[13] Thediscount rate used for completely risk-free investmentswould be about 3%, which is slightly less than read more..

  • Page - 1146

    0123456719701975198019851990199520002005Year2003DollarspermillionBtuFig. 2 Cost of natural gas delivered to U.S. electric utilities.Source: From Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review,January 2005.040080012001600200000.511.522.533.5"Current" Real Coal Prices ($s per million Btu)Note: Current refers to the first year of the unit's operation which is 2010. See actionGoTo:1145,Table actionGoTo:1145,1 for the escalation rates in real prices from read more..

  • Page - 1147

    powerwouldbeeconomic relative to gas-fired powerplants (point A). If, however,gas prices remain at theircurrent levels for the next six or so years, nuclear powerwould be economicifthe nuclear plant couldbebuiltforabout $2000 or less (point B).As discussedabove, given all the caveats,mostoftheavailable information suggests that the U.S. costs ofbuilding nuclear powers plants with designs similar to theones beingconstructed in Finland and the Far East areabout $1700–$2000. Since this range is read more..

  • Page - 1148

    05001000150020002500300000.511.522.533.544.5"Current" Real Natural Gas Price ($s per million Btu)Note: Current refers to the first year of the unit's operation which is 2010. See actionGoTo:1145,Table actionGoTo:1145,1 for the escalation rates in real prices from 2010.NuclearCapitalCosts(2004DollarsperkW)Nuclear PowerEconomicNuclear PowerUneconomicFig. 5 The economics of nuclear power relative to gas-fired power plants: lower read more..

  • Page - 1149

    than $150 per ton would be needed.[2] The effects of a$100 per ton carbon tax on the economics of nuclear powerwill now be considered.Carbon emissions are much greater from coal than fromnatural gas-fired power plants, so it was not surprising tofind that if a$100 per ton carbon tax was imposed,regardless of the price of coal, nuclear powerwould beeconomic. Becausethese results are so predicatable, forbrevitysake, they arenot reported.The resultsofcomparisons with natural gas, showninFig. 7, read more..

  • Page - 1150

    costsonfuturegenerations.However, such equityconsiderations are outside the realm of economicanalysis.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSIwould like to thankmypast and present colleagues at theEnergy Information Administrationfor their many usefuldiscussions with me about the economics of nuclear powerand their assistance in my research in studying this subject.However, the view and opinions stated in this article arethe author’salone and do not represent the officialpositionof the Energy Information read more..

  • Page - 1151

    Nuclear Energy: Fuel CyclesJames S. TulenkoLaboratory for DevelopmentofAdvanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials, University of Florida,Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractThe nuclear fuel cycle utilizes either uranium or thorium, which are relatively plentiful materials. Bothmaterials must undergo several processing steps in order to be converted into auseful fuel for nuclearreactors. For uranium, this involves conversion to UF6,enrichment, and final processing into fuel elements.Thorium is more read more..

  • Page - 1152

    explosion of anearby supernova. Only asupernova canmanufactureelementsheavier than iron,includinguranium.With ahalf-life of 710 million years, U-235started out making up nearly half of all uranium whenthesolar system began some 4560 million yearsago. Overtime, the percentage of U235 in natural uranium hassteadily decreased. However, there is evidence that anatural nuclear reactor was formed approximately1.8billion years ago in Oklo in Ghana, Africa: ariver flowedabove aburied rich uranium ore read more..

  • Page - 1153

    URANIUM CONVERSION AND ENRICHINGThe U3O8 concentrate must be both purified and convertedto uranium hexafluoride (UF6), which is the form requiredfor the enriching process. At the conversion facility, theuraniumoxide is combined with anhydrousHFandfluorine gas in aseries of chemical reactions to form thechemical compound UF6.The productUF6 is placed intosteel cylinders and shipped as asolid to agaseous diffusionor gaseouscentrifuge plantfor enrichment. UF6 is awhitecrystalline solid at room read more..

  • Page - 1154

    generateapproximately $200,000 in the waste fund forits disposal.There is enough uranium and thorium in the world tobreed the amount of fuel required to allow nuclear plantsto producethe current rate of electrical energy usage forthe next 1000 years.When safely run, the nuclear fuel cyclepresents adependable, non-polluting powersources with averysmall waste stream.Currently, 20% of the electrical powerneeds of the United States and 18%ofthe world’selectrical powerneeds are met with nuclear read more..

  • Page - 1155

    Nuclear Energy: PowerPlantsMichael Burke WoodMinistry of Energy,AlDasmah, KuwaitAbstractAbrief history of the main nuclear power plant types, including the reasoning behind fuel, moderator, andcoolant choices and their relative advantages and disadvantages, are given in this entry. The three mostsuccessful—the pressurized water reactor (PWR), the boiling water reactor (BWR), and the Canadiandeuterium uranium (CANDU), as well as afast reactor—are described in greater detail. read more..

  • Page - 1156

    experimental version was the first nuclear powerplant tosupply electricity to atown in 1955. Despite its apparentsimplicity, because of the secondary systemsrequired,the BWR competes closelywith the PWR on cost and isthe second-most common design, with about 90 reactorsof 85 GW(e), mainly in theUnitedStates,Japan,Germany, and Sweden. PWR and BWRare knownaslight water reactors to distinguish them from thoseusingheavy water containing deuterium.Both have inherentlysafe shutdowncharacteristics read more..

  • Page - 1157

    down comer. An alternative once-through steam gen-erator,which produces alow degree of superheat,eliminating steam separators, is used in somePWRs.The pressurizerisconnected to one hot leg of theprimary circuitand maintained at 3458Ctoensureatrapped steam bubble, which accommodates primarycircuitvolume changes caused by temperature variationsor liquid moderator injections. It controls pressure byalternatively increasing the steam bubble usingelectricheaters or reducing it by spraying water drawn read more..

  • Page - 1158

    turbine at about 2858C. Becauseofthe presence of steamin the core, apressurizer is not required. The use ofreactor coolant as workingfluid has several implications.When turbine load is increased, control valves open toprovide more steam and flow resistanceand thereforepressure reduces. Flashing occurs in the core,reducingmoderation and therefore reactor power. Theconverseoccurs when the load is reduced, both to the opposite ofthe desired effect. This behavior is compensated byrecirculation read more..

  • Page - 1159

    tube,also zirconium,containing the fuel and heavy watercoolant, at 90 bars. Coolant enters at 2498Cand leaves at2938C. Therods are natural U2Opellets contained inzircolloy tubesthat are 0.5 Mlong, 38 are connectedtoform acylindrical bundle and 12 bundles are arranged end-to-end in the pressure tube.The pressure tubesareconnected via headers to steam generators similar tothoseused in aPWR.The shell side carrieslight water andgenerates steam at 2518Cand 40 bars. To minimize theeffect of aLOCA, read more..

  • Page - 1160

    efficient in breeding plutonium. The trendofnaturaluranium, graphite-moderated, gas-cooled reactorswascontinuedwith the CalderHall design, which used closedcircuit carbon dioxide cooling. To provide sufficient heattransfer, powerful gas circulators and acoolant pressure ofabout seven bars, requiring asteel pressure vessel, wasused. Although these reactors were primarily for militaryplutonium production, reactor heat was recoveredbyexternalboilerstodrive 60-MW(e)turbine generators.When read more..

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    cooled pool type, typical of present FBRs. Phoenix, SuperPhoenix, BN-600, and the U.S. advanced liquid metalreactor (ALMR) all used this concept. Other U.S. andJapanese designs used the alternative loop concept inwhich the intermediate heat exchanger is contained in aseparate vessel. The pool is morecompact and lesssensitive to sodium leaks.The following descriptionapplies to Super Phoenix. The core consists of 360stainless steel fuel assemblies, which are hexagonal toobtain the closest read more..

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    degradablepoisons to extend fuel life, high availability,and 60-year operating lives. Another general objective issmaller modular reactors with passive safety features thatenable agenerating site to be progressively developed andare more suitable for small electrical power grids indeveloping countries. The first Generation III design, the1300-MWABR, has been deployed in Japan since1997,with fivenow operating. Recirculating pumps and pipingare enclosed withinthe reactor vessel, eliminating them read more..

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    closed Brayton cycle is used with arecuperator and threegas turbines, using magnetic bearings, to drive two stagesof gas compressionand the generator. Containment isdependent on the integrity of the fuel and the reactor vessel.There is no secondary containmentoremergency coolingsystem. China operates asmall prototype PBMR and plansa200-MW productiondesign and large-scale adoption by2020.The second design being certified is the 285-MW(e) gas turbine modular helium reactor, GT-MHR,showninFig. 6, read more..

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    United States in 1980; and in 1998, aJapanese versionachieved aratio of fusion powertoinput power(Q) of1.25, the highest yet achieved.Construction of ITER,intendedtoprove feasibility of fusion as an energy source,commenced in 2005.Its objectives aretoproduce500 MW of powerfor 500 sand asustained Qof5.Themajordevelopmentsrequired are plasma stability,materials for the vacuum vessel, which is subject tointense neutron and thermal radiation, and breeding tritiumfuel from lithium in an outer read more..

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    Nuclear Energy: TechnologyMichael Burke WoodMinistry of Energy,AlDasmah, KuwaitAbstractThis entry summarizes the history of nuclear technology, presents essential concepts of atomic structure,binding energy, and the three types of nuclear reaction—radioactivity, fission, and fusion. Generalimplications for reactor design, control, and operation are given. Nuclear safety, accidents, and theirimplications and the effects of radioactivity are discussed.INTRODUCTIONNuclear technology and read more..

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    nuclear binding energy and confirmed that fission wasaccompanied by alarge releaseofenergy.The two possibilities—acontrolled chain reaction in adistributed mass, areactor;and aconcentrated massreacting exponentially, abomb—were nowforeseen.Bohr,working with Wheeler,identified themajordifficulty of the latter—only the U235 isotope,0.7% ofnatural uranium,underwent fission, and the rest, U238,absorbed neutrons and inhibited the reaction. Anaturaluranium bomb was therefore impossible and read more..

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    nuclear materials and in otherwestern countries in theaftermath of theThree MileIslandand Chernobylaccidents. Althoughthe former increased confidence thatthe consequences of avery serious accident could beconfined to the plantand the latter had no relevance to anyreactor in the West,the effect of these accidents on publicopinion and politics effectively frozedevelopment andconstruction of nuclear plants in the West for two decades.Concern about globalwarming and alternative energysupplyisnow read more..

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    Beta radiation is of two types. Beta K decay occurswhen anucleus has one excessneutron. This transformsinto aproton, thus the atomic number is increased. Theassociated weak force carrier particle is released andimmediately decays into an electron and an antineutrino.For example, thorium Beta decays to protactinium:90Th234/91Pa234CK1e0 C antineutrinoIn Beta C decay,anexcessproton transformsinto aneutron and the atomic number is reduced. The weak forceantiparticle decaystoa positron and aneutrino. read more..

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    for homogenous assemblies of the mostcommon nuclearfuels are:Plutonium 239 is similar to U235 but has ahigherthermal fission cross section. From the natural uraniumresults it can be seen that small quantitiesofU235markedlyincreases fission crosssection. This trend iscontinued by low levels of enrichment. The probability ofscattering and capture by the other materials requiredinpractical systems is also expressed in barns.Fast neutrons are thosenewly produced by fission withenergies O0.1 up to read more..

  • Page - 1170

    to 3208C, and efficiency to 32%. Powerdensities are up to100 MW/M3.Inafast reactor, no moderator is required,fuel rods are very closely spaced, and power density isexceptionally high—400MW/M3.Coolant with lowcapture and very high heat transfer are required and coregeometry must be precisely maintained to ensureuniformcooling. So far,liquid metals, predominantly sodium, havebeen used with outlet temperatures of 6008Cand efficiency40%. Helium, which will increase both parameters, hasbeen read more..

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    bombardment; 3Li6Cn/2He4C1T3,long enough for afusion reaction to occur. Controlled fusion reactions forpowerproduction have huge potential as an inexhaustibleenergy sourcethat does not producelong-lasting radio-active waste, but they are muchmore difficult and notyet achieved.The fusion process must be self-sustainingand produce more thermal energy than is lost, primarilyby radiation.Stellarprocess cannotbereproducedandresearch is basedonuse of artificial reactions.Energy release is amaximum read more..

  • Page - 1172

    reactors were decommissioned as aresult. Neither theprocedure that initiated the firenor the open-circuitcooling is relevanttoany present reactor.In 1979, feed pumps in the secondary circuit of aPWRat Three Mile Island failed, preventing heat removal fromthe reactor cooling circuitvia the steam generators. Thereactor was shut down, but pressure increased due to decayheat release. Areliefvalveoperated but jammed open,depressurizingthe primarycircuit.Instrumentationshowed it to be closed. No core read more..

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    acceptable levels. Because it has no charge, neutronradiation is notdirectly ionizing, but its absorption makesanucleus emit ionizing radiation.For the same reason, it isalso extremelypenetrating and best shielded by amassoflight nuclei. In practice, several feet of concrete arerequired.In the UnitedStates, the unit of absorbed radia-tion energy is the Rad (radiation absorbed dose, equal to0.01 J/Kg).Toaccount for different damage potentials oftypesofradiation, exposure of living tissue is read more..

  • Page - 1174

    Performance ContractingShirley J. HansenHansen Associates, Inc., Gig Harbor,Washington, U.S.A.AbstractEnergy efficiency (EE) reduces operating costs and frees up funds for capital improvements. It also makesfunds available to purchase text books, buy new medical equipment, or hire more teachers. It lowers costsfor consumers, enables enhanced industrial competition, and has the potential of significantly reducingenergy-related pollution.With all of the incredible benefits of EE, the question read more..

  • Page - 1175

    meettheir payments to suppliers or financial backers.Several ESCOsclosed their doors and, in the process,defaulted on commitments to their shared savings partners.“Shared savings” was in trouble—and the process becametainted by lawsuitsand suppliers’ efforts to recoup some oftheir losses, while facility managerstried to explain theirown losses, which were previously guaranteed.To make matters worse, it was discovered during thistroubling time that one of the ESCO pioneers, read more..

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    from the customer’s perspective are presented in Manualfor Intelligent Energy Services,[2] which is fully referencedat the end of this section) must offer morethan savingsopportunities; they must have the qualities neededfor asuccessfullong-term partnership. Thecriteria, whichinclude organizational characteristics, such as businesslongevity, and facility factors, such as projected usepatterns, vary slightly among ESCOs.But the process of selection is viewed by all successfulperformance read more..

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    While shared savings remains the dominantmodelinEurope,inthe United States, roughly 90 percent ofperformance contracts are currently structured for guar-anteed savings, with the owner typicallyaccepting the debtthrough third party financing (TPF).The typical cash flow of these two financing models isshowninthe Fig. 2. In analyzing this cash flow, there aretwo distinguishingcharacteristicsthat shouldbenoted.First, in guaranteed savings, the ESCO and the lenderseldom have alegal relationship. read more..

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    value chainissupplyefficiencies. It is placed abovecomprehensiveEEservices only because thedollaramounts can be greater for work on the supplyside ofthe meter.When comprehensive EE servicesare paired withsupply efficiencies, such as cogeneration or distributedgeneration, the package is referred to as an integratedsolution.Integrated solutions and chauffage are sometimes usedinterchangeably,but chauffage generally refers to agreatervalue-added approach. As mentioned earlier, under achauffage read more..

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    The multilateral developmentbanks,suchastheEuropean Bank for Reconstruction and Development, theWorld Bank, the Inter AmericanDevelopment Bank, andthe Asian Development Bank, have all takensteps tofoster and encourage the use of ESCOs in developingcountries.CONCLUSIONPerformance contracting guarantees savings, and pro-duces results. It recovers the moneynow going towardwasted energy and directsittothe organization’s needs.Itmakes moneywhile improving the environment,a simpleconcept. read more..

  • Page - 1180

    Performance Indicators: Industrial EnergyHarvey E. DiamondEnergy Management International, Conroe, Texas, U.S.A.Robert G. BotelhoEnergy Management International, Seekonk, Massachussetts, U.S.A.AbstractIndustrial Energy Key Performance Indicators will address demand side IEKPI’s—what they are, whattypes are utilized, the characteristics of their application, how they are determined, how they can bedeveloped, what is needed to produce them, and how they can be used to bring energy read more..

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    As mentioned earlier, IEKPIs in this article are aimed atthe demand side of energy consumption in industrialfacilities. Industrial energy key performance indicators aredetermined and quantified in order to effectivelymanagethe energy consumption of an industrial facility. Industrialenergy key performance indicators reveal and illustratehow effective an industrial facilityisatusing energy tomanufacture products.Industrial energykey performanceindicators reveal whetherafacility is operating read more..

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    forms of energy for various types of thermodynamicandfluid-flow equipment are provided in Fundamentals ofClassical Thermodynamics by Gordon J. Van Wylen andRichardE.Sonntag.[4] Electrical engineering energyconsumption calculations for electrical equipment can befound in Basic Electrical Engineering by A.E. Fitzgerald,DavidE.Higginbotham, andArvinGrabel.[5] Theseanalyses can be performed in two different ways and fortwo different purposes. Energy consumption analyses arefrequently performed in read more..

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    unit within afacility. When used as an IEKPI, energybalances can indicatewhether or not an area or unit of aplantisusing more energy than it should, but at this levelof examination, it may not be as effective in indicatingimprovements or management directions. Nonetheless, itis possible that an energy balance can indicate wastage ofenergy if it is compared to an energy requirementcompilationand indicates asignificant difference inconsumption. Usually when energy balances provide anindication of read more..

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    down they are applied (like down to major equipmentitems) the more effective they are in providing insight intothe waste of energy and possible improvements.Keyperformance measurements require actual, accurate, andconcurrentmeasurements of energyconsumptionand production for any object that is to be studied andmanaged. Metering of energy consumption and frequenttotalization of consumption are requiredfor the energyconsumption data so that concurrent data can be placed intothe KPM ratio of energy read more..

  • Page - 1185

    andtoarriveatvaluesconcurrentwith operatingconditions. An example of this would be to collectenergyconsumption and steam production for aboiler over aperiod of months for both winter and summer conditions.By correlating the amount of Btu’s per pound of steam tothe applicable steam generation rates and the ambienttemperature, it can be possibletodeterminethe amount ofBtu’s per pound of steam for various steam generationrates and at various ambienttemperatures if no othersignificant factors, read more..

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    applicationare: energy balances,efficiencies, energyconsumptionanalyses, andprocess analyses. TheseIEKPIs will usually indicatewhat factorsneed to beimproved in aprocess, facility, or item of equipment andwill usually alsoindicatewhatactual changescan beconsidered. Thesecondmajor application of IEKPIs isactually the largest recognized application of KPIs inindustrial energy consumption. Keyperformancemeasurements are the IEKPIs that are utilized for thismajor application—that of managing read more..

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    Encyclopedia ofEnergyEngineering and TechnologyFirst EditionVolume 3Pages 1147 through 1667Phot WirePhotPubPumRenResSolarSolidSusTherUndUtilWallWasWatWinWireEOEE —24/4/2007—11:35—VELU—Volume_title_page_vol-3—XML Taylor &Francis Encyclopedias© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC read more..

  • Page - 1188

    Photovoltaic SystemsMichael RoppSouth Dakota State University,Brookings, South Dakota, U.S.A.AbstractPhotovoltaics (PV) is the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. This entry contains abrief review ofthe history of PV; asurvey of solar resource determination options; asummary of first, second and third-generation PV devices and concentrating PV devices; overviews of the power electronics (chargecontrollers and inverters) and batteries associated with PV systems; adiscussion of PV read more..

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    the PV industry,[15] which in turn hasled to higher levelsof research supportfor PV and its associated technologies.THE SOLAR RESOURCEPhotovoltaic systems use sunlight as their “fuel,” and thusin PV system design it is crucial to know how muchsunlight one might expect at the PV array site and how thatsunlight is distributed day to day, season to season, andyear to year. The terminology of solarenergy can be abitconfusing because several commonly used but similar-sounding terms have read more..

  • Page - 1190

    and aphotovoltage builds up as one end of the deviceaccumulates an excessofnegativecharge and the otherend sees abuildup of positive charge. There is thus apositive and anegative terminal of the solarcell, just like abattery, and if electrical contact is madetothe two ends ofthe device, the photovoltage will cause acurrent to flow.To turn the diode into asolar cell, adding electricalcontacts is all that is required, remembering that the frontcontact mustallow the light to enter the silicon. read more..

  • Page - 1191

    remains to be done to improve their efficiencies andstability.Silicon is not the only material that can be used to makesecond-generation PV devices. SuccessfulPVdeviceshave been madeusing asystem containing cadmiumtelluride and cadmiumsulfide layers (CdTe/CdS).[33] Thechalcopyrite family is another family of alloys that hasproperties that couldbevery favorable for high-efficiencyPV device fabrication.[35] This family includescopperindium diselenide (CIS) and avarietyofquaternary alloys,such read more..

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    respects, because at those small dimensions quantumphysical effects begintodominate the structure’s behavior.One aspectofnanostructure behavior that is particularlyimportant forPVisthatthe opticalproperties ofnanostructures begin to change and become dependenton the size of the nanostructure. This potentially meansthat the optical properties can be controlled by simplycontrolling thesizeofthe nanostructure. Withsuchcontrollability, it may be possible to create devices thatin effect split read more..

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    the amount of sunlight and the cell temperature. This isinadequate formostapplications.Toobtainhighervoltages, solarcells are typically connected in series toform series strings, as shown in Fig. 4B. In silicon PV,series stringscommonlycontain around36cellsinseries.[55] Series strings can be connected in parallel toincreasepower output. Agroup of one or moreseriesstringsisthen encapsulated in amodule. Fig. 4C showsaschematic of amodule and actionGoTo:1194,Fig. actionGoTo:1194,5 isa photograph of read more..

  • Page - 1194

    water pumping applications, such as the one showninFig. 5, usually do notuse batteries because in thosecasesthe water can be stored.Fig. 6shows two different loads—one that requiresDCpowerand another requiring AC power. TheDCload oftenis powered directly from the battery bank, but if it requiresahighly regulated voltage or avoltage different than thebatterybank voltage there may be aDC–DCconverter, asshown. Because PV arrays produceDCpower, AC loadsnecessitatethe inclusionofaDC–AC read more..

  • Page - 1195

    PV POWERELECTRONICSAs is clear in actionGoTo:1194,Figs. actionGoTo:1194,6–8,power electronic converters, orso-called switch-mode power converters, are criticallyimportant in PV systems. The battery charge controllersand inverters fall into this category.[63–65]Charge controllers are typically DC–DCconverters(their inputs and outputs are both DC, but at differentcurrent/voltage levels—see Figs. 6and 7). Inverters, bydefinition, have DC inputs but AC outputs (see Figs. 6–8).As shown in read more..

  • Page - 1196

    and less expensive than sinewave inverters, and they areused whenever the load can tolerate the nonsinusoidalwaveform. In actionGoTo:1195,Fig. actionGoTo:1195,8, the inverter’s output voltage isfixed by the utility grid, and thus the inverter’soutputinthat case is an AC current (not voltage)and must besinusoidal.ENERGY STORAGEFOR PVPhotovoltaic arrays only convertenergy when light strikesthem, so it is necessary to use energy storage to providepowertoloadsatnight and during extended read more..

  • Page - 1197

    common resources, hydrogen storage is too expensive tobe feasible at present.PV APPLICATIONSAs mentioned before, the key figure of merit for PV energyis an economic one—the energy cost, usually in dollar perkilowatt hour. It is common practice to compute the life-cycle cost or levelized energy cost of the PV system,which is the energy cost considering all PV-related costsover the entire lifetime of the system.[71]Even with current technology, there are manyappli-cations today in which PV is read more..

  • Page - 1198

    costswill continue to add to the cost of fossil-fuel powerwhile technology and economies of scale continue to drivePV costsdown. The range of applications in which PV iscost-competitive continues to expand, and perhaps one daydispatchable PV will reach acost at which it provides asignificant portion of the energy we get from the grid.Energystorage remainsa critical need,but newadvancements in PV device technology give good groundsfor optimism that at least that part of the system costs read more..

  • Page - 1199

    Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering;Luque, A., Hegedus, S., Eds., Wiley: Chichester, England,2003; 25.29. Mo¨ller, H. Semiconductors for Solar Cells;Artech House:Norwood, MA, 1993; 65.30. Nelson, J. The Physics of Solar Cells;Imperial College Press:London, 2003; 221–222.31. Mo¨ller, H. Semiconductors for Solar Cells;Artech House:Norwood, MA, 1993; 5.32. Saito, K.; Nishimoto, T.; Hayashi, R.; Fukae, K.; Ogawa, K.Production of a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/a-SiGe:H stacked solar cellsand their read more..

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    68. Spiers, D. Batteries in PV systems. In Practical Handbook ofPhotovoltaics;Markvart, T., Castan˜er, L., Eds., Elsevier:Oxford, England, 2003; 589–631.69. Lasnier, F.; Ang, T. Photovoltaic Engineering Handbook;IOP Publishing Ltd.: Bristol, England, 1990; 114–133.70. Markvart, T. Solar Electricity,2nd Ed.; Wiley: Chichester,England, 2000; 260–266.71. Messenger, R.; Ventre, J. Photovoltaic Systems Engineering,2nd Ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2004; 145.72. Wolfe, P. Solar-powered read more..

  • Page - 1201

    Physics of EnergyMilivoje M. KosticDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Northern Illinois University,DeKalb, Illinois, U.S.A.AbstractThe concept and definition of energy are elaborated, as well as different forms and classification ofenergy are presented. Energy is afundamental concept indivisible from matter and space, and energyexchanges or transfers are associated with all processes (or changes), thus indivisible from time.Actually, energy is “the building block” and fundamental read more..

