CLEARING OF INDUSTRIAL GAS EMISSIONS Theory, Calculation, and Practice

This book can be referred to by students, postgraduates, scientists, and engineers who are engaged in purification of industrial gases.


Usmanova Regina Ravilevna, PhD and Gennady E. Zaikov, DSc


373 Pages

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English

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11.4 MB

Chemical Engineering

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  • Usmanova Regina Ravilevna, PhD and Gennady E. Zaikov, DSc   
  • 373 Pages   
  • 18 Feb 2015
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    CLEARING OF INDUSTRIAL GAS EMISSIONS Theory, Calculation, and Practice © 2015 by Apple Academic Press, Inc. read more..

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    © 2015 by Apple Academic Press, Inc. read more..

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    CLEARING OF INDUSTRIAL GAS EMISSIONS Theory, Calculation, and Practice Usmanova Regina Ravilevna, PhD and Gennady E. Zaikov, DSc Apple Academic Press TORONTO NEW JERSEY AAP Research Notes on Chemical Engineering © 2015 by Apple Academic Press, Inc. read more..

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    CRC Press Taylor & Fr ancis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 Apple Academic Press, Inc 3333 Mistwell Crescent Oakville, ON L6L 0A2 Canada © 2 015 by Apple Academic Press, Inc. Exclusive worldwide distribution by CRC Press an imprint of Taylor & Fr ancis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government read more..

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    ABOUT THE AUTHORS Usmanova Regina Ravilevna, PhD Usmanova Regina Ravilevna, PhD, is a professional mechanical engineer with over 15 years of experience in practicing mechanical engineering design and teaching. He is currently Associate Professor of the Chair of Strength of Materials at the Ufa State Technical University of Aviation in Ufa, Bashkortostan, Russia, where he supervises read more..

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    The AAP Research Notes on Chemical Engineering series will report on research development in different fields for academic institutes and indus- trial sectors interested in advanced research books. The main objective of the AAP Research Notes series is to report research progress in the rapidly growing field of chemical engineering. Editor-in-Chief: Eduardo A. Castro, PhD Professor, read more..

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    AAP Research Notes on Chemical Engineering vii Ali Pourhashemi, PhD Professor, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, USA Ing. Hans-Joachim Radusch, PhD Polymer Engineering Center of Engineering Sciences, Martin-Luther-Universität of Halle-Wittenberg, Germany © 2015 by Apple Academic Press, Inc. read more..

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    BOOKS IN THE AAP RESEARCH NOTES ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES Quantum-Chemical Calculations of Unique Molecular Systems (2-volume set) Editors: Vladimir A. Babkin, DSc, Gennady E. Zaikov, DSc, and A. K. Haghi, PhD Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Editor: Ali Pourhashemi, PhD Reviewers and editorial board members: Gennady E. Zaikov, DSc, and A. K. Haghi, PhD Clearing of read more..

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    List of Contributors .................................................................................... ix List of Abbreviations .................................................................................. xi List of Symbols ......................................................................................... xiii Preface .................................................................................................... xvii Part I: read more..

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    12 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice raises ef ciency of the subsequent centrifugal sedimentation of a liquid on the body 1. The liquid precipitated on the body 1, drains off in a zone of the ring basis with anging 4 air swirlers 2, whence is inferred from the device, and cleared of impurity and a dropping liquid gas is venting read more..

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    Modern Methods of Intensification and Dust Clearing Efficiency Raise 13 In the channel, there is a condensation of streams, a stream powdergas. And drops of dispersive water together with dust corpuscles ow off a formed condensate on channel walls partially in the sludge collector, and partially in a launder 11, had under tubes 10. A launder 11 are inclined toward a read more..

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    14 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice The device contains the coagulation tank 1, breakdown pipes 2 for sup- ply of dusty gas which are bent in a plane or space. The device contains a connecting pipe of feeding into of an irrigating liquid 3, a connecting pipe of feeding into of dusty gas 4, a connecting pipe of tap of the cleared read more..

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    Modern Methods of Intensification and Dust Clearing Efficiency Raise 15 The deduster works as follows: The gas dust-laden ow on a connecting pipe 2 arrives through a zone of an irrigation and fastening lattice 9 with big live cross-section in the oscillator of turbulence 8. In the turbulence oscillator together with a gas stream dispersive water (liquid) arrives. Thanks to read more..

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    16 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 1.6 The wet-type collector:1—the body; 2—a gas entry; 3—a gas make; 4—a water entry; 5—the injector;6—sludge removal; 7—the sludge remover; 8—the turbulence oscillator;9—a lattice; 10—a spring; 11—sheets; 12—an axis; 13—distant springs. The device for clearing of the gases, presented read more..

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    Modern Methods of Intensification and Dust Clearing Efficiency Raise 17 FIGURE 1.7 The device for clearing of gases:1—the body; 2—the upstream end; 3— injectors; 4—an inferring connecting pipe;5—shovels; 6—a launder. In Figure 1.8,the apparatus executed in the form of the cylindrical body with the tangential upstream end in its bottom part, by a connecting pipe for an read more..

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    18 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Besides, the water resistance of such apparatuses attains 400 Pascal as they demand the big water discharge and very much a fog spray accom- panied by considerable expenses of energy. In the observed designs was possibly infringement of aerodynamics of air streams at a non-uniform water concentration, the big read more..

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    Modern Methods of Intensification and Dust Clearing Efficiency Raise 19 areas at the expense of possibility of installation of apparatuses in ues of dust removal system. 1.3.1 CONCLUSION The analysis of merits and demerits of various methods of clearing gases from gaseous impurity has allowed to draw a conclusion that at clearing of great volumes of gas emissions by the most read more..

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    20 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice conditions, physical properties of medium, turbulence, etc.), and to secure with possibility of the solution of the equations. The mathematical models, which are coming nearer to a reality, share both by the way of increase in dimensions of a quantity of model, and by the way of the exact description of read more..

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    Modern Methods of Intensification and Dust Clearing Efficiency Raise 21 tion the equation of traf c along separate paths of corpuscles (Timonin, 2006). More dif cult approach is based on free motion of phases (Ba- ranov, 1989) when the equations of traf c and energy for both phases register in Eulerian coordinates and dare on uniform algorithm. In cal- culation of gas read more..

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    22 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Principal causes of restricted use of scrubbers many authors (Iva- nov, 1998; Usmanova, 2008; and Vatin, 2003) consider absence of reli- able methods of calculation of aerodynamics and separation processes in scrubbers and criteria of transition from laboratory models to the large- scale installations. According to read more..

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    Modern Methods of Intensification and Dust Clearing Efficiency Raise 23 Concerning a current state of exploratory works under the theory and practice a gas-cleaning installation, it is necessary to notice the following. Under the data [2031 only on apparatuses of wet clearing for the 10-year- old period in the world scienti c and technical literature has appeared more than 2,500 read more..

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    24 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice TABLE 1.1 The recommendation for sampling of design data Parameter View Value Relative width of the upstream end b/D 0.05÷0.35 Relative diameter of the upstream end d/D 0.15÷0.75 Relationship of sizes of the upstream end h/b 1÷6 Relationship of the square of an entry and exit A in/Aot 0.6÷2.5 Relative length of read more..

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    Modern Methods of Intensification and Dust Clearing Efficiency Raise 25 of trends to expansion of scopes of dynamic spray scrubbers continues to compel attention researchers and designers in Russia and abroad. At the same time, processes in scrubbers remain till now little-studied. Now on hydrodynamics and separation of nonuniform systems in scrub- bers the extensive experimental read more..

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    26 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice bers directed on decrease of power consumption of processes of clearing of gas. - On the basis of the formulated deductions and recommendations to devise gas-cleaning installations for conditions of serial exhaustion and large-scale implementation in industrial practice. KEYWORDS • Clearing of gas emissions • read more..

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    Modern Methods of Intensification and Dust Clearing Efficiency Raise 27 11. Baranov, D. .;Kutepov, .N.; and Lagutkin. M.P.;To calculation of difficult circuit designs of the joint of hydrocyclone separators.The Appl. Chem.1989,62(11),2486– 2490, (in Russian). 12. Belov, S.T.; Preservation of the Environment. Eds. Belov, S.T.; Barbinov, F.A.; Kozja- kov, A.F.;Moscow: The Higher school;1991. read more..

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    28 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 34. Timonin, A.S.; Bas of Designing and Calculation of the Himiko-Technological and Nature Protection Equipment: The Directory. . 1-3. Kaluga: N.Bochkarevs Publish- ing House;2006. 35. Uzhov, V. N; and Valdberg, A.U.; Clearing of Industrial Gases from a Dust. Moscow: Chemistry;1981. 36. Uspensky, V. .; Theory, read more..

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    CHAPTER 2 NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND CALCULATION OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE FLOW RATE OF GAS IN THE APPARATUS CONTENTS 2.1 Introduction .................................................................................... 30 2.2 Survey of Mathematical Models of Multiphase Currents .............. 30 2.3 Geometrical Model Creation .......................................................... 37 2.4 Construction of the Desing read more..

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    30 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 2.1 INTRODUCTION From the very beginning of emersion of scrubbers before engineers who designed them, there was a problem—to predict parameters of work of the machine created by them before drawings will be given to manufacture. For apparatuses of rotational act, the problem became complicated that critical read more..

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    Numerical Simulation and Calculation of Distribution 31 in the form of discrete corpuscles (a firm phase) or vials (gas phase), and the volume fraction of substance of other phase is insignificant (to 10% of total amount). The second case—the observed volume is partially filled by a liquid, and partially—gas which do not mix up among themselves and are separated from each read more..

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    32 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice () 33 3 612 ff f f cor f dv d dv d dv dv mdC v v dt dt dt dt ρ ρ ρρ πρ πρ πμ ⎛⎞ =− + + − + ⎜⎟ ⎝⎠ () () (). 3 6 3 3 ρ ρ ρ ω ρ π ω ω ρ ρ π v d r d F f e × − × × − − + (2.1) Here, m p is the weight of the corpuscle; d is the diameter of the corpuscle; read more..

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    Numerical Simulation and Calculation of Distribution 33 The factor of viscous resistance C cor at a moderate Reynolds number 0.01<Re p<1000 can be computed by formula that follows () () 0,82 0,05 0,6305 1 0.1315 Re 1 0.1935 Re cor Ñ α ρ ρ − ⎧ + ⎪ = ⎨ ⎪ + ⎩ Re 20 Re 20 ρ ρ < > Re p = f | v f – v p | d / , = log read more..

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    34 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice of mass forces, form among themselves an accurate boundary, that is, a free surface. According to the given approach, the mathematical model for free sur- face approximation is supplemented with a transport equation of function of lling F expressing “concentration of a liquid in gas” (by consideration read more..

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    Numerical Simulation and Calculation of Distribution 35 model, for example, a retardation of a stream of the grains of sand ying in the reservoir, lled with a motionless liquid. The traf c equation in a projection to an axis x i in this model looks like: () () ()2 , mj mi m mi m mi mj m i ki mi ji j j i i u u uu u f u u tx x x x x x ρ ρρ μ ⎡⎤ ⎛⎞ read more..

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    36 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 2.2.5 ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CHOICE MODELS OF A MULTIPHASE CURRENT For modeling of currents in which substances of various phases can mix up and do not form a free surface, in many cases it is possible to use both model of dispersion particles, and mixture model, and Euler’s multiphase model. read more..

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    Numerical Simulation and Calculation of Distribution 37 necessary to use either model of dispersion particles or Euler’s multiphase model. Modeling in packet Ansys CFX for calculation of hydrogas kinetics of a scrubber consists of ve stages: 1. Creation of 3D models 2. Creation of a desing grid 3. A statement of problem (preprocessor) 4. The solution of mathematical model read more..

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    38 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 2.4 CONSTRUCTION OF THE DESING GRID Quality gained on the basis of conducting of computing experiment of results directly depends on the quality of the built desing grid. Preproces- sor GAMBIT allows to create and process sweepingly geometry of investi- gated processes. Ansys Mesh possesses the powerful read more..

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    Numerical Simulation and Calculation of Distribution 39 rect polyhedronsin the presence of such meshes can it is essential recep- tion of the converging solution (Aksenov, 1996) will be at a loss. Discriminate the structured and unstructured desing grids. In unstruc- tured desing grids, grid knots are scattered in space in a random way according to the set law of density of an read more..

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    40 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 2.4 Typical desing area, a desing grid, and an interface surface in a dynamic scrubber. Sizes of one mesh of an initial grid make 3×10 3 mm. Adaptation of rst level is lead on surfaces: a conic asymmetrical surface of the case of the apparatus, a wall of a tangential connecting pipe read more..

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    Numerical Simulation and Calculation of Distribution 41 As a result quantity of meshes of the generated grid has made more for the apparatus of an order of 2 million meshes, for a vortex generator of an order of 1,00,000 meshes (see Figure 2.5). FIGURE 2.5 Sizes of a desing grid. In preprocessor Ansys CFX, it is necessary to execute a statement of problem which includes read more..

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    42 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 0 = wall U , On upper bound and in the eld of a ow, values of speed are set: ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ = = − = + + = 0 0 1 swirl radial axial swirl radial axial inlet u u u u k u j u i u U , ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ = = − = + + = 0 0 2 swirl radial axial swirl radial axial inlet u u u u read more..

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    Numerical Simulation and Calculation of Distribution 43 For short circuit of system of the equations the two-parametric model of turbulence to— , as one of the most well-proved models for calculation of currents, such is used. At turbulence modeling, it was used to model, for it dares two additional transport equations for the purpose of de nition to turbulent kinetic read more..

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    44 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice configuration. The important advantage of MFV is maintenance of con- servation relations of integrated magnitudes (the charge, a momentum) on each of meshes of a desing grid, and not just in a limit, in process of enough strong thickening of a desing grid. In Ansys CFX, MFV is used with elements of read more..

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    Numerical Simulation and Calculation of Distribution 45 and stream temperature were set: the two-phase stream (continuous and a dispersoid) was set by volume fractions from the general mass flow rate: distribution of corpuscles of a dispersoid in entrance cross section was uniform: on target surfaces the condition on pressure was laid down. FIGURE 2.6 Computational model boundary read more..

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    46 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 2.7 Statistics of a desing grid. The problem dared in stationary statement, the current was observed as two-phase, effects of turbulence were inducted by means of two-paramet- ric model of turbulence – . 2.7 VISUALIZATION AND THE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF CALCULATION Process of calculation of a current read more..

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    Numerical Simulation and Calculation of Distribution 47 The set of available visualization tools Ansys CFX usually switches on: and an isosurface (a line and a surface of equal values of some parameter), versicolored pouring, animation of traf c of corpuscles of a liquid, and so on. Desing area with the pattern of visualization put on it is possible to move, increase the read more..

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    48 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 2.9 Static component of pressure (a cross-section 0–2). FIGURE 2.10 Static component of pressure (a cross-section 0–3). © 2015 by Apple Academic Press, Inc. read more..

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    Numerical Simulation and Calculation of Distribution 49 It is necessary to pay attention that in eddy zones the underpressure both in comparison with a main stream, and in a zone of blades of a vortex generator is observed. Irregularity of static making pressures in a scrubber has reducing an effect on ef ciency of clearing. By comparison to empirical data on read more..

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    50 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice It is necessary to register that the total pressure in the given program complex develops from super uous and dynamic, without the atmospher- ic. The atmospheric pressure is set in reference values, therefore the zero on a scale of pressures (Figure 2.12 see). From drawing (Figure 2.11 see) it is read more..

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    Numerical Simulation and Calculation of Distribution 51 FIGURE 2.13 Projections of a vector speeds (cross-section). From drawings it is visible that the radial velocity (Figure 2.14 see) keeps constant value practically on all cross-section of working space whereas the axial velocity (Figure 2.15 see) diminishes from the centre to periphery, and tangential, on the contrary, increases read more..

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    52 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 2.15 Speed in a stream w. FIGURE 2.16 Speed in a stream u. © 2015 by Apple Academic Press, Inc. read more..

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    Numerical Simulation and Calculation of Distribution 53 The magnitude of tangential speed gained by the numerical solution, qualitatively will be coordinated with experiment. The pro le of tangen- tial speed is in the form of parabolas with the maximum which has been had more close to a cylindrical wall that it is possible to explain act of a centrifugal force. Experimental read more..

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    54 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Cross-section 0–1 V x.cp.= 15 m/s V x.cp.= 19m/s V x.cp.= 15 m/s V x.cp.= 19 m/s 17.078 9.479 25.937 14.396 19.859 8.856 29.389 14.355 23.976 11.971 35.799 18.265 25.608 9.339 38.515 12.914 30.594 13.643 45.212 20.161 30.88 7.721 45.111 11.280 35.149 14.944 50.469 21.458 32.814 6.999 48.382 14.826 36.869 14.549 51.768 20.952 34.416 read more..

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    Numerical Simulation and Calculation of Distribution 55 Cross-section 0–1 V x.cp.= 15 m/s V x.cp.= 19m/s V x.cp.= 15 m/s V x.cp.= 19 m/s 0 0 3,398 2,471 4.660 0.329 7.791 0.414 2.632 1.401 6.821 4.434 8.567 0.907 12.453 1.208 6.518 3.617 9.484 6.166 11.559 2.465 16.500 3.219 11.110 5.669 16.266 9.403 14.557 5.309 20.546 7.493 23.398 11.682 18.298 8.938 25.375 12.669 20.035 9.357 29.844 14.577 21.017 12.149 read more..

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    56 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 15.4 18.4 180 178 19.7 28.8 282 274 22.8 39.2 384 376 25.7 50.4 494 490 29.4 61.6 604 584 30.1 72 706 684 0 0, 927; 0,172; 0 ; 12 y Dl z α == = = 150 2.86 4 39 40 5.9 8.8 86 79 11.4 18.4 180 172 16.7 29.6 290 276 21.5 40.8 400 367 28.7 50.4 494 460 31.4 60.8 596 608 14.8 80 784 784 From the data presented in Table2.2, read more..

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    Numerical Simulation and Calculation of Distribution 57 soid on drips of an irrigating liquid, is modeled as process of a current of a water gas stream in a packet of computing hydrodynamics Ansys CFX. Numerical research of work of a scrubber will allow to analyze its work for the purpose of decrease of power inputs at conservation of quality of gas cleaning. The read more..

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    58 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 9. Hirt, C. W.;and Nicholls, B. D.; Volume of Fluid (VOF) method for dynamical free boundaries.J. Comput. Phys. 1981,39, 201–225. 10. Kochevsky, A.N.; Raschet of internal currents of a liquid in channels by means of software product flow vision. Bull. SumGu.2004, 2(61), 25–36, (in Russian). 11. Kochevsky, read more..

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    CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH STUDIES AND HYDRAULIC RESISTANCE CALCULATION CONTENTS 3.1 Introduction .................................................................................... 60 3.2 Experimental Research Studies of a Dynamic Spray Scrubber ..... 60 3.3 Working Out of a Design Procedure of a Water Resistance .......... 65 3.4 Checking Adequacy of the Offered Design Procedure .................. read more..