  • Page - 1202

    The work is adirectional energy transfer. However, it isascalar quantity like energy, and is distinctive from anotherenergy transfer in form of heat,which is due to randommotion(chaotic or randominall directions) and collisionsof system molecules and their structural components.Work transfer cannot occur without existence of theresisting body or system,nor without finite displacementin the forcedirection. This may not always be obvious. Forexample, if we are holding aheavy weight or pushing read more..

  • Page - 1203

    EnergyEnergy is fundamental propertyofa physical system andrefers to its potential to maintain asystem identity orstructure and to influence changeswith othersystems(via forced interaction)byimpartingwork(forceddirectional displacement)orheat (forced chaotic dis-placement/motion of asystemmolecularorrelatedstructures). Energy existsinmanyforms:electro-magnetic (including light), electrical, magnetic, nuclear,chemical, thermal, and mechanical (including kinetic,elastic, gravitational, and read more..

  • Page - 1204

    ENERGY FORMS AND CLASSIFICATIONS:ENERGY-TRANSFERVSENERGY-PROPERTYAny and all changesorprocesses (happeninginspace andtime)are caused by energy exchanges or transfers fromone substance(system or subsystem)toanother, see actionGoTo:1203,Fig. actionGoTo:1203,2.Apart of asystem may be considered as asubsystemifenergy transfer within asystem is taking place, andinversely, agroup of interactingsystems maybeconsidered as alarger isolated system,ifthey do notinteract with the rest of the surroundings. read more..

  • Page - 1205

    elevation (z); and sensiblethermal energy (EUZU)asafunction of system temperature (T):DEk Z12mV2f K V2i ;DEPs Z12kx2f K x2iDEPg Z mgðzf K ziÞ;DEU Z mcvðTf K TiÞð1ÞIf the reference energy values are takentobezero whenthe above initial (i)variables are zero, then the aboveequations will represent the energy values for the finalvalues (f)ofthe corresponding variables. If thecorresponding parameters, spring constant k,gravity g,or constant-volume specificheat cv,are not read more..

  • Page - 1206

    concepts of mechanical work, kineticand potentialenergies, and development of solid-body mechanics.Furthermore, in absence of non-mechanical energyinteractions, excluding friction and other dissipationeffects, it is straightforwardtoderive (and thus prove)energy conservation, i.e.:ðs2s1FsdsZ|fflfflfflfflffl{zfflfflfflfflffl}WFsðs2s1mdVsdt|{z}as!dsZðs2s1mdVsdsdsdt|fflffl{zfflffl}Vs!dsZðV2V1mVsdVs Z12mV22KV21|fflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl{zfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl}KE2KKE1ETransfer ZWFs read more..

  • Page - 1207

    there is no dissipative conversion into thermal energy andthus no heat transfer, i.e.:Emech Z Ek C EPg C EPsZXNiZ112mV2 C mgz C12kx2iZ constð7ÞThe mechanical work–energy concept couldalsobeexpended to fluid motion by inclusion of elastic-pressureforce and potential elastic-pressure energy (referred to insome references as flowwork; however,note that elastic-pressure energy is asystem property while the flowwork isrelated energy transfer), see the Bernoulliequation below.For flowing or read more..

  • Page - 1208

    When work of non-conservativeforces Wnc ,isexchanged between N isolated systems, from an initial(i)tofinalstate (f), then the total mechanical energy of allsystems is reduced by that work amount, i.e.:Wnc;i/f ZXNjZ1Emech;j!iKXNjZ1Emech;j!fð9ÞRegardless of the traveled path (or displacement), theworkagainst conservativeforces (like gravity or elasticspring in above cases) in absence of any dissipative forces,will depend on the final and initial position (or state) only.However, the work of read more..

  • Page - 1209

    (x,y,z)ina flowing fluid is[6]:rDeDt|ffl{zffl}energy change in timeZK ðV$ VPðÞ|fflfflfflfflfflffl{zfflfflfflfflfflffl}work rate of normal pressure stressesCV$ ðV$tij|fflfflfflfflfflfflffl{zfflfflfflfflfflfflffl}work rate of shearing stressesCV$ kVTðÞ|fflfflfflfflffl{zfflfflfflfflffl}heat rate via thermal conductionð12ÞWhere e Z ^u C ðV22 C gz NOTE: distinguishspecificthermal energy ^u,from velocity component u below.Eq. 12 after substitution, V$ ðV $tij Z ðV $ V$tij CF ,and using read more..

  • Page - 1210

    time, is of kinetic nature, and may be directionallyorganized as work or directionally chaotic and disorga-nizedasheat. However, the net-energy transfer is in onedirection only, from higher to lower energy–potential, andthe process cannot be reversed. Thus all processes areirreversible in the direction of decreasing energy–potential(like pressure and temperature)and increasing energy–displacement (like volume and entropy) as aconsequenceof energy and mass conservationinthe universe. read more..

  • Page - 1211

    However, the sourceentropy will decrease to asmallerextent over higherpotential,thus resulting in overallentropygeneration forthe two(or all) interactingsystems, which maybeconsidered as acombinedisolated system (no energy exchange with the rest ofthe surroundings). Thesame is true for energy exchangebetweendifferent system parts (could be considered assubsystems) at different energy potentials(non uniform,not at equilibrium at agiventime). Energy at higherpotential (say close to boundary within read more..

  • Page - 1212

    within the single reservoir equilibrium), and the secondClausius statement refers to the direction of heat transfer,expressing the never violated fact that it is impossible forheat transfer to take placebyitself (without any workinput) from alower to highertemperature thermalreservoir(it is impossibletospontaneously createnon-equilibrium).Actuallythe twostatements implyeach otherand thus are the same, as well as they implythat all reversiblecycles betweenthe two temperaturereservoirs (or all read more..

  • Page - 1213

    two thermal reservoirs at different temperatures, hot Th,and cold Tc,byusing the ideal, reversible Carnot cycle,see actionGoTo:1212,Fig. actionGoTo:1212,12,with thermal efficiency given by Eq. 22. Asan example, consider TcZ293 Kand ThZ2273 K:hth;C_ad ZWQhZQh K QcQhZ 1 KTcTh ThZTadZ2273 K;TcZ293 KZ 1 K2932273Z 87:1%ð22Þwhere, WZWTKWC,isthe net-work of expansion,usuallyturbine (WT), andcompression (WC). Themaximumefficiency is achieved if heat is supplied atthe highest possible temperature read more..

  • Page - 1214

    † Energy and mass are conserved within interactingsystems(all of which may be considered as acombinedisolated system not interacting with its surroundingsystems), and energy transfer (in time)isirreversible(inone direction) from highertolower energy–potentialonly, which then results in continuousgeneration (increase) of energy–displacement, calledentropy generation, which is fundamental measureofirreversibility, or permanent changes.† Reversible energy transfer is only possible as read more..

  • Page - 1215

    REFERENCES1. Kostic, M. Work, power, and energy, In Encyclopedia ofEnergy,Cleveland, C.J., Ed.; Elsevier Inc.: Oxford, U.K.,2004; Vol. 6, 527–538.2. Kostic, M. Irreversibility and reversible heat transfer: thequest and nature of energy and entropy, IMECE2004. InASME Proceedings,ASME, New York, 2004.3. Kostic, M. Treatise with Reasoning Proof of the First Law ofEnergy Conservation,Copyrighted Manuscript; NorthernIllinois University: DeKalb, IL, 2006.4. Kostic, M. Treatise with Reasoning Proof read more..

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    Pricing Programs: Time-of-Use and Real TimeAhmad FaruquiTheBrattleGroup, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.AbstractThis article surveys numerous pricing designs for improving economic efficiency in all market segments.Electricity is avery capital-intensive industry characterized by asignificant peak load problem. Expensivegenerating plants have to be installed to meet peak loads that are only encountered for afew hundred hoursayear. This raises the cost of electricity to all consumers. Average read more..

  • Page - 1217

    TOU pricing. Currently, athird of its population of 30million customers is estimated to be on TOU pricing. Thispricing design wasfirstintroduced forresidentialcustomers in 1965 on avoluntary basis, having been firstapplied in the country to large industrialcustomers as theGreen Tariffin1956. The Frenchmodelserved for manyyears as abenchmark for many countries in Latin America.For example, in Brazil, it was introduced as the “Horo-sazonal” tariff, which divides the day into peak and offpeak read more..

  • Page - 1218

    Developing aTOU RateIt is fairly straightforward to develop aTOU rate design.Thefollowing sidebarshowsthe steps involved indeveloping a“revenue-neutral” TOU rate. Such aratewould leave the average customer’s bill unchanged if thatcustomer chose to make no adjustments in their patternofusage.Ofcourse, acustomer who uses less power in thepeak period than the average customer would be madebetter off(compared to his or her situation on the standardrate) by the rate even without respondingtothe read more..

  • Page - 1219

    The TransTextdeviceincorporates an advancedcommunication featurethat lets customers know that acriticalperiod is approaching and it can be programmed sothat the customer’s thermostat is automatically adjustedwhen prices exceeda certainlevel. Using this technology,American Electric Power found significant load shifting,with estimated peak demand reductions of 2–3 kW percustomer during on-peak periodsand of 3.5–6.6kWduring criticalpeak periods. These criticalpeak reductionsrepresented adrop read more..

  • Page - 1220

    Each TOU and CPP rate involves two sets of peak/off-peak prices,toallow forprecise estimationoftheelasticities of demand. On average, customers on TOUrates are given adiscount of 23% during the off-peak hoursand are charged aprice of around10cents. They arecharged aprice of 22 centsduring the peak hours,which is69% higherthan their standardrate. Thus, with TOU rates,customers are given astrong incentive to curtail peakusage and to shift usage to off-peak periods. However, theincentive is much read more..

  • Page - 1221

    usage of customers who wereequipped with asmartthermostat and who alsowere placed on the CPP tariff.They show agreater drop than customers who had the smartthermostat but who were not placed on the CPP tariff.REAL-TIME PRICINGFOR RESIDENTIALCUSTOMERSThe ChicagoCommunity Energy Cooperative (Co-op)hasimplemented amarket-based RTPpricing plan forresidential customers, in conjunction with the localelectricutility, CommEd. Theutility provides the rate and themetering/billing system while the Co-op read more..

  • Page - 1222

    Duke Powerand the Tennessee Valley Authority. TheGeorgia Power program is discussed in detail below.Beforedescribing the Georgia Powerprogram, we notethat RTP rates were probably first used by ESKOM, thestate-ownedutility in South Africa,for itslargestcustomers, including the fabled gold mines. ESKOMhas1400 MW of load on day-ahead RTP. These customersdrop their load by 350–400 MW foruptothreeconsecutive hours when facedwith high prices. WhileRTP is set up on aday-ahead basis, customer read more..

  • Page - 1223

    The two-point CBLs simplyaverage usage levels duringthe peak and off-peak periods.The majority of customers (basically, the high-load-factor customers) now select the two-point CBL. If thetwo-point CBL does not seem appropriate based on acustomer’s usage profile, Georgia Power will usually use a360-point CBL. Only avery few “unique loads” use the8760-point CBL today (Our source noted that customerswho can “really respond alot” are typicallyonthe higherpoint CBLs).Price Protection read more..

  • Page - 1224

    would provide customers an incentive to lower peak usage,either by curtailing or shifting their activities. In addition,it would eliminate unfair and economically unjustifiedcrosssubsidies. As surveyed in this article, therearenumerous pricingdesignsfor improving economicefficiencyinall market segments. Butthe potentialbenefitsoftime-varying pricinghave yet to be fullyrealized. Many barriers stand in the way of reform,including economic, technological and political. Of allthesebarriers, the read more..

  • Page - 1225

    PsychrometricsS. A. SherifDepartment of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Wayne K. and Lyla L. Masur HVACLaboratory,University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractThis entry presents the basics of psychrometric theory. This includes abrief discussion of moist airproperties and psychrometric processes as well as provides examples of how the theory may be used in theHVAC design process for different summer and winter systems.INTRODUCTIONPsychrometrics is the science of moist air read more..

  • Page - 1226

    Saturation PressureSaturation pressure is needed to determineanumber ofmoist air properties. Between the triple-point and critical-point temperatures of water, two states (saturated liquidand saturated vapor)may coexist in equilibrium. Thesaturation pressure over ice for the temperature rangeK1008C%T%08Cisgiven by[2]logeðPsÞ Za0T C 273:15C a1 C a2ðT C 273:15ÞC a3ðT C 273:15Þ2 C a4ðT C 273:15Þ3C a5ðT C 273:15Þ4 C a6logeðT C 273:15Þwhere a0ZK0.56745359!104; a1Z6.3925247; read more..

  • Page - 1227

    PSYCHROMETRIC PROCESSESSensible Heating or CoolingThis is the process of heating or cooling the air withoutchanging its moisture content.Itisrepresented by lines ofconstant humidity ratio on the psychrometric chart (seeFig. 1). Sensible heating is accomplished when the airpasses over aheating coil. Sensible cooling is accomplishedwhen the air passesover acooling coil whose surfacetemperature is above the dew point temperature of the air.Humidification (with Heating or Cooling)This is the read more..

  • Page - 1228

    The figure also shows the lines representing the roomsensibleheat ratio (RSHR),the coil (or grand)sensibleheat ratio (GSHR), and the effective room sensible heatratio(ERSHR). Theseare defined according to thefollowing equations:RSHR Z_QR;S_QR;S C _QR;LGSHR Z_QG;S_QG;S C _QG;LERSHR Z_QR;S C BF _QO;S½ _QR;S C BF _QO;S C ½ _QR;L C _BF _QO;Lwhere the QS represent the loads. Subscripts R, O, and Grepresent room, outside,and grand, respectively, while Sand Lrepresent sensibleand latent (loads), read more..

  • Page - 1229

    adsorption (whenthere arenophysicalorchemicalchanges). During the sorption process, heat is released.This heat is the sum of the latent heat of condensation ofthe absorbed water vapor into liquid plus the heat ofwetting. The latter quantity refers to either wetting of thesurface of the solid desiccant by the water molecules or theheat of solution in thecase of liquiddesiccant.Dehumidification by solid desiccants is represented onthe psychrometric chartbya process of increasing read more..

  • Page - 1230

    and cleaning. The washer may have one or more banks ofspraynozzles that have the capacity of injectingone to twogpm of atomized water per nozzle into the air stream.Adequate atomization of the water can be achieved byoperating at pumping pressures ranging from 20 to 40 psi.[3]Washers typicallyemploy baffles at the inlet air section inordertodistributethe air uniformlythroughoutthechamber. At the exit section, on the other hand, moistureeliminators are employedtoprevent carryoverwater read more..

  • Page - 1231

    recirculated air from the room after passing through theceiling plenum, the return duct, and the return fan (State“rf”) to form the mixed air condition “m,” which is alsotheentering state to the cooling coil. Air is then cooled anddehumidified until it exits the coil at State “cc.” After that,air is reheated, due to passing over the supplyfan andthroughthe supply ducts, to State “s,” thesupplycondition. The space sensible, latent,and total loads can,respectively, be read more..

  • Page - 1232

    exact way, but acareful choice of the state of air leavingthe heating coil may go along way towards minimizingunnecessary use of heating energy.The sensible heat ratio for the humidifying device isrepresented by line “ch hh.” The GSHR of the overallsystem is represented by line “m hh.”In cases whenthe outside air is humid enough (such asin the PacificNorthwestofthe continentalUnited States inwintermonths), injecting steam or atomized hot water maynot be necessaryand sensibleheating is read more..

  • Page - 1233

    REFERENCES1. ASHRAE. Psychrometrics: Theory and Practice;TheAmerican Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.: Atlanta, GA, 1996.2. ASHRAE. 2005 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals;TheAmerican Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.: Atlanta, GA, 2005.3. Clifford, G. Modern Heating, Ventilating, and Air Con-ditioning;Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1990.4. Hyland, R.W.; Wexler, A. Formulations for the thermo-dynamic properties of the read more..

  • Page - 1234

    Public Policyfor Improving EnergySector PerformanceSanford V. BergDirector of Water Studies, Public Utility Research Center,University of Florida, Gainesville,Florida, U.S.A.AbstractPublic policy evolves in response to anumber of forces, including public perceptions and special interestcampaigns. Policy influences the basic conditions in the energy industry, in market structures, in corporatebehavior, and in energy sector performance. Government intervention is often justified on the basis read more..

  • Page - 1235

    harm the interests of those enterprises. Another termforself-interestedpolicypromotion to obtain favorabletreatmentfromgovernmental authoritiesis“politicalrent-seeking.”[2]The policy-making process involves convincing keystakeholders that the change is (or is not) needed. Duringthe public debate, different groups provide information topolicy-makersonalternative approaches to resolvingissues. Public policies often concentrate benefitswhiledispersing costs over anumber of groups.For read more..

  • Page - 1236

    FACTORS AFFECTING POLICIESThe figure is aflow diagram that shows how publicpolicy responds to sector performance.[8] The behavior offirms(in terms of pricing, cost-cutting,provision ofservices, andnetworkexpansion)follows fromthemarketstructure andrules affecting behavior.Ultimately, public perceptions are influenced by sectorperformance,including theadoptionofinnovations,networkreliability, environmental impacts, and otheroutcomes. Indicatorsofsector performanceincludereturns that are read more..

  • Page - 1237

    4. International Risk Perceptions: International per-ceptions regarding national security, energyinde-pendence, trends in theexchange rate,andconcernsovercross-nationalenvironmentalimpacts affect investorattitudesand thus the costof capital (reflected in requiredinterest rates onbonds and expected returns on equity investments)but tend to be beyond the control of sector regu-lators or antitrust authorities. An exception con-cernsthe predictability of government rules—anarea where public read more..

  • Page - 1238

    behavioral restraints,and performance-basedinitiatives (discussed below).9. Policy Incentives: These can include taxes andsubsidies that discourageand encourageavariety of activities.Regulatory incentivesinclude constraints on market structure,restraints on corporate behavior,and per-formance-based rewardsand penalties. Thesignificant policy issues involve designingincentivesthatpromote cost-cutting, servicequality, and network expansion.Insomecases,changes in public policy can significantly read more..

  • Page - 1239

    and Martinez[4] surveythe evolution of per-formance in the electricity industry and theissues confronting policy-makers.13. Corporate Governance: Traditionally, activitiesinternal to afirm are not micromanaged byregulators, but public perceptions about potentialproblems have changed in recent years. Corpo-rate governance involves theallocation ofdecision rights within the firm (hierarchicalvsteamdecision-making), the design of pay plansthat compensate peoplefor high levels of read more..

  • Page - 1240

    regulators will need to balance competing goals and valuesin specific situations. As long as the public record providesclear evidence regarding the facts associated with theissues at hand, the judgmentcalls of regulators will at leastbe based on information that others can examineandverify.[7] Without such openness in the process, stake-holders supporting alternative policies will have acase forquestioning regulatory decisions.Effective agenciesestablishprocedures that read more..

  • Page - 1241

    † Providing incentives foroperating efficiencyandimproving reliability† Promoting least-cost system expansion (incentives fornew investment)† Stimulatinginnovation and energy conservationEven when subsidy programsare continued (like thosebenefitingparticular fuels), supporters describethem interms of how the programs might contribute to meetingother broad energy objectives.Achieving desired outcomesrequiressomeprioritization because policy-makers mustmake political and economic read more..

  • Page - 1242

    Public Utility RegulatoryPolicies Act (PURPA) of 1978RichardF.HirshDepartment of History,Virginia Tech,Blacksburg, Virginia, U.S.A.AbstractThe Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978 contributed to the restructuring the Americanelectric utility system. It did so by providing incentives for nonutility companies to produce power usingenergy-efficient generating equipment and renewable-energy resources. By making electricity as cheaplyas existing utilities in many cases, the new read more..

  • Page - 1243

    Though legislators may have lauded the president’sgoals, they provedunwilling to accept all the president’smeasures, especially those that would have called forpotential sacrificeand hardship for their constituents.Instead,they took morethan ayear to ponder thepresident’s plan and passed awatered-down version of itin the form of five specific laws. At asigning ceremonyin November 1978, Carter admitted that the laws did notaccomplish everything he had hoped. Nevertheless,theyconstituted read more..

  • Page - 1244

    the terms of the law, FERC needed to hold hearingsand codify parts of the law for the country’s regulatorycommissions to employ when dealing with the new,privileged nonutility generators, knownasqualifyingfacilities (QFs). In most cases, FERC chose to interpretelements of “Section 210” in waysthat benefited thesecompanies. It relaxed administrativeprocedures so thenontraditional powerfirmswould not be subject to thesame government oversight as regulated utilities.Federal Energy read more..

  • Page - 1245

    turbinestoprovide almost 39% of their capacity. Thecostof their delivered electricity ranged from about 3.2 to5.5 cents/kWh, comparing favorably to the average cost ofpower produced by regulated powercompanies.Beyond thesemoretraditionaltechnologies, windturbinetechnologydeveloped rapidlyasa result ofPURPA. Though used forpumping waterand forproducing small amounts of electricity on farms fordecades, wind turbine technology had previously not beenexploited to produceenough powerfor distribution read more..

  • Page - 1246

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act challengedthis rationalefor regulationand, therefore, starteddiscussion of further deregulation of the utilityindustry.It did so by spurring creation of nonutility companies thatproduced power at competitive prices. Even though theQFs did not exploit economies of scale like utilities did,they produced powerwith higher thermal efficiencies (inthe case of cogenerators), and they sold the heat byproductto gain economicadvantagesover utilities. They, read more..

  • Page - 1247

    REFERENCES1. This article draws heavily from Hirsh, R.F. Power Loss: TheOrigins of Deregulation and Restructuring in the AmericanElectric Utility System;MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, 1999:Hirsh, R.F. PURPA: The spur to competition and utilityrestructuring Elec. J. 1999, 12 (7), 60–72.2. Carter, J. President’s proposed energy policy. Vital Speechesof the Day 1977, 43 (14), 418–420.3. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act, Public Law 95–617,signed 9November 1978.4. Federal Energy Regulatory read more..

  • Page - 1248

    Pumped Storage HydroelectricityJill S. TietjenTechnically Speaking, Inc., Greenwood Village, Colorado, U.S.A.AbstractPumped storage hydro is aform of hydroelectric power generation for electric utilities that incorporates anenergy storage feature. The fuel, water, moves between two reservoirs—an upper and alower—with asignificant vertical distance between them. Water is stored in the upper reservoir until such time as theutility determines that it is economic to use the water to produce read more..

  • Page - 1249

    If the dam stops the flow of the river, water poolsbehind the damtoform areservoir or artificial lake. Ashydroelectric generation is neededbythe electric utility,thewater is releasedtoflow throughthe damandpowerhouse. In othercases, the dam is simplybuilt acrossthe river, and the water movesthroughthe power plant orpowerhouse inside the dam on its way downstream.[11]In either case,asthe water actually moves through thedam, the water pushes against the blades of aturbine,causing the blades to read more..

  • Page - 1250

    Pumpedstorage facilities can be categorizedas“pure”or “combined.” Pure pumped storage plants, also referredto as modular pumped storage or MPS, continually shiftwater betweenanupper and alower reservoir. Combinedpumped storage plants also generate their own electricitylike conventional hydroelectric plants through naturalstream flow. Modular pumped storage systems tend to bemuch smallerthanconventionalhydroelectricpowerplants. They use closed water systems that are artificiallycreated read more..

  • Page - 1251

    changesinelectrical demand, which cause frequencyandvoltage instability. Pumpedstorage plants can respond tothose changesinseconds. This is particularly desirable inthe case of aunit’s becoming unavailable or forced out ofserviceoronutility systemswithhighamountsofintermittent resources, such as solar andwind. TheDinorwigpumped storage facility in north Wales, UnitedKingdom,for example, can go from 0MWtofull capacityof 1,320 MW in 12 sand usually can stay at this level untilother generating read more..

  • Page - 1252

    including only fuel andoperating andmaintenance(O&M)costs—are as shown.Utility Ahas apeak load of 10,000 MW. Utility Ahasthree 750 MW nuclear powerunits that generate electricityat aproductioncostof1.7 cents/kWh. Additionalgeneration resources includeavariety of coal-firedgenerating units totaling 7,000 MW that have an averageproduction cost of 2.5 cents/kWh. Utility Aalso has1,250 MW of natural gas-fired combustion turbinesthatproducepower at an average price of 5.5 cents/kWh.There is read more..

  • Page - 1253

    † Loss of scenic or wilderness resources† Increased risks of landslides and erosion† Gain in recreational resourcesThese concerns are muchless significant for MPSplants, because MPS operate in aclosed loop and are notassociatedwithnatural waterwaysand watersheds.Usually, MPSare specifically not located near existingrivers,lakes, streams, and other sensitive environmentalareas to avoid the regulatory lag time and complexityassociated with combined pumped storage read more..

  • Page - 1254

    Pumps and FansL. J. GroblerT. G. VorsterSchool for Mechanical Engineering, North-West University,Potchefstroom, South AfricaAbstractPumps and fans are used in the commercial and industrial sectors to transfer fluids and gases and toconsume asignificant amount of energy. This entry focuses on energy management and cost savingopportunities that exist with pumping and fan systems. It gives an overview on the types of pumps and fans,their operating characteristics, theory, and power requirements, read more..

  • Page - 1255

    Pressure reducing devices are normally installed at theoutlet of positive displacement pumpstolimit the totalhead to that of the rated pump outputhead. Data for thesetypes of pumps are usually found in the form of atablelisting the flow rate, total head, and power. As positivedisplacement pumpsare usually used to pump liquidsother than water,the assistance of an expert may be neededto select apump for aparticular application.Pump TheoryPump Operating CharacteristicsPump performance is defined read more..