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    60 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 3.1 INTRODUCTION The problem of decrease in gas emissions for the purpose of maintenance of admissible concentration of dust in air basin can be solved, if for each case study legitimately to choose economic and effective enough deduster. The cyclonic clearing of plant emissions passed round now of read more..

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    Experimental Research Studies and Hydraulic Resistance Calculation 61 of a rotor secures with liquid crushing on microfogs that causes intensive contact of gases and trapped corpuscles to a liquid. Thanks to the act of a centrifugal force, intensive mixing of gas and a liquid, and presence of the big interface of contact, there is an effective clearing of gas in a bubble read more..

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    62 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice During the course of research the following parameters are varied: - Speed of the gas on an entry in an air swirler = 1 ÷ 20 mps; - Angular speed of twirl of a rotor = 0 ÷ 100 1; - Direction of rotation < 90° or > 90, where is an angle be- tween a vector of relative speed read more..

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    Experimental Research Studies and Hydraulic Resistance Calculation 63 water resistance. Magnitude of water resistance and the value of a gas rate converted for speed of gas in the contact channel, registered in the table at parameter point of a speci c irrigation. Further at gas rate increase the water resistance was again de ned. Analogous experiences have been spent at a read more..

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    64 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice mps, relations of mass ow rates of water and gas L/G = 0.1 1.5. The altitude of a spray of a liquid is equal to 0.15 m. FIGURE 3.2 Dependence of factor of a water resistance on speed of gas and angle of installation of blades of an air swirler. The essential contribution to the total read more..

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    Experimental Research Studies and Hydraulic Resistance Calculation 65 FIGURE 3.3 Dependence of factor of a water resistance on magnitude of a specific irrigation. During the experiments, it is installed that at a stopping delivery of an irrigating liquid, the water resistance gets not at once value of the dry ap- paratus, and adopts a value 0.8 P, and only at disposal of read more..

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    66 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice necessary for informing a gas stream to compensate resistance on trans- port of a fluid flow stream, d.h.: dry ir PP P Δ= Δ + Δ (3.1) Or on equation Darcy: 2 2 P ρυ ξ Δ= Σ ⋅ dry ir ξξ ξ Σ= + dry is the factor of resistance of not irrigated apparatus; ir is the coefficient of read more..

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    Experimental Research Studies and Hydraulic Resistance Calculation 67 2 2 2 2 1 11 1 n dry R nr k ϑ ξ ϑ ⎛⎞ ⎛⎞ ⎛⎞ =− + ⋅ ⎜⎟ ⎜⎟ ⎜⎟ ⎝⎠ ⎝⎠ ⎝⎠ , (3.2) 0.6 2 1 41 ir L Gk ξ ⎛⎞ =⋅ ⋅ + ⎜⎟ ⎝⎠ , (3.3) where R is the apparatus radius, m; r is the whirlwind radius, m; L, G are liquid and gas volume flow rates, m3/h; 1, 2 read more..

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    68 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 3.4 A roll forming of blades of a vortex generator. A twirl direction: 0. 2 2 sin β υ W r = (3.5) where W 2 is the relative speed of gas on an exit, mps. The formula of theo- retical pressure Eq. (3.1) taking into account and Eq. (3.2) will register as ) cos ( 2 2 β read more..

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    Experimental Research Studies and Hydraulic Resistance Calculation 69 0 = y α ) 2 ( 1 1 1 l D z l p + = π τ (3.8) FIGURE 3.5 A roll forming of blades of a vortex generator. Twirl direction: 0. Also is, as a rule, within p = 0.8 2.5. Therefore, during the calcula- tion of theoretical pressure correction factor is inducted, considering the nal number read more..

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    70 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 22 2 2 1 1 ( cos ) 1, 5 1,1 / 90 1 (1 ) T Hu u W zd ρβ β =− + + − (3.10) At gas motion in a twirled rotor from the center to periphery the theo- retical pressure created by a rotor is computed by formula (3.7). The gas stream in a dynamic scrubber vortex generator moves from periphery read more..

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    Experimental Research Studies and Hydraulic Resistance Calculation 71 are shown. The divergence of desing and experimental values of a hydrau- lic resistance of a rotor does not exceed 10 per cent. FIGURE 3.6 Dependence of a water resistance on speed and air swirler direction of rotation. 3.5 CONCLUSIONS 1. Experimental and theoretical research studies of hydrodynamics of a scrubber read more..

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    72 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice KEYWORDS • Guide vanesthe scrubber • The centrifugal fanthe water resistance • The scrubberthe specific irrigation • The specific irrigation • The twirled air swirler • The twirled air swirlerguide vanes • The water resistance the centrifugal fan REFERENCES 1. Varkasin, A. J.; Turbulent read more..

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    CHAPTER 4 OPTIMIZATION OF SPEED AND DIRECTION OF TWIRL OF BLADES OF A VORTEX GENERATOR CONTENTS 4.1 Introduction .................................................................................... 74 4.2 Research of Effect of a Direction of Rotation of an Air Swirler for Optimum Speed ........................................................................ 74 4.3 Research of Effect Regime-Design Data for read more..

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    74 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 4.1 INTRODUCTION The principle of act of a dynamic spray scrubber is analogous to a prin- ciple of act of cyclone separators. In either case allocation of dust from a cleared dust-laden gas stream occurs under the influence of centrifugal force originating at twirl of a stream in the body. Distinctive read more..

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    Optimization of Speed and Direction of Twirl of Blades 75 tive direction of rotation, we will consider a heading, for which cos >0. Dependence of opt on a twirl cosine of the angle is presented in the form of the schedule (see Figure 4.1). FIGURE 4.1 Dependence of optimum speed of twirl a opt from the direction of rotation at: (1) =21.2; (2) =13.5; and (3) read more..

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    76 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 4.2 Effect of cos on opt at a speed of the stream: (1) =21.2; (2) =13.5; and (3) =7.7 (mps). Thus, by generalizing the results of research of effect of an angle of installation of blades of an air swirler and the direction of rotation, it is possible to draw a conclusion that peak read more..

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    Optimization of Speed and Direction of Twirl of Blades 77 apparatus is supplied by twirled air swirler and the central pipe for supply of an irrigating liquid. A centrifugal force originating at twirl of a rotor secures with liquid crushing on microfogs that causes intensive contact of gases and trapped corpuscles to a liquid. Thanks to the act of centrifugal force, read more..

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    78 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice rotor magnitude of ablation of impurity decreases and at certain speed of twirl becomes almost equal to null. Therefore, it is possible to introduce the concept “optimum speed of twirl,” that is, the minimum angular speed of twirl at which there is no ablation. Optimum angular speed of twirl is more read more..

  • Page - 97

    Optimization of Speed and Direction of Twirl of Blades 79 swirler, that is number of blades, it is recommended to choose the follow- ing relationship: (100 110) zD ≈÷ (4.2) Generalization of empirical data installs the following relationship: pt ž.,05 (4.3) At abbreviation of quantity of blades, activity of affecting the rotor de- creases for a gas stream owing to what read more..

  • Page - 98

    80 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Statistical generalization of empirical data installs a following relation- ship: 6 opt exp( 0.018 10 ) p d ω ≈− ⋅ (4.4) Also effect of charges of liquid and gas phases, Figures 4.6 and 4.7 is experimentally installed. The increase in charge G of the cleared gas at invariable value of an- gular read more..

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    Optimization of Speed and Direction of Twirl of Blades 81 FIGURE 4.7 Effect of magnitude of a specific irrigation on a opt at: (1) =34.5; (2) =21.7; (3) =13.5; and (4) =7.2 (mps). Statistical generalization of empirical data installs the following rela- tionships: pt w1.65 (4.5) 60.31 îpt (10 ) m ω ≈⋅ (4.6) Except operating conditions, optimum speed of twirl a opt read more..

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    82 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 4.8 Effect of design data of an air swirler on a opt at: (1) =7.2; (2) =13.5; (3) =21.7; and (4) =30.7 (mps). Statistical generalization of empirical data install a following relation- ship: pt -.,31 (4.7) The general dependence in terms of Eqs. (4.1–4.7) can be presented in the form of read more..

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    Optimization of Speed and Direction of Twirl of Blades 83 4.4 CONCLUSIONS 1. Empirical dependence for calculation of optimum speed of twirl of the air swirler, considering the direction of rotation of its guide vanes, and also operating conditions of process of clearing of gas emissions is gained. 2. The dependences gained by generalization of empirical data give the chance to read more..

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    84 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 9. Bitchkov, A. G.; Centrifugal fans for pneumatic transportation of fibrous ma- terials. In: The Collector: Industrial Aerodynamics. .: Defensive Publishing House;1957,9,91–108 (In Russian). 10. Bitchkov, A. G.; The general regularity of change of aerodynamic characteristics of centrifugal cars with volute casings. In: read more..

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    CHAPTER 5 EFFECT OF DESIGN DATA OF BLADES OF A VORTEX GENERATOR ON EFFICIENCY OF CLEARING OF GAS CONTENTS 5.1 Introduction .................................................................................... 86 5.2 Development of Motion of a Corpuscle in the Twirled Channel ...... 86 5.3 Definition of Effective Length of Blades ....................................... 92 5.4 Conclusions read more..

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    86 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 5.1 INTRODUCTION Air swirler design data are one of the momentous geometrical sizes of a scrubber and define almost all other sizes. As magnitude of a centrifugal force is inversely proportional to twirl radius, the overall performance de- pends on the diameter of the scrubber. The diameter of the read more..

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    Effect of Design Data of Blades of a Vortex Generator 87 in generalized coordinates (Lagrange’s equations), it is possible to write down the following equation: 1 qq dT T F d τ ⎛⎞ ∂∂ −= ⎜⎟ ∂∂ ⎝⎠ (5.1) where is the corpuscle kinetic energy; q 1 andq 2are the generalized coordinates and speeds of a corpuscle; F i is the generalized forces; i is the read more..

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    88 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice () 3 p dT T dW s ds s πμ τ ∂∂ −= − ∂∂ () 3 p dT T dn dn n πμ τ ∂∂ −= ∂∂ (5.3) Let us de ne corpuscle kinetic energy. For this purpose we will ob- serve corpuscle motion in motionless coordinates and at and mobile s and n, twirled together with shovels. FIGURE 5.1 The read more..

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    Effect of Design Data of Blades of a Vortex Generator 89 cos sin cos cos sin yR S S n n ωωτ φ ωφ φ ω φ =− − − + (5.5) where y φωτ α =− . The corpuscle kinetic energy is de ned by the following formula 22 () 2 m Tx y =+ (5.6) In terms of Eq. (5.5), the formula (5.6) after transformation will be- come 22 2 2 2 2 () 2 ( ) 2 2 ( sin cos ) 2 ( read more..

  • Page - 108

    90 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice y stk s stk n stk n n α sin 2 2 2 2 − = − + (5.9) where 2 ;; ; ; 18 pp m d W sn Sn W stk RR R μ ωρ τ τ ωμ τ == = = = From the system of differential Eq.(5.9), we will have y stk n stk n stk n stk n α sin 2 4 ) 1 2 ( 2 2 2 2 = + + − + (5.10) With constant factors, it is read more..

  • Page - 109

    Effect of Design Data of Blades of a Vortex Generator 91 is the corpuscle relaxation time 2 18 pp dp μ μ τ = The partial solution of Eq. (5.10) will register y n α sin 2 2 = (5.14) and Eq. (5.11) will register y C C B C a C n α τ α τ β τ β τ τ sin 2 ) exp( ) sin cos ( ) exp( ) exp( 4 3 2 1 + ⋅ + + − + − = (5.15) Substituting Eq. (5.15) in read more..

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    92 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 0 = n ; 0 = n ; 0 = s ; W stk s = at n=0, we will make system of four equations for search of arbitrary con- stants C 1, C 2, C 3, and C 4 y C C C α sin 2 3 2 1 − = + + 12 3 4 0 aC bC C C αβ ++ + = (5.17) 22 2 2 2 12 3 4 () 2 (2 cos sin ) yy aC b C C C stk stk W αβ αβ α read more..

  • Page - 111

    Effect of Design Data of Blades of a Vortex Generator 93 stream in the eld of a dispensing of an irrigation water and an irrigation water stream, at an exit from the sprinkler hole, increased by a dimension- less quantity. Results of calculation h eff for =0.05÷0.5 show that in the accepted lim- its of change of criterion of Stokes, speed of gas in shovels and angular speed read more..

  • Page - 112

    94 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice cles of the set diameter at the set speed of gas and angular speed of twirl of an air swirler. 5.4 CONCLUSIONS 1. Motion of corpuscles in shovels of a twirled air swirler in a curvi- linear coordinate system, representing streamlines of gas and or- thogonal curves to them is observed. The corpuscle read more..

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    Effect of Design Data of Blades of a Vortex Generator 95 3. Kouzov, P. A.; Malgin, A. D.; and Skryabin, M.; Clearing of gases and air of a dust in the chemical industry. SPb: Chemistry;1993. 4. Kutateladze, S. S.; Gyroscopes, E. P.; and Terekhov, V. I.; Aerodynamics in the Re- stricted Vortex Flows. Novosibirsk: An Academy of Sciences of the USSR;1987. 5. Kutateladze, read more..

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    CHAPTER 6 SAMPLING OF AN OPTIMUM RULE OF AN IRRIGATION CANAL FOR LIQUID SUPPLY IN THE APPARATUS CONTENTS 6.1 Introduction .................................................................................... 98 6.2 Development of Motion Spherical Drops of Liquid in a Gas Stream ..................................................................................... 98 6.3 Sampling of Criterion Optimum a Sprinkler read more..

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    98 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 6.1 INTRODUCTION Spraying (“crushing”) of a liquid is widely applied in modern technics. It is carried out, in particular, in chemical and the food-processing industry at extraction of firm substances from liquids, at drying, at any interactings between liquids and gases, and also in a number of other read more..

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    Sampling of an Optimum Rule of an Irrigation Canal 99 Let us observe motion of drops of a liquid in the twirled gas stream at optimum location of a sprinkler 0. For simpli cation of the solution of a problem we will accept following assumptions: we will consider that the drop is in the form of a sphere and is absolutely a solid. Actually the drop form is not read more..

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    100 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 0 00 y x xy rr r D VD D Vi i i i υ υ υυ νν ν =+ = = + (6.3) 0 00 y x xy rr r WD WD W D WW i W i i i νν ν =+ = = + (6.4) 0 00 y x xy rr r WD WD W D WW i W i i i νν ν =+ = = + (6.5) Let us spread out the Eq. (6.2) on components on X-axes and y 2 00 2 3 () 4 lx read more..

  • Page - 118

    Sampling of an Optimum Rule of an Irrigation Canal 101 And in view of earlier accepted designations, from the Eqs. (6.6) and (6.7) we will gain the dimensionless equations: x x d U dT υ ψ =− (6.10) y y d UP dT υ ψ =− + (6.11) and from Eqs. (6.8) and (6.9) accordingly x xx d UU dx υ ψ =− (6.12) y yy d UU P dy υ ψ =− + (6.13) By means of the read more..

  • Page - 119

    102 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice The analysis of dimensionless quantities Eqs. (6.10–6.13) shows that compared motions of drops in geometrically similar sprinklers will be similar, if 0 , r l l idem D ρ ρ = (6.16) , o r UD idem ν = (6.17) , o r UD idem ν = (6.18) , x y U idem U = here l—length of an irrigation pipe. In read more..

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    Sampling of an Optimum Rule of an Irrigation Canal 103 here d x—diameter of the conic dissector in the eld of a sprinkler bev- el, m; d l—diameter of a hole of a sprinkler, m; opt—speed of gas in the eld of an irrigation, mps; l—a projection of speed of an irrigation water to a perpendicular to a gas traf c route In this case we accept that all read more..

  • Page - 121

    104 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Analysing process of separation of a liquid in a gas stream, the author (Tresch, 1954). Speci es that at drop disintegration acts following forces: 22 22 00 0 0 ;; ll r H uD D uD u D ρσ μ ρ ; The condition of disintegration of a drop under the in uence of a gas stream can be presented in read more..

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    Sampling of an Optimum Rule of an Irrigation Canal 105 opt l idem ω ν = (6.29) 2 l opt l idem d σ ρω = (6.30) l l opt l idem d μ ρω = (6.31) The analysis of these criteria shows that they are the connected magni- tudes since at maintenance of the best crushing of a liquid and full overlap- ping of cross-section of the apparatus by an irrigation spray, read more..

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    106 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 2 11 1( / ) ( ) l opt fm νω += Therefore expression (6.32) can be presented in an aspect 11 Re () Re r l fm idem = (6.33) Here m 1—magnitude of a specific irrigation, equal to the relation of the charge of a liquid to the volume flow rate of gas taken under a condition on an entry in a read more..

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    Sampling of an Optimum Rule of an Irrigation Canal 107 2 0 2 () l l opt G idem ν νω ⋅= (6.38) The analysis of expression (6.38) shows that the relation l/ opt m 1(by de nition), and l m 1 at opt const the criterion Eq. (6.30) under the conditions speci ed above also will be proportional to a speci c irrigation. Research of criteria Eqs. (6.30) and read more..

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    108 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice So, for the conic dissector observed in-process (Figure 6.2 see) it is had: 1 20 (1 2 ) 2 x dd tg α =+ Θ (6.39) and 1 22 1 20 4 (1 2 ) 2 îpt Q dtg ω α π = +Θ (6.40) where Q 1—a second gas rate at parametres on an entry in the apparatus; 1—An angle of disclosing of a cone of read more..

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    Sampling of an Optimum Rule of an Irrigation Canal 109 1 1 1 1 1 1 sin 2 2 ll lr Qd Qmd tg ν α νφ ⎛⎞ Θ= − ⎜⎟ ⎝⎠ (6.44) where L 1—total length of an irrigation connecting pipe, m; d 1—diameter of a sprinkler, m; L 0—distance from the conic dissector to an irrigation connecting pipe, m; —the relation of magnitude L 0 to d 1 Research of experimental read more..

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    110 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 22 2 0 1 1 1 2 2 l ll r r d dm n tg ων γ α νν γ ⎛⎞ Θ= − ⎜⎟ ⎝⎠ (6.47) 1 1 1 2 1 1 sin 2 2 ll lr Qd Qmd n tg ν α νφ ⎛⎞ Θ= − ⎜⎟ ⎝⎠ (6.48) 6.4 CONCLUSIONS 1. By comparison of the forces causing convergence of corpuscles it is shown that capture of trapped read more..

  • Page - 128

    Sampling of an Optimum Rule of an Irrigation Canal 111 REFERENCES 1. Blinov, V. I.; and Fejnberg, E. L.; About a Pulsation of a Stream and its Rupture on Drops. GTF.1933,III, exhaustion. 5. 2. Vasilevsky, M. .; and Zykov, .G.; Methods of raise of efficiency of systems of dust removal of gases with group cyclonic apparatuses in small power engineering. Ind. Power read more..