  • Page - 1256

    For water, this roughly equates to 1mZ9.81 kPa.The requiredhead differential across apump to move aliquid is calledthe total dynamic head. The outputhead ordynamic head of apump must be equal or greater than thesum of the static head and friction head.Friction Head.The friction and inertia losses, duetotheresistance to the flow of afluid through apipe, is known asthe friction head. These losses depend on the diameter,material, and length of pipe,aswell as the type and amountof fittings used read more..

  • Page - 1257

    Positive Displacement Pump TheoryFor positive displacement pumps, the power requirementof the pump is affected by flow rate, pressure,and fluidcharacteristics.The relationships used to determineperformance for changes in total head, pump speed,orfluid density are givenbelowinEqs.10–13.Q1 Z Q2N1N2ð10ÞW1 Z W2P1P2ð11ÞW1 Z W2Q1Q2ð12ÞW1 Z W2d1d2ð13Þwhere Q,flow rate (m3/h); P,total head (m); W,power(kW); N,pump speed (RPM);and d,fluid density (kg/m3).Pump Power RequirementsIf one is to read more..

  • Page - 1258

    samethe efficiencyasgiven forthe pumpbythemanufacturer.h Zpower outputpower inputZtheoretical poweractual powerð16ÞMultiple Pumps SystemsPumps can be installed in either parallel or series.For aseries configuration, the combinedpump curve is givenbythe sum of the heads of the individual pumpsatequalflows.For pumpsinparallel,the sum of the flows is takenat points of equal head. Typical curvesfor pumps in seriesand parallel are shown in Fig. 5.DeterminingofPower UsageOneofthe most read more..

  • Page - 1259

    Although the initial cost of mechanical seals is high, thelower power usage results in significant cost savings. Forpumps that have packing glands,special types ofmechanical seals are available as aretrofit option.Energy Management OpportunitiesMaintenanceMaintenance is oneofthe often-overlookedaspects ofenergy management.Aneffective maintenance programcan result in viable savings withina very short time span.Someofthe most important issues aregiven anddiscussed, cross-referencing the readings read more..

  • Page - 1260

    savings andefficiency of theretrofit, however, isdependent on the type of VSD used.Other advantages of the use of VSDs are:† Improvedprocess control† Reduced wear on the pump and motor† Reduced noise† Reduced maintenanceFor VSD applications, there is no single solution.Despite this, not all pump applications are good candidatesfor aVSD retrofit. Systems that typically fall in thiscategoryare:† Applications with alow duty cycle† Pumps that operate at apractically constant read more..

  • Page - 1261

    Other methods that are not discussedabove include:† The replacement of outsized equipment† Replacement of oversized motorsFAN SYSTEMSAfan is defined by the InternetFree Dictionary as “adevice for creating acurrent of air or abreeze, especially amachineusing an electric motor to rotate thin, rigid vanesin order to move air, as for cooling.”Fans are one of the mostmisused, abused, and faultilyapplied typesofequipment. Theresult of thismisuse ishigh energy costs, which offers alarge scope read more..

  • Page - 1262

    Measurements shouldbetakenwith the Pitot tube inaccordance with the traverse detail shown in actionGoTo:1264,Fig. actionGoTo:1264,10.Velocity pressure should be calculated for each of thetraverse positions and then averaged. By usingthesemeasurements,the velocity of the flow in aduct can becalculated using Eq. 17.Velocity Z 0:764TPvB0:5ð17Þwhere velocity, average air velocity (m/s); T,temperature(8K); Pv,velocity pressure (Pa); B,barometric pressure(kPa absolute); and 0.764, equationconstant read more..

  • Page - 1263

    Performance MeasurementFanperformance canbeeasilycalculatedusing themeasurements taken at the inlet and outlet through themethod described in the previous section. There areseveral factors, however, which can affect the accuracy ofthese measurements. These factors are:† Air flow not at right angles with the measurement plane† Non-uniformvelocity distribution† Irregular cross sectional shape of the duct or passage-way† Air leaking between the measurement planeand the fanFor more precise read more..

  • Page - 1264

    DPs Z Pso K Psi K Pvið21Þwhere DPs,total fan static differential pressure (Pa).Although the effects of inlet and outlet conditions havenot been includedinthe equations, the equations stillprovide areasonable basis for the further calculation ofstaticefficiency and power.Fan PerformancePowerRequirementsBy measuring the quantity of air delivered, and thepressure against which it is delivered, it is possible tocalculate the work done by afan. If one is to assumethatthe fan is 100% efficient, read more..

  • Page - 1265

    Two methods can be used to reduceairflow.Onemethod is to restrict the flow by partially closing adamper.This causes anew system performancecurve (SC2 onFig. 11)todevelop where the requiredpressure is greaterfor the new givenairflow.The secondmethod is to reduce the speed of the fan (N2on Fig. 11)while keeping the damper fully open. The fanwould now operate at point “C” to provide the sameairflow,but at alower pressure. The reduction of fan speedis amore efficient way to decrease read more..

  • Page - 1266

    † Misalignment of shaftseals† Corrosion betweenshaftand bearingCorrectleaks.Energy savings can be attained by fixingairleaks from looseconnections,improperlysizeddampers and shaft openings, and unsealed expansionconnections.Replace loadedair filters.One common cause ofpoor system performance is loaded air filters.Manu-facturers provide data on the point at which afilter isconsidered fully loaded. This data is rated in terms ofpressure drop at various velocities. When it is found thatthe read more..

  • Page - 1267

    Furthermore, the curves are alsobased on AC motorsrunning at full load and 90% efficiency, and with atypicalefficiency drop for reduced loads.There are, however,some limitations associated witheach of these methods.Dampers have alimited turn downand may be become noisy. Inlet vanes,even if wide open,restrict flow. Although variablespeed drives reducenoiseand save energy by adjusting the speed of the fan to theexact needs of the system,they are very expensive,and thepotential savings maynot read more..

  • Page - 1268

    Radiant Barriers*IngridMelodyPhilip FaireyDavid BealFlorida Solar Energy Center,Cocoa, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractAttic radiant barriers made of aluminum foil are becoming apopular way for homeowners to save energyand money in Southern states. They are increasing in popularity for two reasons. First, tests by the FloridaSolar Energy Center (FSEC) and other groups show that they work. Second, manufacturers are improvingthe quality of radiant barrier materials.To most homeowners, attic radiant read more..

  • Page - 1269

    much heat, the turkey stayed hot until the rest of the mealwas ready.Tounderstand the concept of not emittingheat, let’s use an analogyofalight bulb. When youturnon alight bulb, it emits light. If you were to paintthelight bulb black, whenitwas turned on, it wouldnot emitlight. Aradiant barrier has asimilar effect on infraredheat. Your roof surface heatsupinthe sun and will emitinfrared heat. When this infrared heat heats the radiantbarrieritwill not emit, or reradiate, the heat into read more..

  • Page - 1270

    becomemore widely used. Five generic typesare mostcommon:† Single-sided foil (one foilside)with another materialbacking such as craftpaper or polypropylene. Someproducts are further strengthenedbyfiberwebbingsandwiched betweenfoil and backing. The strength ofthe backing materialisimportant since unreinforcedfoil tears very easily.† Foil-faced roof sheathing materials that comefrom themanufacturer with afoilfacing adhered to one side ofthe sheathing.† Double-sided foilwith reinforcement read more..

  • Page - 1271

    foil to absorb rather than reflect thermalradiation.However, aradiant barrier with the foil side facing downwill not collectdust on the foil and will continue to stopradiant heat transfer from the hot roof to the insulationover the life of the installation.Even if you use adouble-sided radiant barriermaterial,it is best to install it at the rafter level so that the bottomside faces the attic airspaceand will not collectdust.INSTALLATIONThe mosteffective way to installaradiant barrier in read more..

  • Page - 1272

    AirtightnessYou’re installing abarrieragainst radiated not convectedheat,soyou need notcut offair motion. In fact, ventilationfromsoffit to peak improvesradiant barrier systemperformance.Small tears and holeswill not significantly lessen theperformance of the radiant barrier, so don’t worry if youmustcut and patch aroundobstructions such as vent stacksand truss supports.PlacementIt’s not recommended to place the material directly on topof insulation. In this type of installation, dust read more..

  • Page - 1273

    PAYBACKTwo things affect the performance of aradiant barriersystem—the levelofinsulation in the attic, and thegeographic locationofthe home.A radiant barrier systemreduces the heat flowinto the house from the atticbyapproximately 40%. Attic insulation levels have alargeeffect on the amount of heat flow that is reduced, in otherwords, if you have little or no insulation in your attic, a40% reduction is very significant, butifyour attic isinsulated to R-30 or better, there is very little heat read more..

  • Page - 1274

    Reciprocating Engines: Diesel and GasRolf D. ReitzKevin HoagEngine Research Center,University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.AbstractThis entry first identifies the energy conversion principles that govern reciprocating piston devices. Next,the hardware and operating cycles used in practical reciprocating piston internal combustion engines aredescribed. Finally, current issues, trends, and analysis approaches used in developing combustion and airhandling systems are read more..

  • Page - 1275

    concluded that expansion to atmospheric pressure requiresavery long chamber.Fortunately, the isentropic process is quite non-linear.The pressure drops rapidlyand the majority of the workextraction occursearly in the process. For practicality inregard to engine packaging, piston movement is stopped atsome chosen maximum volume, and the remaining gas isexpelledfrom the chamber.In the arrangement shown in Fig. 1D, the piston islinked through aconnecting rod to acrankshaft. Thisarrangement results read more..

  • Page - 1276

    PRACTICAL ENGINE HARDWAREAND OPERATING CYCLESThe latter discussion identified the rationale behind thereciprocating piston engine. While many other mechanicalconfigurations have been proposed, patented, and demon-strated over the years, few have enjoyed commercialsuccess. Such success results from the ability to addressboth efficiency and cost-effectiveness.The primary components of the reciprocating engineare showninFig. 2. Themoving piston controlsthevolume of the combustion chamber read more..

  • Page - 1277

    combustion processes that are initiated slightly beforeTDC as the piston nearsthe end of the compressionstroke.Combustion continuesasthe piston moves down duringthe expansion stroke.Two approaches are prevalent in production engines. Inaconventional spark-ignition engine, amixture of air (theoxygen carrier) and fuel are drawn into the combustionchamberduringthe intake process.The mixture iscompressed, and combustion is then initiated usingahigh-energy electrical spark. In the read more..

  • Page - 1278

    often portrayed as having aslower combustion process(constant pressure insteadofconstant volume in theidealization of actionGoTo:1275,Fig. actionGoTo:1275,1F), the goal of rapid combustion nearTDC for maximum efficiency applies to both diesel andspark-ignition engines.In order to increase the specific power outputofanengine (power outputper unit of displacement), some formof pre-compression (supercharging) is often considered.This is rapidly becoming standard practice in dieselengines, and is read more..

  • Page - 1279

    phenomena and their effect on the conditions withinthecylinderatintake valveclosure.[5] Atypical valvetimingdiagram and predictions of the in-cylinder flow duringthe gas exchangeprocess for aheavy-duty diesel engine(see Table 1) are showninFigs. 4and 5, respectively.[6]actionGoTo:1280,Fig. actionGoTo:1280,5 showsvelocity vectors and residualgas massdistributions in the engine just as the intake valves areabout to close. The highest mixing of incomingfreshcharge and combustion products occurs read more..

  • Page - 1280

    GASOLINE ENGINESGaseous pollutant emissions (NOX,CO, and HC) fromgasoline engines have been controlled effectively usingthethree-way catalyst. However, in order to permit bothreductions of NOX and the oxidation of hydrocarbons andCO, combustion mustoccur at the chemically balanced(stoichiometric) air–fuelratio within very narrow limits.Issues such as cold-startemissions, fuel economy, andengine responsivenesshave been the main drivers forfurther advancements. Thefuel system of read more..

  • Page - 1281

    dilution with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) to reducethrottling since overall lean operation precludesthe useof athree-way catalyst and requires moreelaborate lean-NOX after-treatment approaches, such as storagecatalysts.The greatest benefit of GDI is operation in the thirdregime, which is GDI sans throttling with an overall leanstratified mixture at part load and late-injection. Thisstrategy should smoothlytransitiontohomogeneouscharge operation by injecting alarger mass of fuel earlyin the read more..

  • Page - 1282

    01234567−80 −60 −40 −20 020406080MeasuredPredictedPressure,(MPa)Crank Angle,deg.012345678−80 −60 −40 −20 020406080MeasuredPredictedPressure,(MPa)Crank Angle,(deg.)024681012−80 −60 −40 −20 020406080MeasuredPredictedPressure,MPaCrank Angle,(deg.)012345678−80 −60 −40 −20 020406080MeasuredPredictedPressure,MPaCrank Angle,(deg.)012345678−80 −60 −40 −20 020406080MeasuredPredictedPressure,(MPa)Crank Angle,(deg.)Mode 2Mode 3Mode 4Mode 5Mode read more..

  • Page - 1283

    reduced with available exhaustgas oxidation catalysts.Fuel impingement can be reduced with low pressure, lowpenetration sprays. The requirement to use lean air–fuelmixtures limits the achievable power, favoring the use ofhigh boost.ChallengestoHCCI operation include the fact thatthere is no direct method for controlling the start-of-com-bustion timing, leading to poor fuel efficiency. Ignition iscontrolled by chemical kinetics, and influenced by the fuelcomposition,mixture stoichiometry, read more..

  • Page - 1284

    example of current technology, the combustion chambergeometry can be optimizedusing computermodeling forlow emission, high efficiency engine operation.[35]ACKNOWLEDGMENTSContributions of faculty, students, and staffatthe EngineResearch Center are greatly appreciated.REFERENCES1. Heywood, J.B. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals;McGraw-Hill Inc.: New York, 1988.2. Anon, Emission Standards and Supplemental Requirementsfor 2007 and Later Model Year Diesel Heavy-Duty Enginesand Vehicles, 40 read more..

  • Page - 1285

    7. Amsden, A.A.; KIVA-3V: ABlock-Structured KIVAProgram for Engines with Vertical or Canted Valves, LosAlamos National Laboratory Report, LA-13313-MS (1997).8. Reitz, R.D.; Rutland, C.J. Development and testing of dieselengine CFD models. Progr. Energy Combust. Sci. 1995, 21,173–196.9. Han, Z.; Reitz, R.D. Turbulence modeling of internalcombustion engines using RNG k-e models. Combust. Sci.Tech. 1995, 106,267–276.10. Von Kuensberg, S.C.; Kong, S.-C.; Reitz, R.D.; Modelingthe Effects of read more..

  • Page - 1286

    Regulation: Price Cap and Revenue CapMark A. JamisonPublic Utility Research Center,University of Florida, Gainesville,Florida, U.S.A.AbstractPrice cap regulation allows the operator to change its price level according to an index that is typicallycomprised of an inflation measure, I, and a“productivity offset,” which is more commonly called theX-factor. Typically with price cap regulation, the regulator groups services into price or service baskets andestablishes an I–X index, called read more..

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    prices from suppliers, decreasing overhead, improvingnetworkreliability, obtaining lower-cost capital, or usingsome combination of methods.The benefitsofprice cap regulationinclude providingcompanies incentives to improveefficiency, dampeningthe effects of cost information asymmetries betweencompanies and regulators, and decreasing the incentivesto overinvest in capitaland cross-subsidize relative to rateof return regulation. In someinstances, however, servicequality read more..

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    where tZ0isthe initial rate base of the company, forexample, at the time of privatization; Capexi is theadditional investmentinrate base in year i;and di is thedepreciation expenseinyear i.The next step is to projectcash outflows(Capex), operating expenses (Opex),non-operating expenses (Nopex),and unit sales for each year ofthe new pricingregime. The last step is to estimate theX-factor that will equate the present valueofthe cash flowsof the company with the change in shareholder value, read more..

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    benefit is £586.1 million, which is equal to the presentvalue of costsand return on assets shown in actionGoTo:1288,Table actionGoTo:1288,1.The inflation indexinthe basic price restriction isgenerally one that is agood approximation of the previousyear’s inflation, reflects general price movements in theeconomy, is not focused on aparticularsegment of theeconomy, and is reliable and available in atimely manner.The regulator compares this price indexwith the averageprice change proposed by read more..

  • Page - 1290

    CASESTUDIES IN PRICE CAPSMost applications of price cap regulationhave been intelecommunications. Berg and Foreman[11] provide oneof the earlieststudies of theeffectsofpricecapregulation, focusing on the U.K.regulationofBritishTelecom (BT),and theFederal CommunicationsCommission’s price cap regulationofAT&T and theBell operating companies. The United Kingdomimplemented price regulationfor BT in 1984. Therewerefourbasicreasons whythe UnitedKingdomadopted price regulation for BT:† Price read more..

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    features. Each feature has provided an opportunity forincreased debate and litigation.† Freedom from controversy.All the terms of price capswere controversial, including service quality, how tohandle “excessive” returns, and public perceptions ofthe legitimacyofthe regulation.Earnings-sharingassessmentsinthe United States were sensitive to thesame arbitrarycostallocations as rateofreturnregulation.Bell operating companies were givenoptional regulatory contracts and generally chose thelower read more..

  • Page - 1292

    REFERENCES1. Lewis, T.R.; Garmon, C. Fundamentals of IncentiveRegulation,12th PURC/World Bank International TrainingProgram on Utility Regulation and Strategy, Gainesville, FL,June 10–21, 2002.2. Berg, S.V. Introduction to the Fundamentals of IncentiveRegulation,12th PURC/World Bank International TrainingProgram on Utility Regulation and Strategy, Gainesville, FL,June 10–21, 2002.3. Baldwin, R.; Cave, M. Understanding Regulation: Theory,Strategy, and Practice;Oxford University Press: read more..

  • Page - 1293

    Regulation: Rate of ReturnMark A. JamisonPublic Utility Research Center,University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractRate of return regulation adjusts overall price levels according to the operator’s accounting costs and cost ofcapital. In most cases, the regulator reviews the operator’s overall price level in response to aclaim by theoperator that the rate of return that it is receiving is less than its cost of capital, or in response to asuspicionof the regulator or claim by read more..

  • Page - 1294

    This revenue requirement then becomes the target revenuefor setting prices. The basicformula for determining arevenue requirement isR h B†r C E C d C Twhere: R,revenue requirement; B,rate base, which is theamount of capitalorassets theutility dedicatestoproviding its regulated services; r,allowed rate of return,which is the cost the utility incurs to finance its ratebase,including both debt andequity; E,operatingexpenses, which are the costs of items such as supplies,labor(not used for plant read more..

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    determined that there shouldbe$2,00,000 in imputedrevenue, the company would be required to charge pricesdesigned to provide$5.075 million in revenue.HOW RATE BASEISDETERMINEDThe ObjectiveWhen determining rate base, the objective is to identifythe amount of capital the company uses and needs touse to provide regulated services. This capitalincludesthe plantorfacilities in service that the regulator deter-mines to be prudent, as well as the workingcapital. Thebasic decisionsinclude determining read more..

  • Page - 1296

    With historicalperiods, plant in service is measured forarecent period that is believed to be representative of thecompany’s typical operations, for which the necessaryaccounting records are available,and for which all majoradjustments to the accounting records have been con-cluded. This has an advantage of beingobjective andtransparent, but the period for estimating plantinservice isdifferent from the period for which prices will actually bein effect.When usinga future period for the read more..

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    COST OF CAPITALThe return the company is allowed to receive on its rate baseis calledthe allowed rate of return or the cost of capital, andincludesboththe cost of debt that the company uses tofinance its rate base and the cost of equity. The cost of debtis simplythe weighted average of the interest rates that thecompany pays on its long-term corporate bonds. The cost ofequity is the returns that shareholdersneed to ensurethatthey continue to finance the company. Regulatorscombinethe cost of read more..

  • Page - 1298

    depreciation usingthe straight-line method wouldbe$1million per year ($25 million divided by 25 years).Straight-line depreciation is often criticized for notreflecting the rate at which the plant actually decreases invalue. Generally, plant valuedecreases rapidly its first fewyearsofservice and more slowly in later years. Becausestraight-linedepreciationassumes aconstantrateofdecrease, it understatesactual depreciation in early yearsand overstates actual depreciation in later years. read more..

  • Page - 1299

    Renewable and Decentralized EnergyOptions: StatePromotion in the U.S.Steven FerreySuffolk University LawSchool, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.AbstractRenewable energy has emerged from the shadows of anovelty electric energy technology. In an era of fossilfuel volatility, renewable power which is immune from fossil fuel availability, pricing and delivery, makespower systems more resilient. Along with cogeneration, renewable energy can increase electric powerefficiency, and renewable power can read more..

  • Page - 1300

    while electricity cannot be stored in transmissionlines, especially where they are knockedout.EFFICIENCY AND CONTROLFrom an efficiency point of view, there are significantreasons to promotedecentralized on-site electricitysupply. Decentralized electric production can transformelectric production efficiency from approximately33% forcentral station conventional utility supplytosomethingapproaching 80% for decentralized cogeneration. Thesedecentralizedelectricsupplytechnologies, in addition read more..

  • Page - 1301

    emissions, 33% of NOx emissions,and 33% of CO2emissions. Environmental costs associated with powerplants occur at each of three stages of the energy process:† Front-endcosts at thepoint of extraction andprocessing of energy sources. These include the costsof drilling, mining, or otherwiseextracting raw fuelsources; the processing, enrichment or concentrationon these fuel sources; the manufacture of equipment toeffectivelyutilize thesefuel sources; and transportationcosts for fuel and read more..

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    the proceeds of which may then supporta range ofactivities.Inorder to supportDSM or renewableresources, funds are collected through anonbypassablesystem benefits charge to users of electricdistributionservices. Themoney raised from the system benefitscharge is then used to “buy down” the cost of powerproduced from sustainabletechnologies on both the supplyand demand side, so that they can compete with moreconventional technologies. Asystem benefits charge willraise the following issues: read more..

  • Page - 1303

    While Massachusetts and Connecticut are the first twostates in the initial waveorretailderegulation to adoptboth asystem benefit charge to fund renewable tech-nologies and aresource portfolio standard mandatingrenewable wholesale power sources, 22 states and theDistrict of Columbia have adopted the renewable portfoliostandard. The key to making the portfolio requirementswork is to establishtrading schemes for “portfolioobligations.” Atrading scheme would allow distributioncompanies, energy read more..

  • Page - 1304

    conventional powertoa bilateral contract with thegreen energy supplier.† Sale only of the green attributes without purchasing theactual kilowatt hours;the retailcustomer does not needto switch from buying conventional power but onlypurchases the renewable certificate.The drawbackofgreen powermarketingisthat it relieson individual consumer decisions to create apublic good.The environmental benefitsofgreen power consumptionare not internalizedtothe consumer who elects to pay apremium for green read more..

  • Page - 1305

    product, paying apremium of 1.1–2.5 ¢/kWh over astandard electricity price. In California, thisresultedbecause of astate renewable energy credit of l.5 ¢/kWhto greenpowersuppliers, allowing them to undercut thedefaultservice price.Whenthe California marketcollapsed, almost all of thesegreen consumerswerereturnedtostandardutilityservice. By 2002, “green-e”certified products were available in Connecticut, NewJersey, Pennsylvania, and Texas, offered by four suppliers.Where utilities sell read more..

  • Page - 1306

    Renewable EnergyJohn O. BlackburnEmeritus of Economics, Department of Economics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina,U.S.A.AbstractRenewable energy sources in the United States include solar heat and electricity and indirect solar sourceslike wind, falling water, biomass, wave, ocean current, and ocean temperature differences, as well asgeothermal and tidal possibilities. The first two sources, solar radiation and wind, are very large. Solarradiation exceeds total U.S. energy use by afactor read more..

  • Page - 1307

    availabilityofmoderntechnologies with conversionefficiencies muchhigher than those previously available.Most importantly, all forms of renewable energy can beconvertedinto electricity—the most versatileform ofenergy for humanpurposes.POTENTIAL RENEWABLE RESOURCES INTHE UNITED STATESSolar radiation falling on the lower forty-eight statesamounts to an estimated 44,000 quads (quadrillion Btu)annually —440 timesthe annual energy usefor thenation.[1] Fewother resources are found in read more..

  • Page - 1308

    million. These uses are fully competitive with fossil fuels,as is methanecollected from landfills.[12] Other biomasspossibilities are listed in the following section.Ocean SourcesAsmall number of tidal plants have been installedaroundthe world, but none have been installedasofyet in theUnitedStates. Other technologies for using ocean energy,exceptfor waves, are not under active development at thistime.[13]Technologies that are Well Developed but notYet FullyCost CompetitiveSolarWater read more..

  • Page - 1309

    installation. Biomass-based liquid fuel production is set toexpand rapidly. Salesofphotovoltaic equipment are risingrapidly, but still with subsidies and incentives.Costreductionproceeds apace at about 4%–5% per year, whileseveral promising new and potentially muchcheaperversions are moving into production.Solar industrial process heat is receiving little attention,thoughitprobably will as oil and gas prices trend upwardin coming decades.DEALING WITH INTERMITTENTSOURCESSolar radiation and wind read more..

  • Page - 1310

    end-use energy, with the rest going to the residential andcommercial sectors. In U.S. energy statistics, electricitylosses are allocated to each of the sectors in order to see theprimary energy demand occasioned by the activities ofeach sector.Table 1also lists the kinds of energy end-uses providedby fuelsbecause these would have to be suppliedfromrenewable sources in the absence of fuels. (Sectorend-usesfor electricity are not shown, sinceelectricity is readilyproduced from renewable sources.) read more..