  • Page - 129

    112 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 21. Shtokman, . .; Air Purification. .: Publishing House ASV;1999. 22. Fraser, R. P.; Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion. New York, London; 1957. 23. Giffenen, E.;and Lamb, A. J.; The effect of air density on spray atomization.The Motor Ind. Res. Ass. Report no 5, 1953. 24. PohIhausen, K.;and read more..

  • Page - 130

    CHAPTER 7 DERIVATION OF AN EQUATION OF TRAFFIC OF DISPERSION PARTICLES AND CALCULATION OF FRACTIONAL EFFICIENCY OF CLEARING OF GAS CONTENTS 7.1 Introduction ...................................................................................114 7.2 Statement of Problem, Assumptions .............................................115 7.3 Development of Motion of a Corpuscle ........................................118 7.4 read more..

  • Page - 131

    114 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 7.1 INTRODUCTION Theoretical and to an experimental research of multiphase turbulent flows books Zhou (1993) are devoted, to Volkova et al. (1994), Gorbis and Spo- koyny (1995), Crowe et al. (1998), Varaksina (2003) and surveys Eaton and Fessler (1994), Elghobashi (1994), McLaughlin (1994), Crowe et al. (1996), read more..

  • Page - 132

    Derivation of an Equation of Traffic of Dispersion Particles 115 al.,2000; Yamamoto, 2001; Kuerten and Vreman, 2005; Fede and Simo- nin, 2006). In the capacity of a key factor of adequacy of the presented models are accepted the consent with known results from the literature of numerical modelling on the basis of DNS or LES for a continuous phase in a combination with read more..

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    116 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice This law observed in experiments (Barchatenko, 1974), will allow to gain the simple solution convenient for quantitative analysis of motion of corpuscles. 3. The corpuscle does not change the form and diameter in a time, does not occur neither its crushing, nor concretion. The deviation of the form of a read more..

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    Derivation of an Equation of Traffic of Dispersion Particles 117 FIGURE 7.1 The forces acting on a corpuscle in a gas stream. The problem of de nition of paths of corpuscles in a scrubber decom- poses on two: • Definition of a field of speeds of a gas stream, • Integration of the equations of motion of a corpuscle in terms of a design field of speeds of gas. read more..

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    118 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 7.3 DEVELOPMENT OF MOTION OF A CORPUSCLE For calculation of paths of corpuscles it is necessary to know their equa- tions of motion. Such problem for some special case dares the author (Brzik, 2000). Let’s inject co-ordinate system OXYZ. Its axis OZ we will direct along an axis of symmetry of a read more..

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    Derivation of an Equation of Traffic of Dispersion Particles 119 Let us accept coordinate system O’X’Y’Z ’, let axis O’X’ passes through a corpuscle, and axis O’Z ’ lies on axis OZ. The accepted frame of refer- ence moves is forward on axis OZ with a speed W and is twirled round it with angular speed () p r p U t = ω (7.2) The equation of motion read more..

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    120 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice y y x z e r V U dt dU e V r U dt dU r r e r U dt d r dt d r r ' 2 ' ' ' 1 x v z z x z x e r U e e r U e e e r U r 2 2 2 1 (7.6) where— ,, vz ee e Crosscuts of a system of reference also it is considered that x x re r v V Substituting these expressions in the equation read more..

  • Page - 138

    Derivation of an Equation of Traffic of Dispersion Particles 121 We have gained the equation of motion of a corpuscle in a twirled gas stream in projections to axes of a cylindrical coordinate system. Analogously the system of the equations of motion of drops of a liquid registers: dt dr W r t r W V W d dt W d dt d r r W t r W V W d dt W d dt dx W g W V W d dt W read more..

  • Page - 139

    122 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Let’s inject dimensionless cylindrical co-ordinates: , ' 0 R r r = 0 ' R z z = ϕ ϕ = ' Real speeds it is renewable the dimensionless: , ' 0 2 x z x U Q R U ⋅ = , ' 0 2 ϕ ϕ U Q R U z ⋅ = . ' 0 2 r z r U Q R U ⋅ = Dimensionless time: . ' 3 0 t R Q t z ⋅ = For non-dimensional read more..

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    Derivation of an Equation of Traffic of Dispersion Particles 123 And two dimensionless parameters and solution of this system de- nes a corpuscle path in the cyclone separator. The system Eq. (7.11) is system of the ordinary differential equations The another order. Knowing radially extending r and axial speeds x a gas stream, it is possible to integrate and gain a read more..

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    124 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice t 22 2 tt t 2 K U 18 - 0 -18 0 r 2 -18K 0 18K 18K read more..

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    Derivation of an Equation of Traffic of Dispersion Particles 125 () () () () () 11 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 18 18 , 18 , nn n n n v t nn n nn nn n tg n nn nn n tg nn n nn n nn n n K UU U V KU tr r U VV KV r z V tr WW KW r z W t rr V t zz W t U tr φφ ++ + + + + + + + + + ++ ⎧ − ⎛⎞ =− − ⎜⎟ ⎪ ⎝⎠ Δ ⎪ ⎪ − ⎪ =− + ⎪ Δ ⎪ − ⎪ =− read more..

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    126 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice motion and construction of mechanical trajectories of corpuscles of a dust in the separator: () () () () ( ) ( ) () () () () () () ( ) 1 2 11 11 11 1 22 1 18 1 18 18 , 1 18 18 , 1 18 n n nn nn n tt nn n n n n n n tg t nn n n n n tg t nn n n nn n n nn n n n nn n UU K t r K V r t VV K V read more..

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    Derivation of an Equation of Traffic of Dispersion Particles 127 - h—a subinterval of area S in MCR; - N—numbers of iterations at the solution of system of finite-difference equations; - t—an integration step of the equations of motion. Thus, the corpuscle radius-vector depends not only on parameters of the cyclone separator, a dust and gas, but also from calculation read more..

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    128 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice mechanism of the inertia collision of corpuscles with drops of an irrigat- ing liquid. On the given mechanism the corpuscle, thanks to the weight, possesses suf cient inertia to move rectilinearly on a heading to a trapping body- target, re-cutting stream-lines of a current of a bearing phase. Ef ciency read more..

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    Derivation of an Equation of Traffic of Dispersion Particles 129 FIGURE 7.3 The circuit design of interacting of streams. Change of quantity of a dispersoid in a gas stream at volume element passage is caused by capture of corpuscles by drops of liquid and de ned by the total square of cross-section of drops dF k, ef ciency of capture of corpuscles a single drop read more..

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    130 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 3 2 k k dF dM a ρ = (7.19) The weight of drops in an elementary volume was de ned through magnitude of the resulted speed of a liquid phase in torch U and a time of motion of drops in an elementary volume d 2 k dM Urdzdr πρ = (7.20) where , 2 k r Ldr Urb d V ρπ τ == L—A liquid read more..

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    Derivation of an Equation of Traffic of Dispersion Particles 131 Integration of the differential Eq. (7.21) at starting conditions z=z n; c = (7.22) The following dependence for calculation of concentration of corpus- cles of a dispersoid in a gas stream has been gained () exp ( ) XK XH n CC B z z =⋅ − ⋅ − Also concentration of corpuscles in gas on an exit from a read more..

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    132 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice sedimentation on drops. And for small corpuscles ( 5 ) it is the basic mechanism of sedimentation. In the assumption that the gas stream moves through a drop layer in a regime of ideal replacement, and change of quantity of a solid phase in a gas stream is caused only by the inertia capture of read more..

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    Derivation of an Equation of Traffic of Dispersion Particles 133 2 2 1 x U Uϕ λ + = (7.27) () 1 1 2 2 1 1 T y m te dt m λ η −⋅ =− − ∫ (7.28) As one would expect, efficiency of process of the inertia separation does not depend on concentration of corpuscles in a gas phase on an entry in the apparatus. Independence of separation efficiency of gas of a read more..

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    134 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 4. The devised model can be used at calculation and designing of ap- paratuses of clearing of gas emissions as relationships making it define association between technical characteristics on dedusters both their geometrical and operating conditions. KEYWORDS • A velocity profile • Capture of particles read more..

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    Derivation of an Equation of Traffic of Dispersion Particles 135 11. Aref, H.;The numerical experiment in fluid mechanics II.J. Fluids. Mech. 1986,173, 15–41. 12. Aref, H.;and Pomphrey, N.;Integrable and chaotic motions of four vortices. I. The case of identical vortices II.Proc. R. Soc. London. 1982,380A, 359–387. 13. Bagrets, A. A.;and Bagrets, D. A.;Nonintegrability of Two read more..

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    136 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Joint US-European Fluids Eng. Conference. FEDSM2002-31226. Montreal, Cana- da;2002. 31. Kuerten, J.G.M.; Vreman, A. W.; Can turbophoresis be predicted by large-eddy simu- lation. Phys. Fluids. 2005, 17 Ml, 1–4. 32. Karman von Th.;Uber den Mechanismus des Widerstands, den ein bewegter Korper in einer Fliissigkeit read more..

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    CHAPTER 8 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DESIGNING, CALCULATION, AND INDUSTRIAL USE OF A DYNAMIC SCRUBBER CONTENTS 8.1 Introduction .................................................................................. 138 8.2 Hydrodynamic Problems of Designing a Gas-Cleaning Installation of Buildings ............................................................... 139 8.3 Features of Designing of Wet Gas-Cleaning Installations read more..

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    138 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 8.1 INTRODUCTION Parameters of any industrial structures are defined, as it is known, first of all by a technological level of their designs. Meanwhile, objectively it is necessary to recognize that designing a gas-cleaning installation of buildings in Russia as a whole essentially loses world level and read more..

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    Recommendations for Designing, Calculation 139 It is necessary to note defects, to correct which is necessary in the proximal years. 1. Insufficiency of the nomenclature of a gas-cleaning installation and its lag from growing powers of the industry. 2. Weakness of design baseline in which predominates empiric the analysis. 3. Absence of strict scientific criteria for designing of read more..

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    140 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 3. In gas-cleaning installation buildings, often there are so-called free flooded streams (Idelchik, 1968). They originate, for example, at an entry of a stream from a gas pipeline in the apparatus of much larger cross section already filled with gas. Thus, between an in- ducted stream of a basin (aerosol) read more..

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    Recommendations for Designing, Calculation 141 order, or is direct on an assembly site. In the latter case, the workmanship appears low. Wet apparatuses can carry out the following functions: To chill the gas (aerosol); as alternative—with salvaging of warmth of an irrigation water which in process heats up; To moisten to (condition)—gas (aerosol) before its supply on read more..

  • Page - 159

    142 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 8.4 SYSTEM OF WATER RECYCLING Process flowsheets of preparation of an opening also are so various, how much various the problems solved by wet clearing of gas emissions. The momentous factor is selectivity of an irrigation (on regimes and a chemi- cal compound of irrigation waters). Both on separate read more..

  • Page - 160

    Recommendations for Designing, Calculation 143 trapped component occurs for two reasons: rst, a component quantity is not entrained by a liquid; secondly, the component entrained by a liquid partially is taken out from the apparatus with splashes. 8.5 RECOMMENDATIONS ABOUT DESIGNING Recommendations are resulted only on packaging a twirled air swirler: 1. Diameter of the apparatus is read more..

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    144 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 8.6 CLEARING OF GASES OF DUST IN THE INDUSTRY The had results hardware in manufacture of roasting of limestone at con- ducting of redesign of system of an aspiration of smoke gases of baking ovens. The devised scrubber is applied to clearing of smoke gases of bak- ing ovens of limestone in the read more..

  • Page - 162

    Recommendations for Designing, Calculation 145 of gas emissions the maximum dustiness of the gases which are thrown out in an aerosphere, has decreased with 3,950mg/m3to 840mg/m3, and total emissions of a dust from sources of limy manufacture were scaled down about 4,800to/a to 1,300to/a. FIGURE 8.1 Process flowsheet of clearing of gas emissions: (1)—bake roasting; a (2)— water read more..

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    146 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 2. The solution of an actual problem on perfection of complex sys- tem of clearing of gas emissions and working out of measures on decrease in a dustiness of air medium of the industrial factories for the purpose of betterment of hygienic and sanitary conditions of work and decrease in negative read more..

  • Page - 164

    Recommendations for Designing, Calculation 147 8. Guderian, R.; Pollution of Air Medium: Transfer with English. .: The World;1979. 9. Dubtchik, R. V.; Rehash of a Waste of Aluminium Manufacture Abroad. .;1978. 10. Dubinsky, F. .;and Lebedjuk, G.K.; Scrubbers of the Venturi. Sampling, Calculation, Application. .: Chemical and Oil Engineering Industry;1977. 11. Dubinsky, F. .; et al. read more..

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    148 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 30. Directions for to Dispersion Calculation in an Aerosphere of the Harmful Substances Containing in Emissions of the Factory. Sanitary code no 369-04. .: Building;2005. 31. Economy of Sterilisation of Gas Emissions. Chemical and Oil Engineering Industry .;1979,6,25. © 2015 by Apple Academic Press, Inc. read more..

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    PART II DUST EXTRACTORS OF SHOCK-INERTIAL ACT © 2015 by Apple Academic Press, Inc. read more..

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    CHAPTER 9 ORGANIZATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC INTERACTION OF PHASES IN DUST EXTRACTORS WITH INNER CIRCULATION OF A LIQUID CONTENTS 9.1 Introduction .................................................................................. 152 9.2 Survey of Known Builds of Scrubbers with Internal Circulation of a Liquid ................................................................. 152 9.3 The Organization of Hydrodynamic read more..

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    152 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 9.1 INTRODUCTION The main problems of the known wet-type collectors are single-value us- age of liquid in dust removal process and its large charges for gas clear- ing. For machining of great volumes of an irrigating liquid and slimes, salvaging bulky complex systems of circulating water supply is required. read more..

  • Page - 169

    Organization of Hydrodynamic Interaction 153 At periodic drain of the condensed slurry, the water discharge is deter- mined by consistency of slurry and averages to 10 on 1 m3air, and at xed drain the charge does not exceed 100–200 g on 1 m3air. Filling of dust traps with water should be controlled automatically. Maintenance of a xed level of water has primary read more..

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    154 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Each apparatus is equipped with some devices for xing of uid level and for removal of slurry from the scrubber collecting hopper. Distinctive features of apparatuses: 1. Fluid spray in the gas without the use of injectors allows to use a fluid with the high contents of suspended matters for spraying read more..

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    Organization of Hydrodynamic Interaction 155 FIGURE 9.2 Apparatuses with controlled variables: (a)—under the patent no 1546651 (Germany), (b)—the ACE no 556824 (USSR), (c)—the ACE no 598625 (USSR), (d)—the ACE no 573175 (USSR), (e)—under the patent no 1903985 (Germany), (f)—the ACE no 13686450 (France), (g)—the ACE no 332845 (USSR), (i)—the ACE no 318402 (USSR), (k)—the read more..

  • Page - 172

    156 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 9.3 Type N rotoklon: (1)—the device for gaseous feed; (2)—guide vanes;(3)—a water level;(4)—a cleaning tank; (5)—the drip pan; and (6)—the device for gas deductions. Gas passes through the slot-hole channels (impellers) formed by bent shovels. The bottom part of blades is hauled down in a read more..

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    Organization of Hydrodynamic Interaction 157 tute ITS “industrial acceptance” of type AWC (Figure 9.4 see) productiv- ity 3,5; 10; 20 and 40 thousand m3/ch. Apply also a rotoklon of type “Ural” at which gas loading on 1 m of the slot makes 10–15 thousand m3/chfor a water resistance 1,000 Pa(Shcwidki, 2002). FIGURE 9.4 Deduster of type AWC:(1)—the upstream end; read more..

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    158 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice and experimental studies of scrubbers with inner circulation of a uid for the purpose of the prompt use of the most effective and cost-effective con- structions in systems of clearing of industrial gases has matured. 9.3 THE ORGANIZATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC INTERACTING OF PHASES In scrubbers with inner fluid read more..

  • Page - 175

    Organization of Hydrodynamic Interaction 159 phases on boundaries, difference of viscosity of flows, and an interphase surface tension. At gas driving over a surface of a fluid, the last will be brake gas boundary layers therefore in them there are the turbulent shear- ing stresses promoting cross-section transfer of energy. Originating cross- section turbulent oscillations lead to read more..

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    160 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice engineers Nukiymas and Tanasavas who consider agency of operating conditions along with physical performances of phases: FIGURE 9.5 Relation of an average size of drops of water in blade impellers from speed of gas. 0,2 3 585 10 49, 7 l l l o rr l L D WV μ σ ρσ ⎛⎞ ⋅ =+ ⎜⎟ ⎜⎟ ⎝⎠ read more..

  • Page - 177

    Organization of Hydrodynamic Interaction 161 With increasing speed of gas process of subdivision of a uid by a gas ow gains in strength, and drops of smaller diameter are organized. The most intensive agency on a size of drops renders change of speed of gas in the range from 7 to 20 mps, at the further increase in speed of gas (> 20 mps) intensity of read more..

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    162 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Practice shows that the size a coagulation of drops on an exit makes of the contact device, as a rule, more than 150 μm. Corpuscles of such size are easily trapped in the elementary devices (the inertia, gravitational, centrifugal, etc.). 9.3.4 BRANCH OF DROPS OF A FLUID FROM A GAS FLOW The inertia read more..

  • Page - 179

    Organization of Hydrodynamic Interaction 163 where W c is the optimum speed of gases in free cross section of the drip pan, mps; Kis the factor de ned experimentally for each aspect of the drip pan. Values of factor normally uctuate over the range0.1–0.3. Optimum speed makes from 3 to 5 mps (Hertzian, 1978; and Nu i ama, 1983). 9.4 PURPOSE AND RESEARCH PROBLEMS • read more..

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    164 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice REFERENCES 1. Hertzian. M. .; Kirsanov, N.S.;and Gordon, G.M.;Teardrop and a Carryover of Liq- uid in a Percussion Scrubber. Works of Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals;1978,44, 71– 77. 2. Hertzian, M. .; Kirsanov, . .;and Gordon, G.M.; Effect of Separate Factors on Efficiency of Tapping of a Dust in read more..

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    CHAPTER 10 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AND CALCULATION OF EFFICIENCY OF SEDIMENTATION OF DISPERSION PARTICLES IN A ROTOKLON CONTENTS 10.1 Introduction ................................................................................ 166 10.2 Experimental Installation and the Technique of Realization of Experiment .............................................................................. 167 10.3 Discussion of Results of read more..

  • Page - 182

    166 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 10.1 INTRODUCTION The comparative analysis of the basic known gas-cleaning installations of impact-sluggish act shows that many builds work in a narrow range of change of speed of gas in contact channels and are used in industrial production predominantly for clearing of gases of a disperse dust in sys- read more..