  • Page - 1311

    The adequacy of renewable energy sources, considered ingross, is easy to establish. Wind and solar resources aloneprovidethese amountsofenergymanytimesover.In addition,the “nonintermittent” renewable sources(biomass, hydroelectric, and geothermal resources) sumto another 17 quads at aminimum.As to end-uses, six to nine quads of electricity fall wellunder available sources, with storage capability beingrequiredonly in areas lacking hydroelectric resources.Space and water heat can be provided read more..

  • Page - 1312

    22. Kelly, H.; Weinberg, C. Utility strategies for usingrenewables. In Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuels andElectricity;Johanssen, T.B., Kelly, H., Reddy, A.K.N.,Williams, R.H. Eds.; Island Press: Washington, DC, 1992.23. Perez, R. Determination of Photovoltaic EffectiveCapacity for New Jersey. actionURI(http://lecglobal.com):http://cleanpower.com/research/actionURI(http://lecglobal.com):capacityvaluation/ELCC_New_Jersey.pdf (viewed May 24,2005).24. Blackburn, J.O. Possible efficiency gains read more..

  • Page - 1313

    Residential Buildings: Heating LoadsZohrab MelikyanHVAC Department, Armenia State University of Architecture and Construction, Yerevan,ArmeniaAbstractIn designing energy-saving heating systems, it is important to have the exact values of heating loads andseasonal heating demands of buildings. The existing methods for determining these values are not exactenough, because they do not take into account important factors such as the impact of solar radiation onsouth walls’ and roofs’ surfaces, read more..

  • Page - 1314

    In Eq. 5, the meanings of values are the following:tout.dsg outside design temperature (8C)kwd heat transfer coefficient of windows(W/m2 8C)m glazing rate of the buildingdw and dr thickness of the construction materialof the wallsand ceiling of the building(m)lw and lr heat conductivity of the constructionmaterial of the wallsand ceiling of thebuilding (W/m 8C)dins thickness of the insulation materialcovering the walls and ceiling of thebuilding (m)lins heat conductivity of read more..

  • Page - 1315

    therefore, do not take into account the effect of day solarradiation on the surfacesofbuildings. Consequently, thevalues of seasonal heating demands turn out significantlyhigher. The useful impact of solarradiation on heatingdemand can be evaluated by the help of radiation tempera-ture, tR (8C), which is calculated by the following formula:tR Z tout CIpaout;ð9Þwheretout outside air temperature (8C)I intensityofsolarradiation on surfacesofbuilding envelope constructions (W/m2)p rate of solar read more..

  • Page - 1316

    seasonal specific quantity of heat gain, qd (Wh/m3), thefollowing equation for determining of night seasonalspecificheating demand, qhd.n.seas (Wh/m3)for abuildingis obtained:qhd:n:seas ZXZtout:dsgiZZtout:st:nZtout:n:i ðtin K tout:n:iÞ!kw2ð1 K mÞbC2aCkrhC2kwdmbC0:181 C4:012mbK qd ;ð15Þwheretout.n.i currentnight temperaturesoccurringbetween night heating season’s startingtemperature, tout.st.n,and heating designtemperature, tout.dsg,(8C)Ztout.n.i duration (h)ofeachoutside read more..

  • Page - 1317

    The Eq.16 permits to find the temperature tout.st.d,under which starts the nighttime heating season for anykind of building. By the Eq.17the temperature tout.st.d,underwhich startsthe daytimeheating season, isdetermined. The impact of internal heat gains qd,W, onthe heating seasons’ starting tout.st.d,and tout.st.d,tempera-tures is significant, which can be seen from the diagram inactionGoTo:1316,Fig. actionGoTo:1316,2. The diagram showsthat the growth of qd,increasesthe difference read more..

  • Page - 1318

    3. The accuratevalues of seasonal specific heatingdemandsallowdetermining andplanningaccuratevalues of fuel consumption for heatingpurposes.BIBLIOGRAPHY1. Turner, W.C., Ed. Energy Management Handbook 6thEdition; Fairmont Press: Atlanta, GA, 2006.2. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Con-ditioning Engineers, Inc. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamen-tals;ASHRAE: Atlanta, GA, 2005.3. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Con-ditioning Engineers, Inc. HVAC Systems and read more..

  • Page - 1319

    Run-Around Heat Recovery SystemsKamiel S. GabrielUniversity of Ontario Institute of Technology,Oshawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstractRun-around heat-recovery systems are often used to recover heat from the exhaust air in buildingventilation systems, particularly in cold climates. In atypical heat-recovery system, an ethylene glycol andwater solution is used as a“coupling fluid” to prevent the system from freezing. The design of arun-aroundheat-recovery system involves consideration of the read more..

  • Page - 1320

    configuration similar to that of atypical heat exchangercoil until the work published by Zeng, Rezkallah, andBesant.[8] In addition to obtaining alarge set of heat-transfer andpressure-dropdata abouttypical heat-exchanger coils on the supplyand exhaust sides of arun-around heat-recovery loop, the researchers[8] alsoexamined the effect of temperature-dependent propertieson the performance of the heat-recovery system.[9]The results have shown that the temperature-dependentproperties may further read more..

  • Page - 1321

    where U is the overall heat-transfer coefficient (W/m2 K);A is the tube cross-section area; cand hrefer to the coldand hot fluids, respectively; Rsh and Rsc are the foulingresistances on the hot and cold sides, respectively; and Rwand Rc are the total tube wall thermal resistanceandcontact resistance of fins andtube,respectively.Allresistances are in K/W.Aparameter known as the number of transfer units, N,is commonly used in the equations for calculating theeffectiveness of acoil from:N read more..

  • Page - 1322

    e.g., at ReSLZ2500, hTP decreased by 16% whenthe ductair flow rates were increased. This is partly attributed tothe significant change in viscosity of the glycol/watersolution as aresult of the change in operating temperature.INFLUENCE OF CHANGES IN THE OPERATINGTEMPERATURE OF ETHYLYNE GLYCOLExperimental and numerical studies were performed byZeng, Besant,and Rezkallah[9] to examinethe per-formance of run-around systemswhenthe coupling fluidproperties vary with temperature. For a50% read more..

  • Page - 1323

    The rate of coupling liquid flow and gas flow in eachcoil is adjusted to maximize the total heat exchangebetweencoils or, in the event that the requiredload ismet, to reduce the total heat exchange between thecoils.The mixed gas and coupling liquid is separated afterthey flow through each coil.CONCLUSIONSRun-around heat-recovery systemsare very effectivemeans of reducing the heating costs of buildings duringwinter months, particularly for northern climates, such asCanada. Arecovery system can read more..

  • Page - 1324

    Savings and Optimization: Case StudiesRobert W. PetersDepartment of Civil, Construction &Environmental Engineering, University of Alabama atBirmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, U.S.A.JefferyP.PerlChicago Chem Consultants Corp., Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.AbstractSince mass and energy balances are coupled, process energy can be optimized only by conducting detailedenergy assessments, which investigate both process and energy analyses. Anumber of plant-wideassessments have been conducted on avariety read more..

  • Page - 1325

    † Akro NobelMorris Plant Implements aSite-WideEnergy Efficiency Plan (PDF341 KB);—Plant–Wide Assessment (PWA)Summary:$1.2Million in SavingsIdentified on Akro NovelAssessment (PDF174 KB);† Bayer Polymers: Plant Identifies Numerous ProjectsFollowing Plant-WideEnergy Efficiency Assessments(PDF 863 KB);† Dow ChemicalCompany: By-Product Synergy ProcessProvidesOpportunities to Improve Resource Util-ization, Conserve Energy, andSaveMoney (PDF218 KB);† Formosa Plastics Corporation: read more..

  • Page - 1326

    Process Control and Reduce Energy Consumption(PDF 300 KB); and† KennecottUtahCopper Corporation: Facility UtilizesEnergy Assessments to Identify $930,000 in PotentialAnnual Savings (PDF 307 KB).Petroleum† Chevron:Refinery Identifies $4.4 Million in AnnualSavingsbyUsing ProcessSimulation Models toPerform Energy-Efficiency Assessment (PDF293 KB);† Martinez Refinery CompletesPlant-WideEnergyAssessment (PDF 241 KB); [Equilon]—PWA Summary: $52 Million in Savings Identifiedin Equilon read more..

  • Page - 1327

    team to improvethe efficiency of processesatthe tworolling mills.Estimatesindicate that implementingall ten projectscould result in annual cost savings exceeding$11million, corresponding to energy savings of w1millionMMBtu and38millionkWh annually. The annualprojected savings for the ten projects are summarizedin Table 1, below. After the table, brief discussions ofthe projects are presented.1. Convert the Lewisport mill to the continuous-castingprocess:The assessmentteam rec-ommended read more..

  • Page - 1328

    (iii) Using variable-speed recirculation fans andreverse air flow to mimic tunnelfurnaces.7. Improveannealingoperations:Measures toimprovethe annealing processesincluded:† TheLewisport mill should evaluate methodsemployed at Newportfor controllingannealing operations by usingthermocoupleson each coil interfacedwith aPLC. Thesystem permitsfocusingonthe slowestheating coil while preventing overheatingin other coils. This will increase energysavings and resulting in improved read more..

  • Page - 1329

    for base loads; these chillers couldservelarger loads forlonger periods of time,lowering operation costs. Thechillerconsolidation wasestimated to provideanenergy savings of morethan 1.5million kWh/yr.Cooling-air compressor cooling north plant and southplants:The air compressorsatboth the north and southplants use chilled water for cooling; the nominal chilledwater demand is 145 and 75 tons, respectively. Thecooling towers of the chilled water system could beused as the primary coolingmethodfor read more..

  • Page - 1330

    energy usage reduction at Blue Heron’s paper mill inOregon City,Oregon. Blue Heron was originally knownasthe Hawley Pulp and Paper Mill, which began operationsin 1908. Times Mirror purchased the facility in 1948(knownasPublisher Paper Company). Smurfit StoneContainer Corporation bought the mill in 1986, operatingit for about 14 years. The mill was sold in 2000 to itsemployees andKPS to form the Blue Heron PaperCompany. Themill produces w650 tons of paper daily,making newsprint and specialty read more..

  • Page - 1331

    box downstream and in the proximity of the steambox removes acombination of shower water andwater from the sheet. The water’s temperature isbetween 115 and 1208F. The type of heat recoverysystem is economical and technically feasibleforthe No. 4paper machine. The capitalcost isestimatedat w$110,000withsignificantheatrecovery,creating aproject return on investmentof 1.1 years. Heat recovery is more practical whenapplied to the Uhle box stream coming offthe felt.The stream has the steam box on read more..

  • Page - 1332

    steam from thereboilerat11psig, therebyreducingpower consumptioninthe steamcompressors; and† Heating de-ink pulpers by replacing someofthewhite water from the central wastewater from theTMP mill economizer.This alternative requires lessequipment than any otheralternative considered that has comparable energy econ-omy, due to much of the heat recovery is accomplishedwithout heat exchangers. The effluent flow is reduced by1.2 million gallons/day. The net steam consumption toheat stockand read more..

  • Page - 1333

    1. Thermal Cycle Efficiency Improvement Options:Heat is introduced to the glass furnace via directnatural gas over the glassmelting tank,andelectric booster heat arcing between electrodesimmersed in the glass melt.Directfiringhaslower cost fuels, but the over-melt firingprocessis muchlessefficient (50–60%) in deliveringheat to the melt. The electric arc is nearly 100%efficient in delivering heat to the glass melt,butthe cost of electricity is high relative to otherfuels. To recover read more..

  • Page - 1334

    Plant lighting:Improvements in efficiency of plantlighting systemsinclude the following options:† Provide for expanded use of natural lighting† Where convenient, convert the plant’s outdoor lightingfrom utilitylighting to wall packs or plant-suppliedlighting† Install motion sensors in equipment rooms, warehousefacilities, and other plantareasthat are not frequentlyoccupied† Have lighting performance contractors conductno-costreviews of plantlighting to identify possible improve-ment read more..

  • Page - 1335

    —Replace belts on the motor drives with notchedv-belts.† Compressedair system:The compressed air systemwasexaminedfor savings potential from usingoutside air,reducingheader pressure, reducingpressure loss in the distributionsystem,optimal stagingof compressors,and effective use of cooling air andwater.† Processing heat:Several options were identified:—Optimizing combustion efficiency of the ovens andfurnaces;—Using waste heat and pre-heat combustion or space-heating air; and—Using read more..

  • Page - 1336

    Coeur Rochester,Inc., is asubsidiary of Coeur d’AleneMines Corporation. This facility opened in 1986, and is thecompany’s largest producer and the largest primary silvermine in North America, producing 60,000 oz of gold and 6million oz of silver annually. The ore body is blasted, andthe oreisfed intoa series of crushers to yield ore that is lessthan 3/8 inch in size. Conveyorstransportthis ore to theheap; aheap leaching process employing cyanide solutionis used to capture the metals from the read more..

  • Page - 1337

    processing plant. One bowl could therefore beeliminatedfrom the existing pump configuration. A750-hp premium efficiency motor couldreplace theexisting 1250-hppregnant pump motor. Addition-ally, an adjustable-speed drive could be installed toaccommodatethe change in flow requirementsfrom phase 4tothe plant.3. Install aregenerativesystem on downhill con-veyor:A downhill conveyor transfers crushed oreto the base of phase 4atanaverage rate of1200 tons/hr. The energy created by the falling oreis read more..

  • Page - 1338

    production and distribution systems. The modelcan beused to determinethe most efficient loadingofindividual pieces of equipmentEnergy savingspotentials forimplementingthesefourteen projects are summarized in Table 7below.Individual energy-efficiency measures identified duringthe plant-wide assessment scheduled to be implemented asapackageare described briefly below.— Upgrade steam system insulation:Using acomputermodel, the assessment team identified several unin-sulated or underinsulated read more..

  • Page - 1339

    — Installcooling tower automatic blowdowncontrolsystem:Instrumentation and controlsonfour coolingtowerstoautomatically control each tower’s conduc-tivity (which provides ameasureofthe solids in thecirculating water system)were recommended. Highconductivity reduces makeup water costs, chemicaluse for water treatment, and downstream processingcosts, but it increases cooling water system foulingand corrosion while reducing heat transfer. Lowconductivity has the opposite effects. Maintaining read more..

  • Page - 1340

    $5 millionannually, whilereducingenvironmentalemissions.SteelJernberg:Tostreamline its manufacturing processes at itsChicago, Illinois, facility, Jernberg chose to convert fromits traditional batch methodstoleanmanufacturing.Jernberg was foundedin1937; it was the country’s firstindependentpress forgingcompany.The company’sforging facility located in south Chicago, produces 170million lbs of forged parts annually. Jernberg produces awide varietyofgears, yokes, hubs, and otherparts for read more..

  • Page - 1341

    would need to be repaired before returning it back toservice.This project was estimated to provide an annualcost savings of $9,400; the resulting simplepaybackperiod would be w2.7 yr.Recoverwaste heat from cooling tower loop:Fourteencooling towers provide process cooling for the inductionheating furnaces, air compressors, and hydraulic systemson each forging line. Jernberg uses w12,000 MMBtu ofnatural gas for space heating annually. Most areas of theplant require space heating (except for the read more..

  • Page - 1342

    gas torch that is sandwiched between the die cavities forabout 20 minutes. When die changes are required duringproduction hours, this time represents lost productivity. Ifan infrared die heating station is installed, the same dieheating process could be accomplished in 4to5 minutes,enabling the die to be changed and return the press back into production more quickly. Some energy savings wouldbe realized by eliminating the torch. The primary savingswill occur as aresult of lessdowntime, thereby read more..

  • Page - 1343

    Savings and Optimization: Chemical Process IndustryJefferyP.PerlChicago Chem Consultants Corp., Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.Robert W. PetersDepartment of Civil, Construction &Environmental Engineering, University of Alabama atBirmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, U.S.A.AbstractFor the chemical process industry (CPI) to remain competitive in the global environment, bothenvironment, safety and occupational health (ESOH) and process design must be integrated andsimultaneously optimized. Apractice-based read more..

  • Page - 1344

    Objectives and National PolicySection 1003 (a) OBJECTIVES—to promoteprotectionofhealth and environment and to conserve valuablematerialand ENERGYresources.We can see elements of this philosophy on U.S. EPAboiler industrial fuel (BIF) regulations allowing compa-nies to burn used oil onsite to recover energy value, whilemaintaining clean air compliance.US Department of Energy ProgramThe federal government has an excellent program to assistboth commercial and residential end users of read more..

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    the primary consideration (leadingindicator), and inothers, materialwill be.We will focus more on energy as aleading indicator.An unexpectedbenefit of process energyreview andoptimization provides the designer an opportunity toreevaluate the entire system.PROCESSENERGY OPTIMIZATIONThe overall process of turning raw materials into finishedproducts is energy intensive. Processes consumemecha-nical and electrical energy as well as water,natural gas, oiland othercombustible commodities. read more..

  • Page - 1346

    Compressed AirThe typical specification for compressed air has abroadtolerance. This leads to inefficiencies arising from leakingsystems and improperly high or low pressure settings.Poorly maintained line filters can introduce moisture orcompressor lubricants and other undesirable elements into aprocess that might alsoadversely affect energy consump-tion. Air compressors also create waste heat that should beintegrated whenever possible, but is often overlooked.Hydraulic SystemsPiping is one read more..

  • Page - 1347

    Facility EnergyIntegration† HAVC Interconnection Review.† Peak DemandHours of Operation Review.† Lighting.PROCESSENERGY CONSERVATIONEXAMPLESThere is no end of examples, and we commend the readerto look at othersources, such as, the US Department ofEnergy.DOE maintains awebsite of process energysavings examples described later. We have providedseveral of these in the following article.Chemicalprocess engineering is comprised of physicaland chemical manufacturing steps. The physical read more..

  • Page - 1348

    waste materials to ash and heat through chemical reactionknownasoxidation. Combustion is also employed tocreate steam and provide process and facility heat.Whether exothermic or endothermic,energyinte-gration is essential for modern reactor design. Mostreactions have optimal temperature rangessoreliance onwasteheat requires topping fromanalternatesource. Again, amodern programmable logic controller(PLC)can easily integrate two heat/cooling sources for onreactor.Combined Heat and Power: Putting read more..

  • Page - 1349

    small, controlled quantity of air to minimize charproduction. The resulting medium-Btugas produced canprovideprocess heat throughhot water or steamgeneration, or in some instances, adirect fuel supplement.The resulting pyrolysis ash is often disposed as MSW itselfat greatly reduced volume, or in cement kilns where metalcontent is not aproblem.The relatively low operatingtemperature allows the recovery of metals, includingaluminum, as well as glass for recycling. Heatrecoveryfrom produced gas is read more..

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    take some doing,but can reap financial and PR benefitsas well.† Load Shifting—Incorporate energy demand charge asfunction of time into all process design optimizationand change programs. The City of Chicago constructedarefrigeration process that makes ice at night andprovides district cooling during the day in downtownChicago. Off-peak electricrates are usually quite abargain. Factor this into any processing scheme.† Leading Energy Indicators—Select metric feedbackelements to monitor read more..

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    Six Sigma Methods: Measurement and VerificationCarla Fair-WrightMaintenance Technology Services, Cameron’sCompression Systems Division, Houston, Texas,U.S.A.Michael R. DorringtonCameron’sCompression Systems Division, Houston, Texas, U.S.A.Abstract“If you can’t measure, you can’t control—if you can’t control, you can’t manage—if you can’t manage, youcan’t contain costs.” As aprocess-oriented activity, energy management begins with athorough assessmentof use and culminates read more..

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    Cause-and-effect matrix Achart used to rank therelationship betweenprocess inputs and outputsof adesigned sequence of operations or eventsFailure modes and effects analysis FMEA;a documentthat provides asystematic technique to identifyand analyze potential failuremodesbyquantify-ing them according to the severity of risk theypresentRisk priority number RPN; anumerical indicator usedto identify the severity of riskMeasurement system analysis MSA; an evaluationused to determine the precision of read more..

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    employs ROI Analysis to forecast the expected rate ofreturn.It should be noted that the Energy Policy Act of 2005provides substantial tax incentives to encourage improvingenergy efficiency in both new and existing buildings.Amajor aspectofthe act is the ability of facility managersto obtain new energy equipment and apply any derivedcost savings to energy utilization.DATA SOURCEResearch data used in this article wereobtainedfrom themonthlyservice billings of asmall aftermarket repairfacility in read more..

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    † Improve—Identifyingimprovementstooptimizeoutputs.† Control—Establishing controlprocedures andaccountability.Variation and Mean ShiftEvery process includesboth common-cause variation andspecial-cause variation.Common-cause variation occursnaturally in any process, while special-cause variation isnonrandom and the result of an action or aseries ofactions.Process improvement seeks to reduce special-cause variation,shifting the mean to center and stabilizingthe process (Fig. 2). The read more..

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    the width of the process variation to the width of theacceptable process tolerance limits, or by measuring thedefects present in the existing process. The standardmeasuresofcapability aredefectsper millionopportunities (DPMO) and process capability ratios (Cpand Cpk).AnalyzeNon-Normal DataBeforeperforming any data analysis, one shouldcheckdata fornormality,since standard capabilityindicescontain an assumption of normality. With energy usageprograms, data is likely to be non-normal due to read more..

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    priority number (RPN).Only the highest-rated factorsqualify for investigation.Measurement ErrorAccuracy of themeasurementsystem canbethepredominant reason for process variation. Employingmeasurement system analysis (MSA)will allow the firmto evaluatethe accuracy and precision of the measurementsystem. Where measurement systems are inadequate, it isrecommendedthat they be upgraded to alevel consistentwith the project requirements.Corrective ActionsCompletion of theFMEArequiresstatement of read more..

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    seen by the fit of the variables to afitted line plotactionGoTo:1355,(Fig. actionGoTo:1355,3).For the facility cited in this article, it was determinedthat utilityfees and surcharges were the critical inputs.Regression analysisindicated aweak correlation to thevarious input factorsofshop load,utilization factors,maintenance, and seasonality, due in part to the limitedamount of data and unpredictable increases in utilityenergy fees and surcharges. Based upon the age of thefacility and read more..

  • Page - 1358

    Solar Heating and Air Conditioning: Case Study*Eric OliverK. BakerM. BabcockEMO Energy Solutions, LLC, Vienna, Virginia, U.S.A.John ArchibaldAmerican Solar,Inc., Annandale, Virginia, U.S.A.AbstractMechanical cooling is one of the largest end uses of electricity, and it contributes significantly to peakdemand and on-peak energy consumption. The ability to offset electricity consumption during peak usageperiods by eliminating mechanical cooling can save costs, reduce strains on transmission read more..

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    Thesecondary air stream feedsIEVAP-1.Thesecondary air stream is intendedtomaximize the removalof sensible heat from the primary air and thereby reducethe primary air temperature. To this end, the airstreamisdesigned with twicethe airflow as the primary air.Similar to the primary air stream, the RAS is drawnthrough air filters from outside. This airstream is first passedthrough HX-1 to recover heat from the superheated anddried primary air stream. This preheated air is then sent tothe read more..

  • Page - 1360

    summer months. An air flow test with an early prototypeshowed outlet air temperatures of 160–1808F(71–828C)are possible. Higher temperatures areexpectedwithoptimal orientation, improved materials (i.e., absorber,glasstile, etc.), and optimal air flow given asystem’sconfiguration.For this particular application, the preheated solar airgenerated from the solarroof will be used to regenerate ahigh temperature substrate desiccant, which will be utilizedto dry the primary air stream. To read more..

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    backup and backup grid connection for battery charging,but the showcase is meant to demonstrate the potential foroff-grid applications. Highlighted design features andmodifications for test bed purposes include:† The ability to alter and test the impact of different facevelocities acrossthe solar roof to increase theregeneration air temperature.† The ability to adjust the reliefdamper position for theregeneration air to properly pressurize the solar roof.† The end user’s ability to read more..

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    Solar Thermal TechnologiesM. AsifSchool of the Built and Natural Environment, Glasgow Caledonian University,Glasgow,Scotland, U.K.T. MuneerSchool of Engineering, Napier University,Edinburgh, Scotland, U.K.AbstractSolar thermal technologies are amongst the most diverse and effective renewable energy technologies.They range from low-temperature (!708C) and simple in operation technologies such as solar spaceheating and solar cooking to high-temperature (O2008C) and sophisticated ones like solar read more..

  • Page - 1363

    heating,isused to optimize the reduction of auxiliaryenergy consumption in such away that minimum overallcost is obtained. In combination with conventional heatingequipment, solar heating provides the same levels ofcomfort, temperature stability, and reliability as conven-tional systems. Abuilding that includessome arrangementto admit, absorb, store, and distribute solar energy as anintegral part is also referred as asolarhouse. Asolarspace-heating system can consist of apassive system, an read more..

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    way they transfer heat to water.Again, there are twotypes: direct system, in which thecollector itselftransfers heat to water; and indirect system,inwhichaheat-transfer fluid, circulating in collector in aclosedloop, transfers heat to water through aheat exchanger.actionGoTo:1365,Fig. actionGoTo:1365,2 showsanindirect active solarwater heater.The efficiency of asolar water heater depends uponits design and the available solar radiation.Inthis entry,solar water heatinghas been classified as read more..

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    SOLARPONDSSolar ponds are naturally occurring salt gradient lakes thatcollectand store solarenergy. Asolar pondcontainssaltwater with increasing concentrations of salt, hence thedensity of the solution. When solar radiation is absorbed,the density gradient prevents heat in the lower layers frommoving upward by convection and leaving the pond.Thisresults in an increased temperature at the bottom of thepond and anear atmospheric temperature at the top of thepond. The phenomenon of solar ponds was read more..