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    Experimental Research and Calculation 167 10.2 EXPERIMENTAL INSTALLATION AND THE TECHNIQUE OF REALIZATION OF EXPERIMENT The rotoklon represents the basin with water on which surface on a con- necting pipe of feeding into of dusty gas the dust-laden gas mix arrives. Thus, gas changes a traffic route. The dust containing in gas penetrates into a liquid under the influence of an read more..

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    168 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice handwheel at the output parts of the lower lobes 1 is embedded. Quantity of lobe pair is determined by productivity of the device and cleanliness level of an airborne dust ow, that is, a regime of a stable running of the device. In the lower part of a body, there is a connecting pipe for a read more..

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    Experimental Research and Calculation 169 The mentioned structural features do not allow using correctly avail- able solutions on hydrodynamics of dust-laden gas ows for a designed construction. In this connection, for the well-founded exposition of the processes occurring in the apparatus, there was a necessity of realization of experimental research studies. Experiments were conducted read more..

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    170 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Full trapping of the dust contained in taken test of an airborne dust mix was made by an external ltering draws through mixes with the help of calibrates electro-aspirator EA-55 through special analytical lters AFA- 10 which were put in into ltrating cartridges. The selection time was xed on a read more..

  • Page - 187

    Experimental Research and Calculation 171 Speed of gas is measured in the ue by a tube 6 which is connected to the micromanometer 7. The temperature and pressure (rarefaction) of gas are measured in the ue accordingly by the thermometer 2 and a manometer 1. Dust gas mix gained by dust injection in the ue by means of the me- tering screw conveyer batcher presented read more..

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    172 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 10.3 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS OF EXPERIMENT In a rotoklon process of interaction of gas, liquid, and solid phases in which result the solid phase (dust), finely divided in gas, passes in a fluid are realized. In the process of hydrodynamic interaction of phases in the apparatus, it is possible to disjoint read more..

  • Page - 189

    Experimental Research and Calculation 173 magnitude n will be determined, first of all, by speed of a gas flow on an entry in the contact channel. The following important parameter is fluid level on an entry in the contact channel which can change the cross-section of the channel and influence speed of gas: () gg g gk l k l Sbh bh b h h ϑϑ ϑ =− −− (10.1) where read more..

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    174 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 10.5 Computational relation of a size of drops to flow velocity and a specific irrigation. The gained relations testify that the major operating conditions on which the average size of drops in contact channels of a rotoklon depend, speed of gas ow and the speci c charge of a uid on read more..

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    Experimental Research and Calculation 175 where p is the mass of a precipitated corpuscle; p is the speed of a cor- puscle; is the factor of resistance of driving of a corpuscle; d 0 is the diameter a midelev of cross section of a drop. For the spherical corpuscles which driving obey the law the Stokes, this criterion looks like the following: 2 00 1 18 pp r p p read more..

  • Page - 192

    176 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice On the basis of the observed inertia of model, the method of calculation of a dust clearing ef ciency in scrubbers with inner circulation of a uid is developed. The basis for calculation on this model is formula (10.6). To under- stand the calculation, it is necessary to know disperse composition read more..

  • Page - 193

    Experimental Research and Calculation 177 will well be agreed to design data that con rms an acceptability of the ac- cepted assumptions. FIGURE 10.7 Relation of efficiency of clearing of gas to irrigating liquid level. FIGURE 10.8 Dependence of efficiency of clearing of gas on the size of corpuscles and speed of gas. The results of research studies on trapping of various read more..

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    178 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice type of dust traps) installations ef ciency considerably above 90 per cent. Even for the unwettable sewed type of white black, general ef ciency of trapping was more than 96 per cent. Naturally, as for the given dust trap lowering of fractional ef ciency of trapping at decrease of sizes of cor- read more..

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    Experimental Research and Calculation 179 FIGURE 10.10 General efficiency of clearing of gas emissions depending on the criterion of stokes. 10.6 CONCLUSIONS 1. The new construction of the rotoklon is developed in order to solve the problem of effective separation of a dust from a gas flow. In the introduced apparatus, water admission to contact zones imple- ments as a result read more..

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    180 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice The formulated leading-outs are actual for intensive operation wet- type collectors in which the basic gear of selection of corpuscles is the gear of the inertia dust separation. KEYWORDS • Contact channels • Dust • Irrigation • Rotoklon • Separation • The efficiency of gas purification read more..

  • Page - 197

    CHAPTER 11 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF TRAFFIC OF DISPERSION PARTICLES IN BLADE IMPELLERS CONTENTS 11.1 Introduction ................................................................................ 182 11.2 Statement of Problem of Hydrodynamics of Discontinuous Phase .......................................................................................... 182 11.3 Development of Motion of Corpuscles in the Rotoklon read more..

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    182 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 11.1 INTRODUCTION From the literary data it follows that known builds of scrubbers with in- ternal circulation of a liquid work in a narrow range of change of speed of gas. Because of low speeds of gas in contact channels known apparatuses have the big gabarits. These defects, and also a weak level read more..

  • Page - 199

    Mathematical Modeling of Traffic of Dispersion Particles 183 1. Sampling of physical model of process. At this stage is accepted any idealization, the schematization, etc. For example, instead of an imperfect gas is accepted any of classical models: model of per- fect fluid (gas) or viscous fluid model. Within the limits of the set model, it is possible to inject the read more..

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    184 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice private solutions is the equation common decision whereas for system of the nonlinear equations, the sum of private solutions is not the common decision. To gain the analytical solution of the equations of gas kinetics of aero- sols rather dif cultly in connection with essential complication as differ- read more..

  • Page - 201

    Mathematical Modeling of Traffic of Dispersion Particles 185 FIGURE 11.1 Stream-lines in impeller shovels. Pre-dominantly, the tip leakage occurs from a dint lateral surface. The size oscillated from a surface of a liquid of drops makes 300 ÷ 600 mm (Kutateladze, 1976). Depth of the dint formed at an inleakage of a stream on a surface of a liquid, is de ned from expression read more..

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    186 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice where V g–speed of gas on an entry in an impeller, mps. Diameter of a dint is de ned by formula [1–4]: 0,85 10, 67( ) D h dd υ =+ (11.2) Speed of a backward jet 2 22 d Vo Vg Dd υ =⋅ − (11.3) If the stream of nal width “a” accumulates on a stream of in nite width the read more..

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    Mathematical Modeling of Traffic of Dispersion Particles 187 The integration constant in the Eq. (11.8) is chosen in such a manner that in a critical point 0 complex speed of a current = 0. The Eqs. (11.5) and (11.8) de ne current function , potential of speed f and present a eld of speeds in a zone of interaction of a stream of a gas stream with a read more..

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    188 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 00 0 0 ;; r r VV V VV V VV a ττ ∞ ∞∞ == = = then 0 00 0 1 () r rr dV g FV V dg St τ =− − (11.12) where 2 r ga F V∞ = – a Froude number. 2 18 rr dp V St a μ ∞ = –Criterion of Stokes. Using correlation: 22 0 00 22 00 0 0 0 ;; ry rx r y dV dx dY d x d Y VV dd d d d ττ τ read more..

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    Mathematical Modeling of Traffic of Dispersion Particles 189 FIGURE 11.2 Paths of corpuscles of a dust. Analogous method calculation of paths of corpuscles for of Stokes eld forces of resistance of a gaseous uid to motion of corpuscles can be executed. The resulted dependences refer to cases when the positive allowance between target cross-section of blades of an impeller read more..

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    190 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice allow defining sizes of corpuscles, which can be precipitated on a liquid surface, and also build critical paths of corpuscles. 2. Good convergence of results of scalings on the gained relation- ships with the data, which is available in the technical literature and own experiments confirms an acceptability read more..

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    CHAPTER 12 AERODYNAMIC PROFILING OF BLADES OF AN IMPELLER CONTENTS 12.1 Introduction ................................................................................ 192 12.2 Modelling of Traffic and Gas Separation ................................... 192 12.3 Experimental Research of Aerohydrodynamic Circumstances..... 198 12.4 Research of Hydrodynamic Characteristics in Program ANSYS-14 CFX read more..

  • Page - 208

    192 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 12.1 INTRODUCTION The basic defect of apparatuses with internal circulation of a liquid is de- pendence of extent of a dust separation and expenses of energy of a dusty stream through a liquid. Considerable power inputs on gas clearing lead to search of new original design and technological solutions. A read more..

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    Aerodynamic Profiling of Blades of an Impeller 193 FIGURE 12.1 The analytical model of shaped blades of an impeller. The stream of dusty gas through impeller shovels (Figure 12.1) can be schematized gure a at incompressible ow, which approaches to impel- lers at an angle + within a speed and at turnabout edges of blades los- es dust corpuscles, rebounding from read more..

  • Page - 210

    194 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 11 2 sin , Sb υα υ = (12.2) in Bernoulli number 22 11 2 1 22 * r pp p p p p υυ ΓΓ += += (12.3) and momentum equation (the equation of pulses) in a projection to a head- ing of blades 11 1 2 2 2 cos( ) sin cos( ) sin , KK K K QF Q F υρ α β ρ β υ ρ α β ρ β Γ Γ −+ + read more..

  • Page - 211

    Aerodynamic Profiling of Blades of an Impeller 195 Width of a stream after its turn between impeller shovels de ne on a relationship: () . sin sin sin sin sin 1 1 1 1 2 1 β α α β α α υ υ + + = = S b (12.6) De nition of elds of speeds of gas in shovels of an impeller by means of the mentioned theory of streams (Gurevich, 1979) represents labor-in- tensive read more..