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    atransparent material. The heat trapped in the solarpondscan be used for many different purposes, such as industrialprocess heating, the heating of buildings, desalination, andto drive aturbine for generating electricity.The first artificial solarpond was developed in Israel in1958. Since then,manycountries such as Australia, theUnitedStates, China, India, Iran, Italy, and Mexico haveconstructed solar ponds, mostly for research and develop-mentpurposes. During the last decade, significant read more..

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    that originate from consumption of wood,and animal andagricultural residuesfor cooking in remote areas that lackaccess to electricity and gas. Solar cookers are capable ofperforming various types of cooking phenomenas, i.e.,frying, baking, and boiling. The maximum achievabletemperature dependsonthe intensity of the available solarradiation and the design and size of the solar cooker.Solarcookers come in awiderange of designs, which can becategorized under the following three major types.Solar read more..

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    flat plates and high-temperature evacuated tubesandconcentrators. The basic principle behind solar thermalcooling is the thermochemical process of sorption—aliquid or gaseous substance is either attached to asolid,porous material(adsorption) or it is taken in by aliquid orsolid material(absorption). Theheat transfer fluid isheated in the solarcollectors to atemperature well aboveambient and used to power acooling device—a type ofheat-actuated pump.The heat transfer fluid may be read more..

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    basis of their concentrator optical properties and theoperatingtemperature that can be obtainedatthe receiver.Most of the techniques for generating electricity from heatneed high temperatures to achieve reasonable efficiencies.Concentrating systems are hence used to producehighertemperatures. actionGoTo:1370,Table actionGoTo:1370,2 shows the operational charac-teristics of concentrated collectors.[11]Parabolic TroughThe parabolic trough systems consist of large curvedmirrors or troughs that read more..

  • Page - 1370

    SOLARTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES—MARKETGROWTH AND TRENDSSolar thermal technologies, in general, like SPV and otherrenewable energy technologies, are rapidly growing. Thetwo key growth areas in solarthermal technologies,however, are solar water heating and solar thermal powergeneration. Solar water heating is among the fastestgrowing renewable technologies. As it was reported in theyear 2003, solar water heaters received a21% shareofthetotal investment, $22 billion, in the renewable energysector read more..

  • Page - 1371

    † Italy.40MWsolar capacityintegrated into existingcombinedcycle plant (trough)† Mexico.291-MW ISCC plantwith30MWsolarcapacity (trough)† Algeria.140–150 MW ISCC plantwith25MWsolarcapacity (trough)Ascenario of whatcouldbeachieved by the year 2025was prepared by Greenpeace International,the EuropeanSolar Thermal Industry Association, and InternationalEnergy Agency (IEA)SolarPACES projects. From thecurrent level of just 354 MW total installed capacity, therate of annual installation by 2015 read more..

  • Page - 1372

    Solar Water Heating: Domestic and Industrial ApplicationsM. AsifSchool of the Built and Natural Environment, Glasgow Caledonian University,Glasgow,Scotland, U.K.T. MuneerSchool of Engineering, Napier University,Edinburgh, Scotland, U.K.AbstractSolar water heating is one of the most successful applications of solar thermal technologies. Itprovides environmentally clean energy and has enormous potential within domestic and industrialsectors. Solar water heaters are categorized into three main read more..

  • Page - 1373

    SOLARWATER HEATER DESIGNSSolar water heaters can be categorized into three maintypes: thermosyphon,built-in-storage, and forced-circula-tion. Thermosyphon and built-in-storage types are alsoregarded as passive systemsasthey rely on the naturalcirculation of water.The forced-circulation type of heater,on the other hand, is regarded as an active system as itincorporates an externalelement such as an electric pumpto circulate the water.Solar water heaters transfer heat tothe water in twoways: read more..

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    cheaper due to their simplicity of construction. Based onextensive measurements of anumber of designs, Muneerhas reported the effects of storage volume/collector arearatio, the number of glazings, and the mode of operation onthe performance of built-in-storage heaters.[4] Kreider andKreith have presented design details of afreeze-tolerant,built-in-storage solar water heater with embedded heatexchanger coil which uses arefrigerant to extract heat.[5]Also in this respect, Davidson and Hammonds read more..

  • Page - 1375

    and an absorber. The absorber is usually madeofmetalmaterials such as aluminum, copper, or steel. Thecollector housing can be madeofplastic, metal orwood,and the glassfront cover mustbesealed so thatheat does not escape, and dirt, insects, and humidity donot get into the collector itself. The collector housing ishighly insulated at the back and sides, keeping heatlosses low. However, there are still minor heat lossesfrom thecollector, mainly due to thetemperaturedifference betweenthe absorber read more..

  • Page - 1376

    The transfer of heat from the absorber plate occurs via anefficient and fast heat conductor bearing alow heatcapacity. The heat-pipe functions like athermal diode. Itaccepts heat from an externalsource, uses this heat toevaporate the liquid (latent heat) and then releases latentheat by reverse transformation (condensation) to the heatsink.This process is repeated continuously by areturn feedmechanism of the condensed fluid back to the heat zone.Typically, evacuatedheat pipe solarcollectors use read more..

  • Page - 1377

    Eq. 1enables the computation of UT.Itiscustomary to add5%–10%tothe value of UT to obtain the total heat losscoefficient, UL.Other terms used in Eq. 2are explainedbelow.The Transmission-Absorption Product, (ta)Asolar radiation incidentonany inclined collector iscomposed of direct (beam), sky-diffuse,and ground-reflected components. These transmittedcomponents,passing through the collector glazing, may be estimatedif the corresponding transmittances tb, td,and tg areknown. Each of these is read more..

  • Page - 1378

    15 to 40 years, depending on the system and how well it ismaintained.Muneer andAsifestimated the paybackperiod for solarwater heating incorporated within textileindustries in Pakistan to be 6years. More recent work hasconcluded that, with more efficient designs, the paybackperiod can be reduced to just over 3years.[8]LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) OF SOLARWATER HEATERS—A CASE STUDYSolar water heaters usesolar energy as the fuel and henceare environmentally friendly, as they do not generate read more..

  • Page - 1379

    The annual average daily incidentsolarirradiation on a1m2 collector area of the heater, under the test conditionsfor the above site was 4.8 kWh. The average daily energyyield of the heater was found to be 2.65 kWh, thusdemonstrating an efficiency of 55%.[12] It was found thatover aservice life of 20 years, the heater would provide19.4 MWh of energy. The heater consequently has apotential of saving 1393 kg of CO2 emission.As part of this work, alife cycle cost assessment wasalso carried read more..

  • Page - 1380

    7. Cruza, M.S.; Hammond, G.P.; Reisa, A.S. Thermalperformance of atrapezoidal-shaped solar collector/energystore. Appl. Energy 2002, 73,195–212.8. Munner, T.; Maubleu, S.; Asif, M. Prospects of solar waterheating for textile industry in Pakistan. Renew. Sust. EnergyRev. 2006, 10,1–23.9. Product Range,Viessmann Werke GmbH &CoKG,Germany, 199710. Duffie, J.; Beckman, W. Solar Engineering of ThermalProcesses,2nd Ed.; Wiley: New York, 1991.11. Heat your Water With the Sun: AConsumer read more..

  • Page - 1381

    Solid Waste to EnergybyAdvanced Thermal Technologies(SWEATT)Alex E. S. GreenGreen Liquids and Gas Technologies, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractSolid waste (SW), now mostly wasted biomass, could fuel approximately ten times more of the UnitedStates’s increasing energy needs than it currently does. At the same time, it would create goodnonexportable jobs and local industries. Twenty-four examples of wasted or underutilized solids thatcontain appreciable organic matter are listed. Estimates read more..

  • Page - 1382

    alternative fuels, but also could mitigate air and waterpollution problems. The large carbon dioxide-neutral plantmatter components in Table 1can help in greenhousemitigation. Thegreat diversity of physical and chemicalcharacteristicsinTable 1implies that the world needsomnivorous feedstock converters (OFCs) to change thesesolid fuels into much moreusableliquid or gaseous fuels.actionGoTo:1383,Fig. actionGoTo:1383,1 isaconceptualillustration of an OFC adaptedfrom several previous CCTL read more..

  • Page - 1383

    representative total volatiles, VT,asdetermined by anAmerican Standard Test Measurement Method (ASTM).Asolid sample is heated (pyrolyzed)inaninertatmosphere usinga platinum crucible at 9508Cfor7min. The wt% loss betweenthe sample and its char isthe total volatile yield. Then the balance from 100%represents the weight of the fixed carbon (FC)plus ash.When this residualisburned, the remainder is the ash wt%.An empirical analytical formula is giveninthe caption torepresent general trends of total read more..

  • Page - 1384

    02468100102030405060carbometaantanthsubanthlvbitmvbithvbitahvbitbbitabitbsubitasubitblignitealignitebbrownleonardpeatapeatbpeatcbarkshellswoodawoodbEcropag wasteagricH=6(1−exp(−O/2))C=100 − H − OOldMatureYoungDevelopingInfantCoalsABCoalsAdultPSPUBSRDFLi.CeHeCeTiresBarkFood WastePETGHHV vs O1015202530354001020304050[O]HHVCVoland FC vs O010203040506070809010001020304050FC[O]Fig. 2 (A) Weight percentages of hydrogen [H] vs [O] for 185 DANSF carbonaceous materials (black diamonds) vs oxygen read more..

  • Page - 1385

    energy term ([C]/3) usually is much larger than thehydrogen energy contribution (1.2[H]). Oxygen contrib-utes negatively in part because the more [O] implies less[C] and in part because of the subtractive term K[O]/10.The larger points on actionGoTo:1384,Fig. actionGoTo:1384,2a give the [H], [O]positions oflignin (6.1,32.6), cellulose (6.2,49.4), and hemi-cellulose(6.7,53.3), the three main componentsofall plant matter.Also showninFig. 2a are the [H] and [O]coordinates ofseveral materials that read more..

  • Page - 1386

    Table 3 Heating values of MSW components, fuels, and plastics in 1000 Btu/lbComponentAs recdDryComponentDryWastesFuelPaper and paper productsHydrocarbonsPaper, mixed6.807.57Hydrogen60.99Newsprint7.978.48Natural gas20.00Brown paper7.267.71Methane23.90Trade magazines5.255.48Propane21.52Corrugated boxes7.047.43Ethane22.28Plastic-coated paper7.347.70Butane21.44Waxed milk cartons11.3311.73Ethylene21.65Paper food cartons7.267.73Acetylene21.50Junk mail6.096.38Naphthalene17.30Benzene18.21Domestic read more..

  • Page - 1387

    approximate percentages of U.S. energy consumption. It isseen that morethan 40% of our energy consumption is intheformofpetroleum, consumed mainly in ourtransportation sector. Without doubt the biggest energyproblem facedbythe United States todayisthe need tofind alternatives to oil.[1–3] In the 1970sand early 1980s,the United States focused heavily on alternatives to oil inthe utilitysector. The alternatives first were pulverizedcoal plants and, in the late 1980s and 1990s, NGCCsystems. At read more..

  • Page - 1388

    and steam turbine generator systems or via conversion to agaseous fuel to fuel integrated gasifier combinedcycle(IGCC) systems. Granting that the steam turbine routehashad manyadvances over the past century, our thesis is thatconverting the solid fuel to gaseous fuel is the ATT routeof the future. The ATT routeisdriven not only byenvironmentally acceptable waste disposal needs andincreased needs for electricity, but also by the need forliquid and gaseous fuels. Anumber of petroleum read more..

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    many technical forms, depending on the detailed arrange-ments for applying heat to the incoming feed and thesource of heat used to change the solid into agas or liquid.Let use “producer gas” as ageneric name for gasesdeveloped by partial combustion of the feedstock with air,as in many traditional ABPCgasifiers that go back toClayton’scoal gasifier of 1694. We will use “syngas” forgases developed by partialcombustion of the feedstockwith oxygen, as in OBPC gasifiers, which are read more..

  • Page - 1390

    conventional Arrhenius reaction rate formulas.[28] In theASEM,each productisassigned five parameters (W, T0, D0,p, q)torepresent its yield-vs-temperature profile. Theobjective has been to find how these parameters depend onthe [H]and [O] of the feedstock and the a, b, c of the CaHbOcproductfor the data from particulartypes of pyrolyzers.Studies by Xu and Tomita (XT)[29] that gave data on 15products from 17 coals at six temperatures have beenparticularly helpful in revealing trendsofthe read more..

  • Page - 1391

    detailed pyrolysis properties and, hence, parameters. Weuse jZ1, 2, 3, etc. to denotethe first,second, third, etc.members of each group or the carbon number (n). In theCCTL’smostrecent studies[21–27] of specific feedstockpyrolysis, formulas have been proposed and tested for thedependence of the W, T0,D0, p,and q parameters on thecarbon number of the product within each group. Thismakes it possible to compact avery large body of data withsimple formulas and atable of parameters.The case of read more..

  • Page - 1392

    steam turbinesinNGCCsystems reasonableomand encosts. Aslope Sng Z0.7 is areasonable assignmentreflecting the high efficiency of recent NGCC facilities.Fora SW integrated gasification combined cycle(SW–IGCC) system, Ksw generally would be higher thanKng because the capital costsand operating cost mustinclude the gasifier and gascleanup system. The valueofSsw is also higherthan Sng because we mustfirst makeanSES producer gas, syngas, or pyrogas,whichinvolvessomeconversion losses. SswZ1isa read more..

  • Page - 1393

    or biomasswith othertechnologies if we can identify the Kand S for each technology.The CCTL has applied the ACE method to alarge bodyof COE-vs-COF calculations on biomassuse presented inan Antares Group, Inc. report (AGIR)[34] for severaltechnologies. It is reasonable to apply these results to mostof theSWlistedin actionGoTo:1382,Table actionGoTo:1382,1, particularlyinsmallcommunities that have recyclingprogramsinvolvingresidential separation of waste that would minimize thecost of making read more..

  • Page - 1394

    (LNG) importing capabilities, NG might return to the $4/MMBtulevel of 2003.The final column shows that at the reference powerlevels without the NGCCs case, the IGCC scores thelowest COE, as the ICF report (ICFR) concluded. Thevalueofthe ACE analysisisthat with abit of algebra,anyone can easily consider otherfuel cost projectionsandotherpower levels (with assumed values of a, b, g,and d).Based on previous CCTL exploratoryworkand economy-of-scale investigations, the author estimates that for read more..

  • Page - 1395

    outputneeds at least until the maximum rating of thegenerator is required.Atthat point, the firingcouldbeentirely on NG. In asolid waste alliance with natural gas(SWANG), an additional option becomes available whenthe SW comes from arecycling community. Then theutilitymight prepare and store high-energy plastics forincreased use during times of high electricity demand as ameans of following peak loads without calling on the fulluse of NG.ATT FOR LIQUID FUEL PRODUCTIONPyrolysis/gasification read more..

  • Page - 1396

    GlossaryABPC: Air Blown Partial CombustionACE: Analytical Cost EstimationAGIR: Antares Group Inc. ReportAr: AromaticsASEM: Analytical Semiempirical ModelATT: Advanced Thermal TechnologiesBTU: British Thermal UnitsCACE: Component Analytic Cost EstimationCCTL: Clean Combustion Technologies LaboratoryCHP: Combined Heat And PowerCIE: Compressed Ignition EnginesDANSF: Dry Ash, Nitrogen And Sulfur FreeEU: European UnionFC: Fixed CarbonGT: Gas TurbinesHHV: Higher Heating ValuesHRSG: Heat Recovery Steam read more..

  • Page - 1397

    26. Feng, J.; Green, A. Peat Pyrolysis and the Analytical Semi-Empirical Model. J. Energy Sources, 2006.Inpress.27. Feng, J.; YuHong, Q.; Green, A. Analytical model of corncob pyroprobe-FTIR data. Biomass Bioenergy 2006, 20,486–492.28. Gaur, S.; Reed, T. Thermal Data for Natural and SyntheticFuels;Marcel Dekker: New York, 1998.29. Xu, W.C.; Tomita, A. Effects of coal type on the flashpyrolysis of various coals. Fuel 1987, 66,627–631. 632–636.30. Mastral, F.; Esperanza, J.; Garcia, E. et read more..

  • Page - 1398

    Space HeatingJames P. RiordanEnergy Department, DMJMCHarris/AECOM, New York, U.S.A.AbstractNothing seems more welcoming than the coziness of ablazing fireplace on acold winter night. Thetechnological developments leading up to this inviting scene are the result of over 2000 years ofdevelopments. The technological advances within the past 100 years and in our future will shape newindustries, create better energy awareness, and mark changes in our lifestyles.INTRODUCTIONSince early human history, read more..

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    are the warmest; thosefarther away do not receive as muchheat. This was an early form of radiant heating.[1]In today’s culture, bathing is aprivateactivity. InRoman culture, communal bathing and public bathhouseswere widespread leisure activities and fundamental staplesof Romans’ lives. Many bathhouses were privately owned(called balneae),but therewerealsomanypublicbathhouses (called thermae) (see Fig. 1). Public bath-houses were accessible by all levels of society—by bothmen and read more..

  • Page - 1400

    fireplace were usually made extra thick to radiate storedheat after the fire had burnedlow.When multiple-storystructuresbegan utilizing fire-places, the danger of afire became critical, as mostroofswere made of wood. Hearths and fireplacesbegan to belocated closetoa perimeter wall where the exhaustsmokecouldbefunneled into the wall, allowing it to ventproperly.[4] Near the end of the 12th century, fireplacesbegan to be constructed with projecting hoods to controlthe smoke, allowing for read more..

  • Page - 1401

    horizontal flue between the stove sectionand the flue.Convection-heated air is directed around the masonrysections and into nearby rooms. It is quoted that thesestoves capture up to 85% of the BTUs burned in thecombustion process for radiated heat.Conventional woodstoves capture about 45%–60%.[6]Odd fact: up until 1900, the Danish war officewasheated by asingle furnace in the basementofthe building.The furnace was used to heat cannonballs. These cannon-balls were carried to everyoffice and read more..

  • Page - 1402

    heating process. Steamtraps in the system allow the steamto condense by losing heat to the surrounding air viaradiators. Then thiscondensateisgravity fed or pumpedback to the boiler. Awater-tube boiler is essentially atankwith internal tubes (see actionGoTo:1403,Fig. actionGoTo:1403,6). The tubes contain water,and the hot exhaustgases are passed aroundthe tubes,producing steam.The steam is collected in asteam drum atthe top of the boiler for process heat.The condensateisreturnedthe same way as read more..

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    require that special emissions monitoring and treatmentremain in effect.HABITAT DEVELOPMENTAdiscussion of space heating would not be completewithout reviewing the development of habitat structuresandthe improvementsinthe materialsoftheirconstruction.Early habitats were constructed primarily of earth,wood,orstone. The roofswere thatchedstraw, with largeopenings to allowhearth-fire smoketoescape. Thedoorways and window openings were rough openingsthat allowed occupants and light to enter. These read more..

  • Page - 1404

    The openings between the rough-hewntimbers requiredfilling with soil or claytoeliminate drafts,ofcourse.Again, windowdevelopment did not proceed muchpastearlier times, and although expensive, it was more readilyavailable. Again, shutterswere commonly used forprotection from both the elements and predators.INSULATION DEVELOPMENTIt is only within the past 100 years that the benefits ofbuilding insulation have been realized from the standpointof building comfortand fuel-cost savings. Theideology read more..

  • Page - 1405

    † 4th step: QZUADt;0.08333 BTU’s/(h!ft2!8F)!2,780 ft2!598FZ13,668 BTUs/h boiler outputC7000 BTUs/h (slab/door/windows)Z20,668 BTUs/h.† 5thstep:accountingfor equipmentefficiency;SolutionZ(20,668BTUs/hboiler output)/(80% boilerefficiency)Z25,835 BTUs/hboiler input.This result uses astandard boiler efficiency of 80%.Using ahigh-efficiency condensing-type boiler wouldraise that efficiency to about90%,reducingfuelconsumption. Of course, the current cost of aresidential-sized condensing read more..

  • Page - 1406

    Metal has been avoided for useasspacers, as it conductsheat and cold very well.Rubber, foam, and fiberglass havereplacedmetal in most applications.The framesand materials have progressed where manyarchitecturalstyles and manymaterials are available.Some of the materials are aluminum,wood,aluminumclad,vinyl clad, wood–plastic composites, vinyl, andfiberglass. Since the Energy Policy Act of 1992, theNational Fenestration Rating Council(NFRC) has workedon anationalwindow-standard testing read more..

  • Page - 1407

    Steam and Hot Water System Optimization: Case Study*Nevena H. IordanovaSenior Utility Systems Engineer,Armstrong Service, Inc., Orlando, Florida, U.S.A.Rick CumboOperations and Maintenance Manager,Armstrong Service, Inc., Orlando, Florida, U.S.A.AbstractIn 2001, Armstrong Service performed an audit in alarge food processing plant.The audit focused on the steam and hot water systems improvements, as well as their monitoring, controland sustainability of improvement results.The objective of this read more..

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    year.This cost represents the total cost that is required togenerate an average of 25,000 lbs/h of steam at 115 psig.The various costs that make-up the steam generation costsare shown in Table 1.Steam Generation SystemThere are three boilers in service in the facility:† Murray built in 1960rated at 60,000 #/h† Union built in 1966 rated at 125,000 #/h† Murray built in 1972rated at 100,000 #/h.All of the boilers use natural gas as their primary fuel.Typically, one or two of the boilers are read more..

  • Page - 1409

    boiler house. Flash steam offthis CR is pipedback to theboiler house and used to heat makeup water to the DA.Waste Heat RecoverySome of the waste heat is recoveredbythe use of the flashsteam in the DA and the use of economizers on severalboilers.SAVINGSOPPORTUNITIESAthorough review of the system confirmed that there areenergy saving potentials in all the areas of the steamsystem:steam generation, distributionsystem, utilization,and in condensatereturn system. The following para-graphs read more..

  • Page - 1410

    ECM DescriptionASI proposed to replace the blowdownheat recoverysystem. Thewaste heat in the blowdownwater was used topreheat boiler makeup water actionGoTo:1411,(Fig. actionGoTo:1411,3).The flash tank wasnot reused and the blowdownwater was recovered at ahigh pressure in ashell and tube system of counter flowheat exchangers. The blowdowndischarge temperaturewould be 1708F, due to the MUWtemperature coming inat 1408F.Proposed Energy and Utility SavingsBased on the conductivity readings from read more..

  • Page - 1411

    ECM 3: REPLACEMENT OF PRODUCTDEAERATORSTEAM JET EJECTORS WITHMECHANICALVACUUM PUMPSCurrent System DescriptionDeaerationisone of thesteps of thefoodproductprocessing. The product is sprayed in aDAat2058Fatarate of 60 gpm. Due to the vacuum, part of the water isevaporated and part of the oxygen is removed.The productthen leaves the DA at 1908Fthrough aprocess pump.The planthas atotal of eight (8) existing productDAs.The vacuum is drawn through barometric condensers bysteam jet ejectors read more..

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    condensers at three of the DAs. The VPs will eliminate theneed for steam use in the DAs and the indirect condenserswill eliminate the water discharge to industrial wastesewer (IWS). Asimplifiedschematic of the proposedpiping diagram is shown in Fig. 5.Energy and Utility SavingsandEnvironmental ImpactUnderthe current conditions each steam ejector was using357lb/hofsteamand each condenserdischargedapproximately15gpm of cooling water to the IWS.Details about the data used and the savings read more..

  • Page - 1413

    in excess of 2000 lb/h. In addition to the traps wastingsteam, 3.7% of thesetrapswere failed in acoldplugged and/or flooded conditions. These traps are notlosing steam but rather causing aloss of heat,waterhammer,corrosion, andpossiblydamagetoheattransfer equipment. Thefollowing is abreakdown ofdefective traps as apercentage of the total in-servicetraps:Blow-Thru21.5%Cold plugged3.7%Total25.2%ECM DescriptionThe existing steam traps were very oldand manyofthemneed to be replaced. Installing the read more..

  • Page - 1414

    Energy and Utility SavingsandEnvironmental ImpactsBy replacing the defective steam traps, 3,012,000 lbs ofsteam were saved.The details about the savings can beseen in Table 7.By reducing the steam venting, total carbon emissionswere reduced by 60 tons/year.The simple paybackfor this project was 1.8years.ECM 6: CORRECT STEAMBLOWTHROUGHRATEONCOOKER KETTLESCurrent System DescriptionThe cooking kettles are steam jacketed type vessels orhave steam heating coils. The steam heating coils in nineof the read more..

  • Page - 1415

    to assure process reliability. Both tanks will have acitywater back-up system to assurewater availability at anytime.In case of interruption of the Boiler MUW supply,thetransition to city water supply,asMUW,isautomatic.Energyand Utility Savings andEnvironmentalImpactsThe implementation of this ECM saved 36,212,000lbs ofsteam, shortenedthe process heat-up time and increasedthe yield rate without any change of the process equipment.Fig. 7 ECM 7sample P&ID—TANK 1.Fig. 8 EOS monitoring read more..

  • Page - 1416

    The savings were calculated based on city water tempera-ture 658F, average for the year,heated up to 1558F. Thedetails about the savings can be seen in Table 9.By reducing the steam usage,the total carbon emissionswere reduced by 567 tons/year.The simple paybackfor this project was 2.4years.ECM 8: ISOLATE ABANDONED LINESCurrent System DescriptionThe leak through astrainer ahead of an abandoned valvehas been wasting steam for 14 years. Steamiscurrentlybeingunnecessarily vented through a20 pipe, read more..

  • Page - 1417

    crossoversand/or by pH and conductivity from rupturedproduct coils. The condensateisdrained at an estimated1800 h/year and involves several hours of laborfor eachoccurrence.There was no arrangement for afast and effectivedetermination of the location of the contamination source.In addition, there was no way to separate the contaminatedcondensate from clean condensate. Due to this, all of thecollected condensatewas dumped. The condensatecontinuedtobedumped until the source of contaminationwas read more..

  • Page - 1418

    ECM DescriptionASI proposed to establish amonitoring system, which helpsto identifythe source of contaminationand preventcontinuous and larger than required dumping. ASI alsoproposed to installaPolisher, whichassuresgoodcondensate quality before it is sent to the DA actionGoTo:1416,(Fig. actionGoTo:1416,9).AcommonpHprobe automatically monitors andcontrols apair of kettle cookers. An alarm is sent to thecontrol room and an operator defines which one of theCookers is leaking and manually closes read more..

  • Page - 1419

    coming from different cooling water crossover sourcesthroughout the plant.If the contaminations are extremethe condensate wouldbe manually dumped to the IWS.Energy and UtilitySavings andEnvironmental ImpactsThe implementation of this ECM saved 9,635,000 lbs ofsteam.The details about the savings can be seen inactionGoTo:1417,Table actionGoTo:1417,11.By returning the condensate, the total carbonemissionswere reduced by an estimated 160 tons/year.The simplepayback for this project was read more..

  • Page - 1420

    calculated based on the readings from the EOS and otherswere based on stipulated savings. actionGoTo:1417,Table actionGoTo:1417,12 providesinformation on each proposal and the approach taken toestablish aproper M&V protocol.ENERGY OPTIMIZATION SYSTEMAn EOS was installed in the boiler house for monitoring/managing all the utility systems. The EOS was installedinaddition to the instrumentation and meters installed tocollectdata on critical pointsfor each individual project.Summary of the read more..

  • Page - 1421

    Steam TurbinesMichael Burke WoodMinistry of Energy,AlDasmah, KuwaitAbstractThis article reviews the history of steam turbine development for power generation and marine propulsion.It describes factors affecting thermodynamic and fluid dynamic efficiency and mechanical designprinciples. Alternative design technologies are described and some comparisons are given. Steam turbinesfor various applications and probable future developments are described.INTRODUCTIONThe steam turbine has been the read more..

  • Page - 1422

    reheat were introduced in the 1960s. Materials difficultiescausedreduction to 240 bars/5608C, typical of supercriticalunits now in service in the United States. Steamturbinesoperating at up to 250 bars/6008Care used in Europe andJapan.Nuclear reactors require low-speed, wet-steamturbines of up to 1500 MW operating at 75 bars/2958C. Inthe last decade, combinedcycles have become amajorsteam turbine application. In the marinefield, the linerswere eliminated by airlines soon after World War II. read more..

  • Page - 1423

    extracted from the turbine.Fig. 5issimplified. In realplants, up to 10 feed heaters are used. The overall energyefficiency of the steam cycle is givenbythe heat rate,defined as the heat supplied by the boiler (in Btu) dividedby the generator output(in MWhr).The use of atwo-phase working fluid has majoradvantages. Theefficiency of energy conversion in heatengines is afunction of the pressure ratio. In petrolengines, this is about 12:1; in adiesel engine, 18:1; and in atypical gas turbine, read more..

  • Page - 1424

    Moving blades change the direction of the steam so thatenergy is transferred to the rotor entirely by change ofmomentum. Only Hero’s concept is pure reaction. Allblades have an impulse component. In reaction stages, theflow path between rotating blades is shapedtocausefurtherpressuredrop, expansion, andkinetic energyrelease, which is transferred to the rotor by reaction.Thepercentage of enthalpy drop across the moving blades isthe degreeofreaction. Also, in any blade, centrifugaleffects in read more..

  • Page - 1425

    and up to 1100 MW with 3LPcylinders, both usingasingle high-speed shaft.Creep properties of high-temperature sections, tensilestrength of LP blades and rotors, and toughness to preventfailure of rotating componentsare the mostimportantmaterialissues. Turbines are large capital investments andmust operate reliably for more than 30 years—200,000 hwith minimum possible outages. In the past, design wasevolutionary; but modern practice is increasingly influ-enced by engineering analysis of read more..

  • Page - 1426

    thermal stresses. In other designs, pressure loading on thecasing is further reduced by use of an impulse first stageand aseparateinlet nozzle box containing the largepressure drop across the first-stage nozzle. This alsoreduces the number of stages at somecost in efficiency.Most turbineshave horizontal bolted joints in both innerand outercasings to permit assembly and maintenance.Massive flanges with avery high ratio of bolt to flange areaare required. Because the casing heats up more read more..

  • Page - 1427

    should arub occur. Glands, seals betweencasings androtors, are required to prevent outwardsteam leakage fromHP and IP cylinders andinward air leakage to LPcylinders, which would reducecondenser vacuum. Theseconsist of several labyrinth packings in series. Steam at IPis introduced betweentwo packings. This controlsthepressure gradient along the seal, minimizing leakage.Leakageincreases the heat rate, and is minimized byintermediate leak-offpaths routed to the feed system.Steam whichpassesthrough read more..

  • Page - 1428

    DEVELOPMENTSteamturbine technology is thoroughly evolved, and thelimits setbymaterial properties andfluiddynamicefficiency are well defined. Applications depend on othertechnologies. Combined cycles require relatively simplemachines with emphasis on maximum exhaustefficiency.Developments will probably be the more complex steamFig. 10 Arrangement of 2cylinder up to 500 MW, 177 bar, 6008C, reheat steam turbine. (Courtesty of Siemens AG.)Fig. 11 Arrangement of 2cylinder up to 250 MW, 177 bar, read more..

  • Page - 1429

    path requirements of advanced gas turbinesusing steam-cooled gas turbine blades and integrated gasifiers. Coalremains amajor energy source, and the supercritical steamplant with exhaustconditioning is an economically andenvironmentally competitive technology for burning it.Related developments are supercritical steam turbinesforsteam conditions above 7008C, longerlast-stage blades,and units with larger outputs and fewer cylinders. Steamturbinesare essential for power production from read more..

  • Page - 1430

    Sustainability Policies: Sunbelt CitiesStephen A. RoosaEnergy Systems Group, Inc., Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.A.AbstractIt has been suggested that “sustainability can provide aqualitative measure of the integrality and wholenessof any given system.[1] This article focuses on evidence indicating that apositive relationship may existbetween the adoption of sustainability as alocal goal and the rates of local energy policy adoption inSunbelt cities. The evidence suggests that policies responding read more..

  • Page - 1431

    cause substantialdamage to economies, the environmentand create the need for corrective policies. Energy is aresource that begs to be used efficiently. Gross consump-tion of available energy resources can cause atragedy ofthe commons, preventing future use of the resource. Urbangrowth can be impacted by dependence on fossil fuels.COMPARING SUNBELT CITIESAND THEIRPOLICIESWhy are Sunbelt cities and their sustainability policiesparticularly interesting? Sunbelt cities aresignificantcenters for read more..

  • Page - 1432

    Among thesecities are Houston, Dallas, Fresno, and LasVegas. Table 1provides asummary of cities and indicateswhich have sustainability agendas.Other cities in this category, including Charlotte andFort Worth, have programswith afocused developmentpolicy effort based on a“smart growth” agenda.However,policies associated with achieving smart growth agendasare not necessarily sustainable development initiatives.Having identified cities with sustainability as alocal goal,three types of read more..

  • Page - 1433

    † Establishing awritten energy policy forgovernmentownedbuildings.† Requiringenergyassessmentsurveys of city-ownedbuildingstodetermine economically appropriateactionsandalternativestoreduceenergyuse.† Mandatingthe useof“GreenBuilding” constructiontechniques or incorporatingstandards such as thoserequired by Leadership in Energy andEnvironmentalDesign (LEED) fornew construction.† Participatinginpackagedprogramssuchasthe U.S.Department of Energy’s (USDOEs) RebuildAmericaProgram.† read more..

  • Page - 1434

    Combiningthe resultsfromresearching localgovern-mental energy policies or programs,itwas determined that(1)a totalof14cities(56%) meet therequirementsofthispolicy measureand have establishedpoliciesorprogramssupportedbylocal government,and (2)elevencities(44%)lack policies supportedbythe localgovernment.ENERGY STARTM PARTNERThis indicatoraskswhether or notthe city participates as amember in theEnergyStarTM program. Energy StarTMpartners read more..

  • Page - 1435

    also determined that Sunbeltcitiesvaryintheir approachesto implementing energy-related policies.Inaddition, threespecificlocally adoptableenergy-relatedpolicieswereconsidered in detail:(1) city-operatedenergyefficiencyprograms,(2) localgovernmentalenergyprogram support,and(3) Energy StarTM programparticipation.Thesepolicies arequalitative indicationsofthe typesofprogramsbeingpursued by the25sampled Sunbeltcities.Thespecific energy-related policies adoptedbyeachcitywere discussedindetail,and read more..

  • Page - 1436

    includesaninternalenergyconservationinitiative.Tucson is developing asustainable communitybased onuseofsolar energy.Mesahas createda planning agendabasedonsustainabilityand is amongthose that haveestablishedanenergyconservation programfor city ownedbuildings.It wasdiscoveredthatthe sampledSunbelt cities varybroadlyintheir selectionand applicationofpolicies.Certaincities, includingAtlanta,Los Angeles, andSanDiego, aggressively pursue multifaceted policies andfocustheirresources andagendas read more..

  • Page - 1437

    Sustainable Building SimulationBirol I. KilkisGreen Energy Systems, International LLC, Vienna, Virginia, U.S.A.AbstractAs the need for sustainable development increases, building simulation is becoming more crucial, and it isheading towards new challenges, dimensions, and concepts beyond the building envelope. Buildings are notisolated entities, which are not just responsible for about 35% of the total annual energy demand, butdynamically interact with their environment whose affected perimeter read more..

  • Page - 1438

    relations. Today’s greenbuildings may not be truly greenunless thesimulationwindowexpands beyond thebuilding envelope, with aclear understanding of exergy.Fig. 2shows sample layers and scale of ideal buildingsimulation windowsfor sustainability. Today there arealmost 300 building simulation tools in 21 countries.However, in spite of this large availability and easy access,they do not yet address the overall picture; they are limitedto the building envelope or its close vicinity.ENERGY AND read more..

  • Page - 1439

    exergeticimportance of thermalenergystoragesystems.[14,15] The rational exergy efficiency (j)istheratio of the minimum exergy required by agivenHVACload to the actually available exergy of the energy sourceused in satisfying that load.[16]j Z3min3actð1ÞThe minimum amount of exergy requiredtosatisfy aunitheating load foranindoor spaceatadry-bulbairtemperature Ta,inreference to the temperature of theenvironment Tg[17]:3min Z 1 KTgTafTg s Tagð2ÞIf the reference temperature of the environment read more..

  • Page - 1440

    Fig. 4 (A) Acentralized energy and power system with buildings using conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning plant andequipment. (B) Acentralized energy and power supply system with ground source heat pumps. (C) Adecentralized micro combined heatand power system. (D) Adecentralized, green energy system.10.1081/E-EEE-120041542—21/6/2007—15:09—VELU—221731—XML Taylor &Francis EncyclopediasSustainable BuildingSimulation1399SolidSus© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, read more..

  • Page - 1441

    We can now conclude that whether it is thermalefficiencyorexergyefficiency, or both, thesimulation window mustbefar wider than thebuilding envelope for sustainability. Thebuildingsimulation window mayonlybereduced tobuilding scaleifdecentralizedenergy systemswith high efficiency greenenergy components areconsidered, as in Fig. 4D.[19]MAJOR COMPONENTSOFBUILDINGSIMULATIONCurrent theory of building energy simulation is based uponload and energy calculations developed by ASHRAE.[20]The selection read more..

  • Page - 1442

    INTEGRATED BUILDING DESIGNSYSTEMIntegration of simulation into the building design processcan ensurethat important data and information for eachmajor design decision are provided in atimely fashion. Byestablishing design links and exchange betweenarchitec-ture and engineering, an integrated building design system(IBDS) can be developed.[30] Some researchers have takenthe initiativetodevelop moreefficient and flexible use ofsimulation tools. The COMBINE (Computer Models fortheBuilding read more..

  • Page - 1443

    7. DOE-2.This is an hourly, whole-building energyanalysis program that calculatesenergyper-formance and life cycle cost of operation.Canbe used to analyze energy efficiency of givendesigns or efficiency of new technologies. Otheruses include utilitydemand-side management andrebate programs, development and implemen-tation of energy efficiency standards, and com-pliancecertification. Training andexpertiserequired.[43]8. EE4 CODE.Used to determinethe complianceofabuilding to Canada’sModel read more..

  • Page - 1444

    22. MOIST.This program predicts the combinedtransfer of heat and moisture in multi-layerbuilding construction.Inputshourly weatherdata andpredictsthe moisturecontentandtemperatureofthe constructionlayers as afunction of time of year.Itcan be used todevelop guidelines and practices for controllingmoisture in walls, flatroofs, andcathedralceilings.[58]23. Daylight.This program calculates the daylightfactor distribution in aroom.A user-friendlyprogram by Archiphysics.[59]24. BREEZE.This is atool read more..

  • Page - 1445

    12. American Institute of Physics Efficient Use of Energy;American Institute of Physics: New York, 1975; 49–50.13. IEA and ECBCS Guidebook to IEA ECBCS Annex 37—LowExergy Systems for Heating and Cooling of Buildings;VTT:Finland, 2003.14. Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A. Thermal Energy Storage, Systemsand Applications;Wiley: West Sussex, 2002.15. Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A. Energetic, environmental andeconomic aspects of thermal energy storage systems forcooling capacity. Appl. Thermal Eng. 2001, read more..

  • Page - 1446

    improving the built environment. Since 1985, IBPSA has beenorganizing international conferences on building simulationevery two years. PDF versions of all papers from the1985–2003 Conferences are available online. actionURI(http://www.ibpsa.org):http://www.actionURI(http://www.ibpsa.org):ibpsa.org/m_events.asp.2. BLDG–SIM.This is amailing list for users of building energysimulation programs. This allows engineers, architects, andothers in the building design trade to compare read more..

  • Page - 1447

    Sustainable DevelopmentMark A. PetersonSustainable Success LLC, Clementon, New Jersey,U.S.A.AbstractSustainable development includes all business and community planning and operating decisions with dueconsideration for: (1) people—employees, customers, shareholders, community residents, or anyone that isinvolved or affected; (2) planet—material and energy resource management that does not hurt theenvironment; and (3) profits—or economics or prosperity. Sustainable development takes read more..

  • Page - 1448

    HISTORY, ENVIRONMENTALDEGRADATION,AND NATIONAL SECURITYDuring the last century, while fossil fuels were abundantand cheap,those fuels fulfilled amajority of our energyconversion needs.The mounting problem is that combus-tion emissions have fouled the environment in anumberof ways, resulting in increases in respiratory illnesses,mercurypollution, and arise in global temperatures. Thequantity of easily retrieved fossil fuels is significantlydepleted. Coalisstill relatively abundant, but it does read more..

  • Page - 1449

    planning,and otherrelated disciplines involved up-front tocreate better designs. If this process is not used, designtypicallyproceeds in aseries of “handoffs” that tend tocompound problems, as each succeeding teamdesigns“around”any incompatibilities that the previous designershave already finished. This adds unnecessary complexitiesand inefficiencies, which increaseconstruction and life-cycle costs. Through coordination and the collaboration ofdesigners, architects,engineers, andkey read more..

  • Page - 1450

    RENTING VS BUYING (A SUSTAINABILITYINNOVATION)[11,12]Here is an example of systems thinking to ensurethat aproducthas minimal environmental impact plus highsocial and economic value:In today’s consumer/throw-away economy, typicallyaproductismanufactured and sold. There is producer incen-tive to minimize the use of laborand material resourcesput into aproduct, thus saving on cost.The product is soldas cheaply as possibletomaximize sales. Theproducteventually wears out and is disposed of. read more..

  • Page - 1451

    SocialCapital covers fundamental needs, whichinclude: the strongneedfor localsources of food;accessible, healthyshelter; healthyenvironment andaccess to healthcare; plus access to knowledge about theinterconnectedness of us to our environment and to eachother. The sectiononcommunity discusses collaborativeprocesses that honor:social equity,which promotesprosperity forall; securityfromfear andviolence;recognition of the wealth and strengthinour culturaldiversity and establishmentofawill to read more..

  • Page - 1452

    5. actionURI(http://www.insnet.org):http://www.insnet.org/ins_headlines.rxml?custZ2&idZactionURI(http://www.insnet.org):1234.6. actionURI(http://www.insnet.org):http://www.insnet.org/ins_headlines.rxml?custZ2&idZactionURI(http://www.insnet.org):1248.7. Anderson, C.; Katharine, R. The Co-Creator’s Handbook,actionURI(http://www.globalfamily.net):www.globalfamily.net.8. read more..

  • Page - 1453

    Thermal EnergyStorageBrian SilvettiCALMACManufacturing Corporation, Fair Lawn, New Jersey,U.S.A.AbstractOften unnoticed, elements of thermal energy storage (TES) technology can be found in many commonproducts. As an engineered system, however, thermal storage has matured into an extensively developedtechnology primarily for commercial comfort and process cooling. Commercial utility rates and theunbalanced cooling demand of this sector make it an ideal candidate for TES. Although water is read more..

  • Page - 1454

    Latent Heat StorageWhen liquid water and ice are in thermal equilibrium at328F(08C), the addition or removal of limited quantities ofheat does notchange the temperature. The addition of heatwill change the phase of some of the water from solid toliquid,and the removal of heat will change the phase ofsomeofthe water from liquid to solid. This is an exampleof latent heat of fusion (solid/liquid), the form of latentheat mostcommonly applied in thermal storage.Materialsemployedfor thermal storage in read more..

  • Page - 1455

    To illustrate, acustomer that operates a100-W lightbulb for 10 hwill consumethe same amount of electricenergy as acustomer who burns ten 100-W light bulbs for1h.However, the customer who consumes that energyover the 10-h period will pay one-tenth of the demand-related utility cost.Itisquite common for acommercialcustomer’s demand charges to contribute more than 50%of the utility bill.Refrigerationequipment canconstitute40% or more of acommercial building’s peak electric read more..

  • Page - 1456

    Fig. 2 14,000 tn-h, 5000 ft2 modular ice storage system, cooling 1,000,000 ft2 district system. (Courtesy CALMAC Manufacturing.)Fig. 3 Comparison of charging and discharging processes from interior and exterior of ice on coil.10.1081/E-EEE-120042125—21/6/2007—12:10—VELU—225321—XML Taylor &Francis EncyclopediasThermal Energy Storage1415TherUnd© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC read more..

  • Page - 1457

    similar to the internal melt coil, but often with wider tubespacing.Circulatingcoldcoolant throughthe HX coils, as in theinternal melt design,forms theice.The majordifferenceisthat some liquid waterisalwaysleftsurrounding theiceformed on theHXtubes (actionGoTo:1456,Fig.3). This wateristhe heattransfer fluid forthe dischargecycle,and icethickness mustbe carefullycontrolledtoensurethata flowpassage is alwaysavailablefor thecirculating waterwhile stillachieving therequired iceinventory.Because read more..

  • Page - 1458

    the plate. The ice separates from the surface and drops intoan atmospheric pressure steel or concretetank below. Thisprocedure is repeatedsequentially over aseries of manyplates or tubes, so that theprocessisessentiallycontinuous.An alternateapproach circulates coolant or refrigerantaroundanHXthat has water combined with alowconcentration of glycol flowing on the opposite surface.Acombination of mechanical disturbance and the fluid’sreduced tendency to adheretoa surface whenfrozeneliminate read more..

  • Page - 1459

    Reynold’s number is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces.Research, with sometimes inconsistent results, is stillevaluating the influences of these and other parameters.[10]Designers, usinga combination of analyticaland empiricalapproaches, have nonethelessarrived at asuccessfuldesign process.actionGoTo:1458,Fig. actionGoTo:1458,5 represents chilled water storage systemspart waythrough acharge or discharge cycle. During charge, flowexits the top of the tank,iscooled by the chiller, and read more..

  • Page - 1460

    10;000 tn h Z ðNC ! 12 h ! 1Þ C ðNC ! 12 h ! 0:7ÞNC Z10;000 tn hð12 h C 8:4hÞZ 490 tnThe amount of storage becomes:Storage ton hours Z NC ! Ice making hours!Capacity factorð2ÞStorage ton hours Z 490 tn ! 12 h ! 0:7 Z 4118 tn hNote that this partialstorage chiller is only 49% of thepeak load and 41% of the full storage selection. Storagecapacity is alsoreduced to 41% of the full storagerequirement.There is any number of intermediate selections. Forinstance, acommon conventional design read more..

  • Page - 1461

    coolant temperature throughout the discharge period as iceis melted.During charging, the chiller operates at the lower ice-making temperatures. The three-wayvalve directs all flowthrough storage. With no direct cooling neededduring theice-making period, the load can simplybebypassed. If thereis acooling load during ice-making, asecondthree-wayvalve and bypass is sometimes included(dashed lines) sothat warm coolant returning from the load can be blendedwith the cold ice-making coolant read more..

  • Page - 1462

    CONCLUSIONProgress continuesinmanyareas of TES.Uniqueapplications, like combustion turbine inlet air-coolingthat recovers capacity normally lost duringhot weather,are continually being developed.[17] Efforts are currentlyunderway to describe moreprecisely TES performance inenergymodeling software, motivatedlargely byincreasing interest in the U.S. Green Building Council(USGBC)LEEDw[18] certification program.Thermalstorage is auniquely diverse area of energy technologywith both along read more..

  • Page - 1463

    ThermodynamicsRonald L. KlausVAST Power Systems, Elkhart, Indiana, U.S.A.AbstractThe foundational ideas of thermodynamics, especially the implications of its two main laws, are presented,and their implications for energy engineering are discussed. Special attention is given to the implications ofthe second law in the design of processes that are thermodynamically efficient. The application ofthermodynamics to practical engineering problems requires accurate estimation of thermodynamicproperties read more..

  • Page - 1464

    gas law or the assumptionofanequationofstate, areusually requiredtomake numerical estimates of theseproperties.THE FIRSTLAW OF THERMODYNAMICSFormulationThe first law of thermodynamics is astatementoftheprinciple of conservationofenergy for aclosed system—namely, one in which there is no transfer of mass acrossthe system boundaries.DU Z Q K Wtotalð1ÞThis equation ignores certaineffects such as differencesin fluid velocities, which becomeimportant only at veryhigh velocities, and read more..

  • Page - 1465

    and if no workisdone, according to the first law, this heat isthe enthalpydifference of the reaction and defines thestandardenthalpy (or heat) of formation of the resultingcompound.Standard enthalpies of formation are widely tabulated.An excellent sourceisthe collection by the NationalInstituteofStandards and Technology (NIST).[2] Enthal-pies of formation for some common species are given inTable 1. They are given both in the units that appearintheNIST collection and in nondimensionalized read more..

  • Page - 1466

    ahigher heating value(HHV), whereas the latter leads to alower heating value(LHV). If the chemical composition ofthe fuel is known, the heating valueisthe mole fractionaverage of the heating values of the individual constituentsdivided by the average molecular weight of the fuel.Wherethe composition of the fuel is not known, accurateheating values are determined experimentally.The heat rate is one often-tabulated measure that is usedto describethe effectivenessofamachine—suchasaninternal read more..

  • Page - 1467

    When the power-generating equipmentisused toproduceelectricity, the efficiency is often called theelectrical efficiency.The efficiency calculated by the above equations isbased on the hope of converting the entire heating value ofthe fuel into useful work. It is unfortunate that this hascome to be the standard because there is afurtherlimitation imposedbythe secondlaw of thermodynamics.It tells us that nature will not allow conversion of thismuch chemical energy into usefulwork, even if the read more..

  • Page - 1468

    dS ZdQrevTð4Þwhere dS is the differential change in entropy and dQrevrefers to adifferential amount of heat transferred to or fromasubstance in areversiblemanner. That is, to calculatefiniteentropy differences, this equation needstobeintegrated along areversiblepath.Statingthat entropy is astate function is not atrivialclaim.What it means is that no matter whatreversiblepathis chosen, the net change in entropy will be the same,provided that the initial and final states are the same.Part 2: read more..

  • Page - 1469

    temperatures of the twoheat reservoirs. All the heat in ahigh-temperature sourcecan never be converted to work,even if the apparatus is perfectly reversible. Thehigher thetemperature of the hot source relative to the cold sink, thehigher the Carnot efficiency.Ideal Work, Lost WorkThe second law gives ameans to measurethe irreversi-bility of aprocess or piece of equipment. That, in turn, is ameasureofits departure from an ideal design—onewhichmakes changestosubstances in away that most read more..

  • Page - 1470

    ePh Z DH K T0DSð15ÞIn Eq. 15 and the following equations, the Ds refer todifferences between the present state of the fluid and its stateat ambient conditions.Chemicalexergy, eCh,alsohas to be added because theexergy, say, of afuel at ambient conditions ought to behigherthan that of its eventual combustion products atthoseconditions because it has the potential of producingworkinbeing transformed into its products. This can beaccounted for in an equationsimilar to the one above, butthis time read more..

  • Page - 1471

    pressure–volume–temperature (PVT) behavior of the fluidneeds to be inserted into the equations, which wouldthenbe integrated to produce the final results.The Ideal GasOne way of inserting PVT behavior is through equations ofstate. One of the simplest models for gases is that of theideal gas, whose equationofstate on amolar basis is:PV Z RTð23ÞThis equation reflects the fact that the molecules in thegas do not interact in any way, although they may havevery complexenergyinteractions read more..

  • Page - 1472

    of state have also enjoyed success in predicting propertiesof real fluids,both in the vapor and liquid phases. Amongthe more successful are the Soave-Redlich-Kwong[17] andPeng-Robinson[18] equations.SolutionsThe properties of solutions—whether they are gas or liquidmixtures—are not merelythe mole fraction averages of theproperties of the pure components. For any thermo-dynamic property, M,the exact equationfor the propertiesof mixtures isMðP;T;xÞ ZXixiMiðP;T;xÞð34Þwhere Mi is called read more..

  • Page - 1473

    which the design and evaluation of all energy-conversionequipment and processesmustbeperformed.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSupport for this work by VAST Power Systems, Elkhart,Indiana, is gratefully acknowledged.REFERENCES1. The ideal gas state is difficult to describe briefly. It is afluidwith the same heat capacity as the real fluid’s heat capacityat very low pressure. However, unlike the real fluid, it obeysthe ideal gas law. For low-pressure calculations, thedifference between the ideal gas state read more..

  • Page - 1474

    Tradable Certificates for EnergySavingsSilvia RezessyEnergy EfficiencyAdvisory,REEEP International Secretariat, Vienna International Centre,Austria, Environmental Sciences and PolicyDepartment, Central European University,Nador,HungaryPaolo BertoldiEuropean Commission, Directorate General JRC, Ispra (VA), ItalyAbstractRecently tradable certificates for energy savings have attracted the attention of policy makers as atool tostimulate energy efficiency investments and deliver energy savings. read more..

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    Implement projects to meet targets (orbuycertificates,orpay penalty)Implement projects as partofnormalbusiness operationDemonstrate compliance with targets or paypenaltyCertificate marketGovernmentRegulator authorityObliged parties(distribution companies orsupply companies, or largeconsumers)Non-obliged parties allowed to getcertificates forprojectsimplemented (ESCOs,largeconsumers,brokers)Final consumersDefine the overall target (cap) and apportionmentcriteria forindividual read more..

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    calledfor legislation introducing energy efficiency andenergy services as natural complements to the electricityand gas market liberalization. Otherwise, market failuresin theenergy sector would leadtolower levels ofinvestment in energy efficiency than is socially optimal,with thefinaloutcome beingadditionalcosttotheeconomydue to an imbalance between the supplysideand demand side in the energy sector.Apossible market-based policy portfolio couldcom-prise energy-savings quotas for some read more..

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    to takeenergy-efficiency measures in their homes.The overall savings target was 62 fuel standardized TWh(Energy savings are discounted over the lifetime of themeasureand then standardized according to the carboncontent of the fuel saved.) (lifetime discounted), and thetotal delivered savings reached 86.8 TWh.[10] In EEC-2(2005–2008), the threshold for obligationwas increased to50,000 domestic customers.The target has been increasedto 130 TWh; however,due to the carrying over of savingsfrom read more..

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    anydomesticconsumers in the United Kingdom.Anonexclusive list of measures is includedwithin theillustrative mix for EEC 2005–2008. Measuresthat arerelated to the reduction of energy vectors other than theone suppliedbythe obliged party are allowed. Experiencefrom EEC-1 in Great Britain showsthat asignificant share(56%)ofthe 86.8 TWh of savings delivered in the period2002–2005came from building insulation (wall and loft).CFLs accountedfor aquarter of the savings achieved,followedbyappliances read more..

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    factorstoaccountfor the effect of investments that wouldbe made anyway.In Great Britain, the Department for Environment, Food,and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) requiressuppliers to demon-strate additionality. Concernshave been raised that energysuppliers can claim towardtheir EEC target the total energysavings that flow from apartnershipproject regardless ofthe actual financial contribution made by the supplier.In Italy, savings have to go over and above spontaneousmarket trends or read more..

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    important implication on the number of partiesthat canoffer certificates for sale (unless other restrictions apply).In Italy, certificates are expressed in primary energy saved,and the unit is 1ton of oil equivalent (toe). In France,certification is allowed only above athreshold of 3GWhof savings over the lifetime of aproject.[1]The validity and any associated intertemporal flexi-bility embodied by banking and borrowing rules, the rulesfor ownership transfer, the length of the read more..

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    American Council for Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE)Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings,ACEEE:Asilomar, CA, 2004.3. Bertoldi, P.; Rezessy, S. Tradable certificates forenergy efficiency (white certificates): theory and practiceIn EUR 22196 EN;Institute for Environment andSustainability, DG Joint Research Centre, EuropeanCommission: Ispra, VA, 2006.4. Bertoldi, P.; Rezessy, S.; Bu¨rer, M.J. Will emission tradingpromote end-use energy efficiency and renewable energyprojects? read more..

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    Transportation Systems: Hydrogen-Fueled*Robert E. UhrigUniversity of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, U.S.A.AbstractThe term “hydrogen economy” is the title of arecent book (Rifkin, J. The Hydrogen Economy,Tarcher/Putham Publisher, ISBN 1-58542-193-6, 2002.) but the concept of using hydrogen as fuel for transportationsystems has been advocated by environmentalists and others for at least three decades. There is nouniversally accepted definition of “hydrogen economy,” but it is generally read more..

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    produced is agreenhouse gas and hence an undesirableby-product.STEAM-METHANE REFORMINGToday, the vast majority of hydrogen is produced by steammethanereforming (SMR) of natural gas (whichisabout95%–98% methane—CH4)followed by awater–gas shiftreaction. The two-step SMR process can be represented byCH4 C H2O C Heat $$%Catalyst CO C 3H2Steam reforming reactionCO C H2O C Heat $$%Catalyst CO2 C H2Water–gas shift reactionThe hydrogen comes from the methaneand the steam.The SMR reaction that read more..

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    capacity of 12,000 MWe with its largest plant having a1200 MWe outputwould have to carry 1200 MWe of“spinning reserve” to pick up the customer load in theevent that the 1200 MWe plant trips offline. Hence, theutility’s useful capacity is only 10,800 MWe.Ifthis utilitywere able to use this spinning reserve to generate hydrogenby electrolysis while still beingable to use it for anemergency, the only additional cost would be operatingcosts(fuel and maintenance). Although cost read more..

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    reviews and studies of the past two decades. When all ofthe steps involved in any given thermochemical processare summedup, the result is aclosed system representedbyH2O C high-temperature heat / H2 C12O2C low-temperatureheatIn theory, this reactioncould be implemented directly,but it would require avery high temperature (at least in the25008C–30008Crange), whichiswellbeyond thecapability of any known nuclear reactor.GeneralAtomics (GA) has studied the potential use ofhelium-cooled nuclear read more..

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    Electrolysis is alsoused in the Ispra Mark 13 cycle inconjunction with asecondchemical process involvingbromide to enhancethe electrolysis.Reducing the Temperature Requiredfor Cracking WaterDetailed studies have concluded that peak temperatures inthe S–I cycle need to be at least 8508C(15628F) andpreferably 9008C(16528F) to drive the SO3 decompositionto near completion.[3] Hence, the reactor outlet tempera-ture would need to be about 9508C(17428F) to 10008C(18328F). The High-Temperature Test read more..

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    Historically, hydrogen has been stored as ahigh-pressuregas (w3000 psi) or acryogenicliquid (w208K). Althoughthere are experimentations with liquid hydrogen by someautomakers, most current discussions about storage ofhydrogen on automotive vehicles involve gaseous hydro-gen at 5000 psi or possibly10,000psi. The liquefaction ofhydrogen consumes about 30% of the energy stored, andthere is alsoa continual loss of energy duetothermalconduction through the insulated wallswhether the liquidis stored read more..

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    HundredsofLarge Hydrogen Plants withaNational Distribution PipelineGridIn this scenario, there are manyclusters of large hydrogenplants distributed around the country with an intercon-nected pipeline grid to distribute the hydrogen to controlcenters, which in turn carryhydrogen to millions of servicestations through adistribution pipe grid. Most likely, theplants would be thermochemical water-splitting plantswith nuclear powerplantsproviding theheat. Thisarrangement is directly analogoustothe read more..

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    REFERENCES1. Bowman, R. Jr.; Sanrock, G. Hydrides for Energy Storageand Conversion Application,Proceedings of GLOBAL2000 Atoms for Prosperity, American Nuclear SocietyMeeting, New Orleans, LA, November 16–20, 2002.2. Forsberg, C. Production of Hydrogen Using NuclearEnergy,Presentation to National Research Council/National Academy of Science: Washington, D.C., January22, 2003.3. Forsberg, C.; Bischoff, B.; Mansur, L.; Lee Trowbridge, L.Nuclear Thermo-Chemical Production of Hydrogen with read more..

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    Transportation: Location EfficiencyTodd A. LitmanVictoria Transport PolicyInstitute, Victoria, British Columbia, CanadaAbstractThis chapter describes the concept of location efficiency (also called smart growth), which refers to land-use development patterns that maximize the ease with which people can obtain desired goods, services, andactivities, and that minimize the need for physical travel. Location efficiency includes factors such as land-use density, land-use mix, roadway connectivity, read more..

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    DensityDensity refers to the number of peopleorjobs in agivenarea.Increased density tendstoreduceper-capitaautomobile ownership and use, and to increaseuse ofalternative modes. Fig. 1showshow per-capita vehiclemileage tends to decline with density in U.S. urban areas.Many other studies find similar results.Increased density tends to reduceper capita vehicletravel.Density at both origins and destinations affect travelbehavior.One studyfound that increasing urban residen-tial population density read more..

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    that per-capita vehicle travel is significantly lower inhigher-density, multimodal urban neighborhoods than inautomobile-oriented suburban neighborhoods.Lawton[8] found that average daily motor vehicle milesper adult decreasedfrom 19.8 in the least urbanizedresidential neighborhoods to 6.3 in themosturbanneighborhoods, duetofewer andshorterautomobiletrips. Even modest land-usechanges can providesignificant vehicle travel reductions if they are reinforcedby othermobilitystrategies,suchascommute read more..

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    One strategy for encouraging households to choosemore accessible locations is to offer location-efficientmortgages (LEMs), which means that lenders recognizethe potential savings of amore accessible housing locationwhen assessing ahousehold’sborrowing ability. Itconsiderstransportation and housing costs together, sovehicle cost savings are treated as additional income thatcan be spent on amortgage. This giveshome buyersanadded incentive to choose location-efficient residences andtends to read more..

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    † Car-shareservices within convenient walking distance(vehiclerentalservicesdesigned to substitute forautomobile ownership).† Parking management (reduced parking requirementsand rentingparking spacesseparately from buildingspace, so residents who do not own an automobile arenot forced to pay for parking they do not need).BENEFITS AND COSTSLocation-efficientdevelopment canprovide severalbenefits:† Consumers benefit from more housing, shopping, andtransportation choices, and from read more..

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    REFERENCES1. Frank, L.; Kavage, S.; Litman, T. Promoting Public HealthThrough Smart Growth: Building Healthier CommunitiesThrough Transportation and Land Use Policies. SmartGrowth BC actionURI(http://www.smartgrowth.bc.ca):(www.smartgrowth.bc.ca), 2006.2. Litman, T. Evaluating Public Transit Benefits and Costs;VTPI actionURI(http://www.vtpi.org):(www.vtpi.org), 2005.3. Frank, L.; Pivo, G. Impacts of mixed use and density onutilization of three modes of travel: SOV, transit andwalking. read more..

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    Transit-Oriented Development; Reconnecting America;Federal Transit Administration actionURI(http://www.fta.dot.gov):(www.fta.dot.gov), 2004.14. Regulatory Barriers Clearinghouse actionURI(http://www.huduser.org):(www.huduser.org/rbc),created by the U.S. Department of Housing and UrbanDevelopment, was created to support state and localgovernments and other organizations seeking informationabout laws, regulations, and policies affecting the develop-ment, maintenance, improvement, availability, and read more..

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    Tribal Land and EnergyEfficiencyJackie L. FranckeGeotechnika, Inc., Longmont, Colorado, U.S.A.SandraB.McCardellCurrent-C Energy Systems, Inc., Mills, Wyoming, U.S.A.AbstractAs energy service companies move beyond their traditional markets, technical competence must becombined with other skills, such as an understanding of different types of institutions and the ability to workwith individuals of varying backgrounds and even cultures. In the United States, Tribal communities areone such market. read more..

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    tax, and exclude persons from Tribal territories, amongotherrights and responsibilities.As aside note,itisoften believed that, with the adventof Indian Gaming Laws that allow casinos on Tribal lands,allTribeshaveadopted this approach to economicdevelopment and, therefore, are highly developed andprofitable enterprises in themselves. But like all generali-zations,thisone is incorrect. Many Tribes have resistedgaming for cultural or otherreasons, and even wheregaming is present, the methods of read more..

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    inadequacy of funding, andgenerallyinsufficientorinaccurate information. These community challengesrequire the Tribes to rely on outside resources to fillthesevoids andprovide communityopportunities.Evidently, therefore, there is agreatpossibility for serviceproviderstowork with Tribal communities—but it isimportant first to learn to think outside the traditional“energy service company” box. When workingwith Tribalcommunities,businesses must first gain asense ofunderstanding of the read more..

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    relationships and aseparation between professional andpersonal life. Rural communities, including Tribal ones,are the centers of small-town life—even now, in the 21stcentury. Community life is important;relationships are oflong standing; decisions are often made for reasons thatare difficult for those from outside the community tounderstand; and discussions often appeartogobackgenerations.To work in such places, this sense of communitymustbe understood and appreciated, and any projects read more..

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    communities, there certainlyare somesuch individuals,but it is the norm that those responsible for energy issues,construction, and maintenancealso have significant otherresponsibilities. Given that situation, it is simplynotpossiblefor these individuals—nomatter how dedicatedand professionalthey may be—to be familiar with theopportunities provided by energy efficiency audits andenhancements.Neither is it oftenappropriate to re-commend the latest, fanciest equipment unless the staffwill be read more..

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    need of substantiverepair or replacement. From an energyefficiency point of view, that presentsanopportunity—iffunds can be secured.Often,the first place to look for funds that can be usedto implement energy efficiency projects on Tribal lands isthe federal government, which under its trust responsi-bility and as part of its current mandate is encouragingsuch projects. In addition, several states are focusing onincreasing energy efficiency on the Tribal lands withintheir borders.There are read more..

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    starting aproject; it is often not possibletojust call up asupply house and ask it to makeadelivery. For aproject toproceed well,persistent (but polite) phone calls, faxes, andemails may be required to ensurethat key players areavailablefor support andthatinformation hasbeentransmitted to the appropriate contacts prior to on-sitevisits.Becausesome small Tribal communities are tight–knitcircles of families, the success of any project requirescommunity involvement. Thekey players in the read more..

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    Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD)*TomWebsterFred BaumanCenter for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley,California, U.S.A.AbstractThe purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the principles, features, benefits, and limitations ofthe building conditioning technology called underfloor air distribution (UFAD) and the closely related task/ambient conditioning (TAC).INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUNDRecent trends in today’soffice environmentmakeitincreasingly more read more..

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    entirelydecentralized andunder the controloftheoccupants. Typically, the occupant has control over thespeed and direction,and in somecasesthe temperature, ofthe incoming air supply. Variously called “task/ambientconditioning,” “localized thermal distribution,” and“personalized air conditioning,” thesesystems have beenmostly installedinopen-plan office buildings to whichthey provide supplyair and (in somecases) radiant heatingdirectly into workstations.TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONUFAD read more..

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    as mixing ventilation systems, these systems are designedto promotecomplete mixing of supply air with room air,thereby maintaining the entire volume of air in the space atthe desired temperature setpoint. Space air is typicallyreturnedtothe AHU through an open ceiling plenum thatalso containsvarious other systems for lighting, electrical,communications, and fire protection.Underfloor air distributionsystemsturn this conceptupside down and have the following characteristics:† Supply read more..

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    their personal comfort preferences.Different supplyoutlet configurations may be used depending on theconditioning requirements for aparticularzone of thebuilding, as discussedbelow.† Underfloor air distribution systemsbenefit from afloor-to-ceiling airflow pattern that takesadvantage of thenatural buoyancyproduced by heat sources in the officeto efficiently remove heat loads and contaminants fromthe space.Air is returned from the room at ceiling levelthrough recessed lighting fixtures read more..

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    this floor-based air distribution system provides somewhatlimited individual comfort control for occupants, it stillretains the sameflexibility and potential energy-savingbenefitsassociated with the others.POTENTIAL OF UFAD APPLICATIONSBenefitsImproved Thermal Comfort for Individual OccupantsOccupant thermal comfort is perhaps the area of greatestpotential improvement in that UFADsystems potentiallycanaccommodate individual differences. In today’sworkenvironment, there can be significant read more..

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    Perceived Higher CostsMany designersare concerned about the higher first costsof theraisedflooringrequiredfor UFAD systems.However, as described above, there are manyfactorsassociated with raised floor systems that contribute toreducing life-cycle costsincomparison to traditional airdistribution systems. (See the “Cost Effectiveness” sectionbelow).Ina recentstudy of UFADcosts, we found thatthere are several ways that UFAD systemscan be tailoredto reduce the cost differential. Furthermore, read more..

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    response by facility staff can be minimized. Underfloor airdistribution systems using raised flooring provide maxi-mum flexibility and significantly lower costsassociatedwith reconfiguringbuilding services (when changes arebeingmade in the office layout) due to churn, and thusreducelife-cycle costssubstantially.First cost for retrofits, generally the bulk of constructionactivity,ismostlikely greater than those fornewconstruction. Also, as indicated previously, somefacilitiesare not read more..

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    Stantec;Steelcase, Inc.; Syska Hennessy Group; TateAccess Floors,Inc.; Taylor Team:CTG Energetics,Guttmann& Blaevoet, Southland Industries, SwinertonBuilders,TaylorEngineering; Trane; U.S. Department ofEnergy;U.S. General Services Administration; WebcorBuilders;YorkInternational Corporation.REFERENCES1. ASHRAE. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. In ThermalEnvironmental Conditions for Human Occupancy;AmericanSociety of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-ConditioningEngineers, Inc.: Atlanta, 2004.2. read more..

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    Utilities and EnergySuppliers: Bill Analysis*Neil PetchersNORESCO Energy Consulting, Shelton, Connecticut, U.S.A.AbstractOnce the energy rate structures for acustomer have been examined and been understood, the next step inunderstanding how utility costs are determined is to perform autility bill analysis. Knowing how acustomeris charged for the energy it uses each month is an important piece of the overall process of energymanagement at afacility. This article discusses how electric bills and read more..

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    do not equal the utilitybill exactly, either amistake hasbeen made in the computation or apiece of informationis missing.Utility rate spreadsheets are useful in performing suchcomputations. Onceaspreadsheet is built, it can be used tocalculate costs for any usage pattern under agiven rate orset of rates. It can also be used to quickly calculate costsavings from energy efficiency improvements.TYPICALGAS BILL CALCULATIONThe following is asample utility bill calculation for agiven natural gas read more..

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    is assumed to be 1890 kW, the pre-taxbill would be onlythe service charge of $71.29 plus aminimum (demandratchet)charge of:1890 kW ! $4:57 per kW Z $8637:30for atotal of $8708.59.Adding on the state and city tax of5.8% results in afinal bill of $9213.69 for the month. Thisextremeexampleillustratesthe importance of accountingfor all elements of the ratestructure.Had the demandcharge been ignored, the bill calculation would have beengrossly underestimated.DETERMINING THE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COSTOF read more..

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    continuous usage everyhourofthe year, with the totalusage being8760 kWh/kW of demand. This type of usageis shownfor each rate exampleasProfile8.This particularprofile is illustrated graphically in actionGoTo:1516,Fig. actionGoTo:1516,3. As shown, 1fullkilowatt hour is consumed in each of the 24 hineach dayin each of the 12 months of the year, producing avolumeof 100% of usage for one kilowatt of demand. Hence, theterms baseloaded kilowatt and 100% load factor (LF) areapplied.A decrease in read more..

  • Page - 1516

    reflected in the ratestructures, thoughtovarying degrees.The BL usage profile of Profile 8blends this high-costpeak usage with low-cost off-peak usage.The annual usage for Profile4 is illustrated graphicallyin actionGoTo:1517,Fig. actionGoTo:1517,4. Note that usage is only shownduring the foursummer months and during hour 6–21 of each day, whichcorrespond to the peak and shoulder periods (6 A.M.–9P.M.) from MondaytoFriday. Hence, thisfigure onlyrepresentsthe usageduringthe normal read more..

  • Page - 1517

    available, during the peak periods, that it can sell at themuch higher rate to balance the sale of thislow-costusage.The ten profiles listed in each of the actionGoTo:1515,Tables actionGoTo:1515,1–actionGoTo:1516,3were created to match the hours in each of the rateperiods specific to the TOU rate structure. To allow forareasonablebasis of comparison,the samerate periodshave been imposedonthe rate structure used in theRTP rate. While the RTP rate has been calibrated forthis purpose, it would read more..

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    6600 kW in additional demand charges. This is calculatedas:½ð2000 kW ! 0:80Þ K 1000 kW ! 11 monthsZ 6600 kWSpecific Hours of OperationPeak:10:00 A.M.–6:00 P.M., Monday–Friday4summer months at 40 h/week (700 h)8non-summer months at 40 h/week (1386 h)Shoulder:6:00 A.M.–10:00 A.M.and 6:00 P.M.–10:00 P.M., Monday–Friday4summer months at 40 h/week (700 h)8non-summer months at 40 h/week (1386 h)Off-peak:10:00 P.M.–6:00 A.M., Monday–Friday, all day Saturday andSunday4summer months at read more..

  • Page - 1519

    end uses and various consumption profiles to understandprice impact. Energy planners auditfacilities to developincremental cost-usage profiles associated with individualequipment, systems, and activities. These audits are donein much the samemanner as the ten profiles presented inthe preceding pages.Planners look at seasonal end uses, such as cooling, andunderstand that the relevantweighted average cost perkilowatt hour may be several times greater than thefacility’s overall average cost read more..

  • Page - 1520

    TOU and CONVaverage costs shownin actionGoTo:1519,Fig. actionGoTo:1519,11 are offthescale (O$20/kWh).EXPLANATIONOFTEN SAMPLELOADPROFILESProfile1 is based on adevice rated at 1kW, operatedonlyone hour during each summer month June, July, August,andSeptember) when theentire facility is alreadyoperating at its highest peak demand level. This addedload increases the peak demand level for the month by1kWTherefore, there is apeak demand charge for that1kWineach of the 4summermonths. It also adds read more..

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    350 kWh over the 700 total hours in this rate period and atotal annual LF of 4%, rather than 8% with Profile2.Usageover the 17.5weeksummerperiod andannual LF,respectively, are calculated as follows:ð1kW ! 17:5weeks) ! ð40 h=weekÞ ! ð0:5LFÞZ 350 kWh700 h ! 0:5LF8760 hZ 4%Using the TOU rate, the total annual cost is reducedcomparedwith Profile2 due to reduced usage. Therefore,demand charges as apercent of the total cost increase. InProfile 3(with ratchet adjustment), demand read more..

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    for all rate types. This is due to the fact that demandcharges remainthe same, but are spread over only half theusage as the LF is only 11.9%.Under the RTP rate, theweighted average cost is relatively high because as LF isdecreased, agreater percentage of the usage is assumed tofall in the highest cost rate block.Profile8 (BL 12 months, all rate periods) represents thebaseloaded kilowatt, or 1kWbaseloaded every hour of theyear.The annual usage of 8760 kWh has an annual LF of100%.With this read more..

  • Page - 1523

    Electric Peak ShavingGeneration ApplicationsThe primary focus here is on peak demand and usagecharge savings. Thus, the emphasis is on eliminatingcostly peak demand charges resulting from poor LF or,in the case of RTP rates, eliminating the usage in thehighest cost rate blocks. As shownabove in the RTPrate, the total annual cost is about the same for aloadwith a15% LF occurring in the highest cost rate blocksas aload with an 85% LF occurring in the lowest costrate blocks. Since peak shaving read more..

  • Page - 1524

    might experience asimilar operating profile as would apeaking unit in athree-shift, seven-day operation. Profile 7might be targeted for elimination with use of aprimemover-driven mechanical drive system. Other potentialtechnology applications include building andprocessautomation, peak shaving, load shedding control andvariablevolume distribution systems (i.e., air, water,steam,etc.).Single-Unit Seasonal Cooling ApplicationsThe primary focus here is satisfying cooling requirementswith read more..

  • Page - 1525

    Utilities and EnergySuppliers: BusinessPartnership Management*S. KayTuttleProcess Heating, Boilers and Foodservices, Duke Energy,Charlotte, North Carolina, U.S.A.AbstractThis paper explores the role of the utility and the industrial or commercial facility engineer in developing abusiness partnership especially as it relates to the quality of electric power. The industrial or commercialfacility engineer needs athorough knowledge of the electrical power quality needs of equipment andprocesses read more..

  • Page - 1526

    processes to unexpectedly shutdownisalsoneeded.Voltage sags are acommon cause of process interruptionsformanyindustrialcustomers.Voltagesagscauseequipment and therefore, entire processes to shut down,impacting productivity as well as productquality. In aneffort to resolve many of the problems caused by voltagesags, utilities provided funding to EPRI to perform anextensive testing of processes prone to shutdowns and todetermine effective solutions. Theinformation is in aweb-based tool called the read more..

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    Fig. 4 showscontour lines generated from the DPQStudy. For example, adistribution served customer withequipment sensitive to voltage sags in the highlighted areacan reasonablyexpect between10and 15 processinterruptions ayear.actionGoTo:1528,Fig. actionGoTo:1528,5 overlays the process component sensitivity foundfrom sag testing with the distribution system character-ization curves from the DPQ Study. By examining thecontour lines that the equipment sensitivity plot is within, acustomer can read more..

  • Page - 1528

    will result in process shutdowns each year. If the powersupplywerethe weakest linkinthe process, adistributionserved customer couldexpectbetweenfive and ten processinterruptions ayear.Unfortunately, the DPDTrelay andthe photo eye would cause far moredisruptions.PowerQuality solutions can be applied at the facilityleveltoprotect the entire facility, at the process leveltoprotect aprocess, at the equipment to protect the pieceofequipment, or at the component level for exampletoholdin arelay or read more..

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    most problems andwhatproblemsare most oftenencountered. Many utilities contribute to acollaborativeeffort, to researchwaystobetter solve common powerquality problems. Often solutions exist, and it is just amatter of identifying the mostappropriate solution andwhere the solution would best be applied. Sometimesexisting solutions are not appropriate and anew solution isdeveloped, applied,and tested.Thiseffortrequirescollaboration betweenutilities, aresearch and develop-ment team, customers, and read more..

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    Shaw Industries,and Duke Power. The flywheel wasapplied to aprocess line that extrudes filamentstoproducecarpet backing. This facility was served by adistributioncircuitand the process shut down frequently due to voltagesags and momentary interruptions.The key to successful implementation of the flywheelas apowerquality solution included:† Characterizing the electrical system,† Determining the sensitivity of the process components,† Matching thesolutiontothe processlinepowerrequirements read more..

  • Page - 1531

    electrical environment to know exactly what specificationsto include, but this is not always feasible. Ageneric ride-through curve can be includedwhich would allow aprocess to ride-through most voltage sags. Fig. 7illustratestheInformation TechnologyIndustryCouncil (ITIC)Curve. Thiscurve wasdeveloped to representthesensitivity of mostcomputer equipment. The region withinthe two curves represents conditions where computerequipment should operate without disruption or damage. Asimilar curve has read more..

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    Utilities and EnergySuppliers: Planning andPortfolio ManagementDevraBachrach WangNatural Resources Defense Council, San Francisco,California, U.S.A.AbstractThroughout the United States, most customers continue to receive service from their hometown utilitycompanies, regardless of the status of retail competition in their state’s electric industry. Recent turmoilwithin the industry has focused attention once again on acrucial responsibility of those utilities: electric-resource portfolio read more..

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    customers with energy services is fundamentally inter-twined with abroad range of social and politicalissues.THE BENEFITS OF PLANNING ANDPORTFOLIO MANAGEMENTPerhaps nothing in recent historydemonstrated the needfor long-term planning and portfolio management in theelectric industryasclearly as the California energy crisisof 2001. (In 2002, the California Legislature enactedAssembly Bill 57, returning the utilities to the role ofportfolio managers.[1] TheCalifornia Public UtilitiesCommission has read more..

  • Page - 1534

    While long-term plans mustdelveinto the technicaldetails of load forecasts and the characteristics of resourcealternatives discussed further below, aplan shouldalso beable to answer key policy-level questions. For example, along-term plan shouldenable policymakers and the publicto understand whatthe portfolio manager’s resource mixwill be in ten or twenty years under its preferred plan andhow it will differ from the present resource mix.The planshouldalsoclearly present the expected costs of read more..

  • Page - 1535

    refrigeration, lighting, air conditioning, and otherelec-trical equipment.Together, these typesofmodels can capture the keyvariables affecting changes in customer demand over time.However, since forecasts are inherentlyuncertain, portfo-lio managersshould also conductsensitivity analyses tounderstand the full range of possiblefuture demandscenarios. These sensitivity analyses might,for example,analyze alow load-growth scenariounder which popu-lation and economicgrowth estimates are at the low read more..

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    projected environmental impact of various portfoliooptions to help select aportfolio that meets the objectiveof providing energy servicesinanenvironmentallyresponsible manner. This information is also necessaryto assess the financial risk exposure due to pollutionemissions, as we discuss further below.Determining the Optimal Portfolio of ResourcesThe final steps in assemblinga long-term plan are to test anumber of potential resource portfolios to determine theirtotal long-term costs, read more..

  • Page - 1537

    entity is responsiblefor meetingcustomers’energyserviceneeds, or aregion’selectricindustrystructure,portfoliomanagementandlong-termplanningenablesallstakeholdersto work together to create acommonroadmap toward abetterenergy future.REFERENCES1. California Assembly Bill 57 (Wright, Chapter 835, Statutesof 2002).2. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Decision03-12-062, December 18, 2003.3. CPUC Decision 04-12-048, December 16, 2004.4. Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.; Shirley, W.; read more..

  • Page - 1538

    Utilities and EnergySuppliers: Rate Structures*Neil PetchersNORESCO Energy Consulting, Shelton, Connecticut, U.S.A.AbstractThis article discusses how electric, gas, and other regulated utilities charge commercial, industrial, andinstitutional customers for their energy services. In today’s utility industry, there are numerous factorswhich make up aconsumer’s monthly electric or gas bill. This article contains sections that willindividually describe each important component of most common read more..

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    closelytiedtothe need forinvestment in facilityexpansion. Forelectric utilities, peak loads often necessi-tate the use of the less fuel-efficient peaking plants. Duringpeak periods, the rate of transmission and distributionsystem line losses also increases, further adding to supplyrequirements. For these reasons, peak capacity is the mostexpensive to purchase and carries with it the burden ofincreased capitalcost and decreased fuel and deliverysystem efficiency. For gas utilities, peak loads read more..

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    an electricutilityhas 10,000 MW of total capacity andgenerates 120,000 MWh over a24-h period, its load factoris 50% [120,000 MWh/(10,000 MW!24 h)]. If this utilityhad a100% load factor,itcould generate the same120,000 MWh over 24 hwith only 5000 MW of capacity.Hence, an incremental load with a100% load factor willproducea significantly lower revenue recovery require-mentthan one with a50% load factor, because the capitalcost associated with the additional 5000 MW of capacity iseliminated.If, read more..

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    gas-fired cooling load requirement. Similar to the threeelectric utility customers, in this hypotheticalexample, thecustomer with the 17% load factor will likelybethemost costly to serve and the customer with the 50%load factor will likelybethe least costly to serve, with the100% load factor customer falling somewhere in themiddle.The conclusion that can be drawn from these examplesof customers with the sameexact daily, monthly, or annualusage is that the load factor and, even more read more..

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    boththe commoditysideand thetransmission anddistribution sides, either separately or as abundled price.While the market is still not fully matureenough orunencumbered by imperfection to function with suchpricing, the technology of metering and transmitting gasand electricity is approaching the level of sophisticationnecessary for such amarket.Moreover,the forces ofcompetition are moving the market in this direction.However, today’s market does not yet function in thismanner. Instead, some read more..

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    capacity, even if acustomer does not require that peakcapacity in agivenmonth. In somecases, this precedingperiod may be as long as several years or for the life of acontract. Ratchets serve as amechanism to approximatethe true cost of service and to distributethat cost impacton the customer over several months.Consider the example of an electric utility with an 80%demand ratchet adjustment. If 1monthhad apeak demandof 2000 kW and the next 11 months had apeak demand of1000 kW, each of the read more..

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    the kilowatt-hour or thousand cubic feet to be sold. Inreality, however,customers do not have the same usagepatterns and, as demonstrated in the above load factorexamples, distinctions must be madeastohow varyingcustomer load patterns affect system cost.BLOCK RATESBlock rates are rates in which the charges for aunit ofservice vary with consumption. Thebilling period’sconsumption levels withina rateare often brokendowninto blocks, or steps, with different charges for each block.There are read more..

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    rates based on hours of use of demand. For example, a30-daybilling cycle has 720 h. If the peak demand on anelectric utility bill is 1000 kW, a100% load factor wouldrepresent 72,000 kWh, or 720 hofuse of demand. A25%load factor wouldrepresent 18,000 kWh, or 180 hofuse ofdemand. This type of rate schedule breaks the hours of themonth into different blocks. With adeclining blockratestructure,ineach subsequent blockorhours of use ofdemand, the rate is lower.For example, the first 180 hofuse of read more..

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    powertoserve the entire facility or selected circuitswithin the facility.—Customerswith equipment that can operate on eitherelectricity or fuel or steam,can simply usethe non-electrical equipment during periods of interruption.This would be the case with adual-drive mechanicalservice device that had both an electric motor driveand aprime mover drive, or with mixed energysource(hybrid) multipleunit systems that featureboth electrical and nonelectrical powered units.Electric utility IR are often read more..

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    make volumes available to the utility for resale duringpeak periods. These contracts often require individualPUC approval, which can be alengthy process.Examples of othertypesofspecialty rates are compressednatural gas rates for natural gas-fueled vehiclesand ratesthat support the introduction of new technologies.COMPETITIVE ENERGY RATESCompetitive energy rates give utilities the maximumflexibility to sell power or natural gas in competitivesituations. For example, customers considering agas read more..

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    may elect to purchase certain blocks from the utility,generate certain blocks on site, and purchase certainblocks from other sources through retail wheeling, allbased on real-time price signals.RATERIDERSIn addition to variousrate design options, rate riders arespecial charges or programsintegrated into rate schedulesthat modify the structure based on specificcustomerqualifications. Ridersare used to account for uniqueconditions or to give the utilityadded flexibility to applyrates without read more..

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    charges, and taxes. Often,rates are offered to customerswho meet specific criteria, such as type of facility or typeof equipment used. Some of the mostcommon non-residential electric rate schedules include:† General service (GS) rates.Generalservice rates aretypically used by most small commercial customers.Rate design mayinclude blockrates, seasonallydifferentiated rates, and demand charges. Generally,these rates placeagreater emphasis on usage than ondemand and are less differentiated than read more..

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    on-siteenergy alternatives can benefit from the ability towithstand sales and transmission interruptions. Facili-ties with alternative electricity purchase options, viaretail wheeling, can benefit from the ability to withstandsales interruptions,but may still require firm trans-mission/distribution services.† QF rates and rate riders.Many utilities have special QFrates or rate riders for self-generators. In somecases,these are elective rates (or riders), while in other cases,they are read more..

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    incentive to abandona project due to the evaporation ofsavings criticaltosuccessful economic operation.One hypotheticalexample of such prohibitiveeffects isasystem with three generation unitswith requiredstandbycharges for the fullconnected load at 66% of the standarddemand charge. In this case, the cost of standby service isequivalent to that of the system operating on astandardrate and experiencing the highly unlikelyoccurrence of apeak-setting outage in every single month for two out ofthe read more..

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    The PF is the ratio of W:VA. Afacilitywith aPFof0.75, requiring the same wattage as another facility with aPF of 1.0, for example, will be morecostly to serve,because the utilitywill require one-third more systemcapacity (1.00 W/0.75 PFZ1.33 VA) to servethe facilitywith the PF of 0.75.To moreaccuratelyallocate capacity costs throughdemand charges, someutilities measure and bill demandcharges based on kilovolt-amperes rather than kilowatt.Thisshifts thecostfor maintainingnonproductivecapacity, or read more..

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    function in which the utilities are but one brokeramongmany. It is very conceivable that over the next decade, thistrend will be all encompassing, inclusive of the residentialmarket, with newly developed rate structuresthat arecompatiblewiththe evolvingconditionssurroundingconsumer transactions. Though the trend continuesatanaccelerated rate, utilities still provide both sales anddistribution functions to most customers.CONCLUSIONThe concepts behind the design of natural gas and read more..

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    Walls and WindowsTherese StovallOak Ridge National Laboratory,Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.AbstractEnergy travels in and out of abuilding through the walls and windows by means of conduction, convection,and radiation. The walls and windows, complex systems in themselves, are part of the overall buildingsystem. Awall system is composed of multiple layers that work in concert to provide shelter from theexterior weather. Wall systems vary in the degree to which they provide thermal resistance, read more..

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    Aframedwall is characterizedbynumerous parallel heatpaths and multiplelayers of different materials. Anon-framedbuilding uses bulk material, such as masonry oradobe, to provide the structural support. This type ofbuilding is characterized by amore homogenous heat pathand relatively few layers of materials.For either type of building, the connections between thewall and the roof and betweenthe wall and the foundationare importantconstructiondetailsfromanenergyconservation standpoint. These read more..

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    wood-framed house containing about 15% less embodiedenergy than either ametal-framed or concrete house.[5,6]Wood-Framed WallsWallconstruction methods and materials vary somewhataccording to the local climateand natural resources, butmostwalls in the UnitedStates are made from woodframing with insulation betweenthe studs, drywall on theinnersurface,and exterior sheathing layer(s) (Fig. 2). Thewall studs used are either nominal 2!4, with a3.5-in.cavity depth, or nominal 2!6, with a5.5-in.cavity read more..

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    example, adding only 1in. (R5) of foam sheathing to theR10 wall brings its overall R-value up to R14 (Fig. 4).Advanced framing techniquesare available whichreduce the amount of lumber required. These methodsreduce the energy losses through the framing and allowmore room for insulation. Many of these techniques alsoprovide for improved air sealing.[10]The wall sheathing provides aflat uniform surface tosupportthe exterior air barrier, vapor retarder, and siding.If awood productisused for the read more..

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    in avariety of sizes and shapes, and may be reinforced.Theautoclaved aerated concrete has amuchhigherR-value (1.25R/in.) than the standard concrete(0.05R/in.).[3] The overall R-value of awall built with this materialwill depend on the shape and thickness of the concrete andon the thermal resistanceofotherwall components, suchas air cavities. Several walls tested with aeratedconcrete(nofacingsapplied), both in thetraditionalhollowconcreteblockand solidblock forms, had R-valuesbetween6 and read more..

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    especially important because the steady-state thermalresistanceofthese wallsisnot very great. A14-in. thickwall would have athermal resistance of from R2 to R10,depending on the density and water content of the wall.Insulationcan of coursebeadded to the interior or exteriorface of the wall if covered with an appropriate coating.[17]Exterior Insulation Finish SystemsThe EIFS can be placed on awood-orsteel-framed wall oramasonry wall.Inthis system, alayer of polystyreneboard insulation, one or read more..

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    the winter, this long-wave radiation travelsthrough thewindow and increases both ourwinter heating and summercooling energy use. Newer windows have a“low-e”coating to reduce long-wave radiation and thus reduce theenergy losses.The conduction portion of the energy transport includesthe heat that travels through the window frame and heatconducted through the glass pane(s) and through any gasbetweenthe panes.The energy that travelsthrough thewindow frame and sashesisa complexfunction of read more..

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    frame.[22] Testshave shown that the energysavings canbe substantial when storm windowsare added to anexisting single-pane window.However,replacingan existing single-pane windowwitha moderndouble-pane window will save moreenergy than theaddition of astorm window.[23,24]Window Rating SystemsConsidering the complexitiesofenergy transportthroughwindows, it can be difficult for consumerstocompare onewindow with another. Fortunately, there are two importanttoolsavailable to help with read more..

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    blind enclosed betweentwo panes of glass based uponthe outdoor temperature and solar radiation.This designadmits solar radiation when it will help heat the house,but lowers the blind to blocksolar radiation when itwill increase the air conditioning load.[32]CONCLUSIONWalls and windowsare often selected to achieve adesiredappearance.Consideringtoday’s emphasis on energyconservationand overall sustainability, it is important toconsider their thermal characteristicsaswell. read more..

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    actionURI(http://www.pewclimate.org):http://www.pewclimate.org/document.cfm?documentIDZactionURI(http://www.pewclimate.org):469 (accessed February 13, 2007).7. Stovall, T. K., and Karagiozis, A., Airflow in the VentilationSpace Behind aRain Screen Wall,Thermal Envelopes IX,Conference Proceedings, Clearwater Beach, FL, December2004; ASHRAE Special Publications, 2004.8. U.S. Department of Energy, Technology Fact Sheet: WallInsulation, October, 2000, read more..

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    Waste FuelsRobert J. TidonaRMT,Incorporated, Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.AbstractOpportunity fuels are those wastes or process byproducts that have significant energy content and couldbe used to provide energy to generate electricity but have not traditionally been used for that purpose.Burgeoning interest in the use of opportunity fuels to offset purchased traditional fossil fuels has focusedon the combustion, material handling, and environmental permitting challenges associated with read more..

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    examples of alternative and opportunity fuels are listedbelow:† Agriculturalwastes: corn cobs, cotton seed hulls, ricehulls, peanut shells, sugar cane waste, coconut husks.† Anaerobic digestergas: gas consisting of approxi-mately two-thirdsmethaneand one-third carbondioxide, alongwith afew percentnitrogen andsmall quantitiesofother gases, including oxygen,hydrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. This gas is producedby the anaerobic digestion process, which is oftenassociated with read more..

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    † Textilewastes: cuttings and rejected productfrommanufacturing.† Tires: whole, chipped, shredded postconsumer waste.† Tire-derived fuel: fuel madefrom postconsumer tires,usually in pellet form.† Used oil: defined in Title 40 of the CodeofFederalRegulations (CFR) Part 279, Standards for the Manage-ment of Used Oil, as “any oil that has been refined fromcrude oil, or any synthetic oil, that has been used and as aresult of such use is contaminated by physical orchemical impurities.” read more..

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    Table 1 Opportunity fuel performance matrixOpportunity fuelAvailabilityHeatingvalueFuelcostEquipmentcostEmissions/environmentCombined heat andpower (CHP)potentialRatingLimitationsAnaerobic digester gasCICICC5.0Need anaerobic digesterBiomass gasCIIBCC4.0Gasifiers extremely expensiveBlack liquorBICIII3.0Most BL already used up by millsBlast furnace gasBBCIIB2.0Limited availability, low BtuCoalbed methaneICCCCI5.0Coal mines—lack CHP demandCoke oven gasBICIII3.0Availability—most already read more..

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    can be somewhat reduced from combustion-based equip-ment. Amoredetailed discussion of gasification tech-nologies may be found in “Gasifiers.”Gasification, however,isnot auniversally applicabletechnology and can be expensive,relative to combustion.Further, there is limited full-scale operating experiencewith this technology.Anaerobic DigestionAnaerobic digestion is the process of usingmicroorgan-isms that live only in the absence of oxygen to decomposeorganic materials into more valuable read more..

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    New EquipmentCirculating Fluid Bed (CFB) and Bubbling FluidBed(BFB)BoilersFluidized bed boilershave been in use for manyyears.They are well known for their capability to burn diversematerials efficiently and with low emissions.Comparedwith the olderstoker or underfed boiler designs of the past,they can achieve greater burnoutofthe carbonaceous feedmaterials at relatively low emission rates of NOx and PM.As their name implies,Circulating Fluid Bed(CFB)boilersachieve lower and more uniform read more..

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    problematic, gasifiers offer energy recovery that can bepermitted in arelatively short period and that, dependingon the syngas cleanup requirements, requiresarelativelysmall installed footprint.The following Web site provides an excellent descrip-tion of the major gasificationprocesses: actionURI(http://www.eere.energy.gov):www.eere.energy.actionURI(http://www.eere.energy.gov):gov/biomass/large_scale_gasification.html (Ref. 5).There are several widely used process designs read more..

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    Applications fordigesters fall into twomajorcategories: wastewater treatment and farm-animal wastes.Fundingfor anaerobic digester projectsisavailable insome states. Details of onesuch program can be found onthe New York State Energy Research and DevelopmentAdministration (NYSERDA) Web site: actionURI(http://www.nyserda.org):www.nyserda.org/actionURI(http://www.nyserda.org):programs/pdfs/digestergrantlist.pdf (Ref. 6).Commercial suppliers of anaerobicdigesters include† Arrow Ecology† CCI US read more..

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    The steam that is used in the turbine can be reused forprocess or heating needs at the exhaustpressure of theturbine or at intermediate pressures extracted from theturbine at certain points in the expansion from turbine inletto turbine exhaustpressure.Advantages includethe abilitytoaccommodatevariablesteam loads simply by condensing more or lesssteam.This alsoprovides flexibility during startup andtransient steam load conditions, and can reduce fluctu-ations in steam flow, temperature, and read more..

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    Table 2 Equipment and maintenance average costs [not including combined heat and power (CHP) equipment]FuelType of costSteamturbinea($)Gas turbine($)Recip engine($)Microturbine($)Fuel cell($)Stirling engine($)Anaerobicdigester gasbEquipment ($/kW)2150–35001800–36001900–32002650–44004800–75002400–3500Maintenance ($/kWh)0.007–0.0220.008–0.0210.015–0.0430.025–0.0350.21–0.0430.009–0.013Biomass gascEquipment read more..

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    program known as the Clean Development Mechanism.JointImplementation is another mechanism built into theKyoto Protocol that funds GHG reduction projectsincountries with economies in transition, including theformer Soviet-bloc nations.The potential for the reduction in GHG emission in theUnitedStates has been modeled based on adherence toproposed nationalrenewable energy standards. actionGoTo:1575,Fig. actionGoTo:1575,7illustrates that a15% reduction in U.S. power plantcarbondioxide emissions read more..

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    provideenergytogenerateelectricitybut have nottraditionally been used for that purpose.Relativetothe combustion of traditional fossil fuels,burning or otherwise thermally processing opportunity andwaste fuels offersthe promiseofreduced energy supplycost, with attendantenvironmental benefitsincludingreductions in the amount of material going to landfillsand apossible net reduction in carbon dioxide emissions.Currentinterest in the utilization of these low-cost fuelsfor both thermal and read more..

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    BIBLIOGRAPHYRelevant materials are too numerous to mention, howeverafew highlightedreferences are provided below.1. Summary of the Proceedings of the InternationalConference on the Co-Utilization of Domestic Fuels,University of Florida Conference Center, Gainesville, FL,February 5–6, 2003.2. Gielen, D.; Unander, F. Alternative Fuels: An EnergyTechnology Perspective,International Energy Agency Work-shop on Technology Issues for the Oil and Gas Sector, Paris,France, January 13–14, 2005.3. read more..

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    Waste Heat RecoveryMartin A. Mozzo, Jr.Mand AAssociates Inc., Robbinsville, New Jersey,U.S.A.AbstractMany industrial, commercial, and institutional uses of energy result in excessive rates of waste heatrejection. Heat rejection is typically inherent in process uses; however, it may be utilized to meet otherneeds. Recovering and reusing rejected heat is known as waste heat recovery. Waste heat is usuallyrecovered in the forms of steam, hot water, or hot air. The recovery medium is dependent on read more..

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    the temperature. Unfortunately, in reducing the tempera-ture and quality of the waste heat stream, the size of theheat recovery equipment had to be increased to recover thewaste energy, and the type of waste heat recovery mediumwas limited. This results in highercosts, lower savings,and longer-term paybackperiods.There is oneinstancewhere the dilution of awaste heatstream may be justified. Steel is usually used in themanufacture of waste heat equipment, and there is anupper temperature limit read more..

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    combustion airfor theprocess furnace. In anothersituation, the process furnace may run continuously andbe of ahigh enough grade to generate steam; however, ifthe host facility only uses steam for heating in the winter,the loadsdonot match and, thus,steam is not agoodrecovery medium. On the otherhand, there may be aneedfor large quantities of hot water in the facility, and the loadsmay match up. Athorough evaluation of both the sourceand operation of the waste heat and potential uses torecover read more..

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    where SCFMZstandard cubic feet per minute; ACFMZactual cubic feet per minute; TabsoluteZ4608F; TactualZactual gas temperature.Using the data available here,SCFM Z 14;000 ! ð460 C 60Þ=ð460 C 1000ÞZ 4;986 ft3=minSince the productofcombustion is essentially air, agood approximation of the density of the gases is similar tothat of air at standard conditions, or rZ0.074 Lb/ft3.Using Eq. 2, we can calculate the mass flow rate for thewaste stream as follows:M Z r ! VZ 0:074 Lb=ft3 ! 4;986 ft3=min read more..

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    Using Eq. 1:Q Z M ! 0:24 ! ðTupper K TlowerÞ3; 453; 711 Btu=h Z 50; 000 Lb=h ! 0:24 Btu=LbK8F ! ðTupper K 75ÞSolving for Tupper we get 362.88FHEAT RECOVERYEQUIPMENTThere is avariety of equipment manufactured and/or soldas heat recovery equipment. The following is alist of somemore common types of equipment.Waste heat steam recovery—This pieceofequipmentcan be either awater-tube or fire-tube boiler that uses thehot waste heat gasstream to heat boiler feed water togenerateeitherlow-pressure read more..

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    Waste Heat Recovery Applications: Absorption Heat PumpsKeith E. HeroldDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland,U.S.A.AbstractAbsorption refrigeration/heat pump technology is aheat-driven system for transferring heat from alowtemperature to ahigh temperature. The major current application is in the building cooling marketwhere such machines provide anatural-gas-fired cooling option which is particularly popular in marketswhere electric costs are high read more..

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    at the low temperature of the cycle. Another way to saythis is that the heat transfer input cannot be convertedcompletely into work. The energy input as heat is onlypartially converted to workand the remainder of theenergy mustberejected as low temperature heat. This lowtemperature heat is often referred to as waste heat (ingeneral,any heat that is not used in aprocess can be calledwaste heat). Depending on the thermal efficiency of thepower cycle, the rejected energy can be significant. read more..

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    air-conditioning applications and is the most well-knownconfiguration. Although aTypeI machine can act aseither achiller or aheat pump,the chiller application is,by far, morecommon due to the lack of competingtechnologies for the heat-driven chiller market. Forabuilding’s chilling application, the absorption machinewill reject heat to ambient at the intermediate temperature(typically via acooling tower). However, the samemachine can be used for heating purposes by connectingthe lowest read more..

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    range and over awide range of useful temperatures but thevapor pressure of water is sufficiently high so as to requirespecial designfeatures (i.e., arectifier) to remove watervapor from the refrigerant after it is boiled out of solution.This extracomponent must be cooledresulting in areductioninthermal performance for awater/ammoniamachine. Lithium bromide is agood absorbent for waterand has avery low vapor pressure,but it has limitedsolubilityleading to crystallization (solid hydrate read more..

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