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    196 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice fied velocity distribution is close to more exact, differing in the beginning in smaller bearing, and then in the big. After cross-section - difference becomes less. Width a stream after turn de ne according to dependence Eq. (12.6) with introduction of a correction index of expansion of a stream read more..

  • Page - 213

    Aerodynamic Profiling of Blades of an Impeller 197 As a result of integration (). exp 1 1 2 R b R R = (12.7) From geometrical relationships (seeFigure 12.1) (). cos sin 1 2 β α β + − = R S R (12.8) From the Eqs.(12.8) and (12.7) () ( ) . cos exp sin 1 1 β α β + + = R b S R (12.9) This equation solve a method of iterations. In the capacity of root R 0of read more..

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    198 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice In this case, iterations complete solution when one of two test of con- vergence is secured. The rst sign, usual, by formula (12.10). Another sign – value of a denominator close enough to null in the Eq. (12.11) () ( ) () . 2 min 1 3 2 1 1 R f S R R R R f i i i i ≤ + − = − − − read more..

  • Page - 215

    Aerodynamic Profiling of Blades of an Impeller 199 In a rotoklon, three pairs of the blades having pro le of a sinusoid are installed. Blades can be controlled for installation of their position. Depending on cleanliness level of an airborne dust ow the lower lobes by means of handwheels are installed on an angle de ned by operational mode of the device. The read more..

  • Page - 216

    200 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice components of speed of corpuscles, thus also decreases. Expansion of stream, R 2–R1 promotes increase in a mechanical trajectory of corpuscles at separation, and it in turn conducts to considerable growth of secondary ablation of a dust. The stream of dusty gas passing through shovels of an impeller, read more..

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    Aerodynamic Profiling of Blades of an Impeller 201 FIGURE 12.5 Dependence of efficiency of clearing of gas on air consumptions and irrigating liquid with sinusoidal shovels FIGURE 12.6 Dependence of efficiency of clearing of gas on liquid level at various speed of gas. 12.4 RESEARCH OF HYDRODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS IN PROGRAM ANSYS-14 CFX Judging by descriptions in the literature, read more..

  • Page - 218

    202 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Considering a low water resistance of sinusoidal blades of an impel- ler with an intensive twisting of streams of air in their each element, it is possible to draw a conclusion that similar shovels have good prospects for the solution warmly and mass-transfer problems in system gas-liquid (Aksenov, 1996; read more..

  • Page - 219

    Aerodynamic Profiling of Blades of an Impeller 203 on an entry–300 , pressure of gas on an exit hardly above atmospheric 101425 Pa, intensity of turbulence on an entry and an apparatus exit–5 percent. The rst investigation phase was de nition of a role of blades of an impeller. For this purpose, comparative researches by ef ciency of a dust separation in one read more..

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    204 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice From the presented drawings, it is visible that the gas stream in the apparatus with impeller blades in an injection zone has numerous uni- form eddyings. Formation of a turbulent trace Behind impeller shovels is formed a turbulent trace as a result of a breakaway of a boundary layer from its surface, read more..

  • Page - 221

    Aerodynamic Profiling of Blades of an Impeller 205 KEYWORDS • A blade profile • Hydrodynamics • Modeling • The irrigating liquid • The rotoklon • The stream • Turbulent pulsations REFERENCES 1. Aljamovskij, A. A.; SolidWorks 2007/2008. Computer Modeling in Engineering Prac- tice. SPb.: BhV-Peterburg;2008. 2. Bussrojd, R.; Current of Gas with the Weighed read more..

  • Page - 222

    206 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 16. Menter, F. R.; Multiscale model for turbulent flows in 24th fluid dynamic conference. Am. Inst. Aero. Astro.1993. 17. Menter, F. R.; Two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence models for engineering appli- cations. AIAA J.1994,32(8). 18. Menter, F. R.; and Esch, T.; Advanced Turbulence Modelling in CFX CFX read more..

  • Page - 223

    CHAPTER 13 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AND CALCULATION OF BOUNDARY CONCENTRATION OF AN IRRIGATING LIQUID CONTENTS 13.1 Introduction ................................................................................ 208 13.2 Current State of a Problem ......................................................... 208 13.3 Laboratory Facility and Technique of Conducting of Experiment read more..

  • Page - 224

    208 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 13.1 INTRODUCTION One of trends of development of wet-type collectors is creation of appa- ratuses of intensive operation with high carrying capacity on a gas phase that is connected with favorable decrease in gabarits of installations. In these conditions, owing to high relative speed of traffic of liquid read more..

  • Page - 225

    Experimental Research and Calculation 209 tions at full circulation of a liquid are approached to what can be gained in the periodical regime when at maintenance fresh water is not inducted into dust-collecting plant. Collected in the apparatus, the dust detained by a liquid, compensates volume losses of the liquid necessary on moisten- ing of passing gas and its ablation. In read more..

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    210 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice by a liquid, can be longer, than a time after which the corpuscle will ap- proach to its surface. Obviously, it is at the bottom of decrease in possibil- ity of a retardation of a dust by a liquid because of a recoil of the corpuscle going to a surface, from a corpuscle which are on it. It read more..

  • Page - 227

    Experimental Research and Calculation 211 The traverse speed can characterize coef cient of resistance to cor- puscle motion in a liquid, so, and a dynamic coef cient of viscosity of a liquid. Possibility of effect of viscosity of a liquid on ef ciency of capture of corpuscles of a dust a drop by simultaneous Act of three mechanisms: the inertia, “capture” the read more..

  • Page - 228

    212 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice The concept is devised and the installation, which is giving the chance to implementation of planned researches is mounted. Installation had sys- tems of measurement of the general and fractional efficiency and typical systems for measurement of volume flow rates of passing gas and water resistances. The read more..

  • Page - 229

    Experimental Research and Calculation 213 Have been investigated a dust, discriminated with the wet ability (a talcum powder the ground, median diameter is equal 50=25mm, white black about 50=15mmsolubilityin water of 10-3 percent on weight (25°C) and a chalk powder). The gas-dispersed stream passed shovels of an impeller 7 in a working zone of the apparatus, whence through the read more..

  • Page - 230

    214 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 13.2 Measurement of viscosity of slurry. The gained slurry in number of 30sm3 (in this case the rotor diving depth in sludge makes 7sm) ll in is carefully the washed out and dry ex- ternal glass, which put in into a slot of a cover and strengthen its turn from left to right. After read more..

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    Experimental Research and Calculation 215 22 21 22 2 12 () 8 RR Gt LR R L η π − = (13.1) or L kGt = η (13.2) 13.4 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS OF RESEARCHES For each dust used in researches dependence of general efficiency of a dust separation on concentration of slurry and the generalizing schedule of dependence of fractional efficiency on a corpuscle size is presented. Other read more..

  • Page - 232

    216 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Boundary concentration for a talcum powder–36 percent, white black–7 percent, a chalk–of 18 percent answer, predominantly, to con- centration at which slurries lose properties of a Newtonian uid.The con- ducted researches give the grounds to draw deductions that in installa- tions of impact-sluggish type read more..

  • Page - 233

    Experimental Research and Calculation 217 FIGURE 13.4 Dependence of general efficiency of concentration in a liquid of corpuscles of a talcum powder. Analogously for white black: growth of concentration from 7 to 20 percent calls falling of fractional ef ciency from =65 percent to =20 percent, for a chalk: growth of concentration from 18 to 30 percent calls its decrease from read more..

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    218 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 13.6 Dependence of general efficiency on concentration in a liquid of corpuscles of white black. Thus, on the basis of the analysis set forth above, it is possible to assert that decrease in general ef ciency of a dust separation at excess of bound- ary concentration of slurry is connected read more..

  • Page - 235

    Experimental Research and Calculation 219 The method of de nition of boundary extent of circulation of a liquid in impact-sluggish apparatuses is based on laboratory de nition of con- centration of slurry above, which it loses properties of a Newtonian uid. This concentration will answer concentration of operating uid, which cannot be exceeded if it is required to secure read more..

  • Page - 236

    220 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 13.5 CONCLUSIONS 1. Excess of boundary concentration of slurry at which it loses prop- erties of a Newtonian fluid, calls decrease in efficiency of a dust separation. 2. At known boundary concentration cr, it is possible to define bound- ary extent of recirculation of the irrigating liquid, securing stable read more..

  • Page - 237

    Experimental Research and Calculation 221 REFERENCES 1. Valdberg, . J.; Wet-Type Collectors Impact-Sluggish, Centrifugal and InjectorActs. .: Petrochemistry;1981. 2. GOST 21235-75 Talc and a talcum powder the ground. Specifications. 3. Egorov, N. N.; Gas Cooling in Scrubbers. M.: Chemistry Publishing House;1954. 4. Kutateladze, S. S.; and Styrikovich, M. A.; Hydrodynamics of Gas-Liquid Systems. read more..

  • Page - 238

    CHAPTER 14 TECHNICAL AND ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF SAMPLING OF SYSTEM OF CLEARING OF GAS CONTENTS 14.1 Introduction .................................................................................. 224 14.2 Current State of a Problem ........................................................... 225 14.3 Calculation of the Prevented Damage from Atmospheric Air Pollution read more..

  • Page - 239

    224 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 14.1 INTRODUCTION Colossal scales of industrial human activity have led to the big positive transformations to the world—to creation of powerful industrial and agri- cultural potential, wide development of all types of transport, an irrigation, and melioration big ground area the squares, to creation of systems read more..

  • Page - 240

    Technical and Ecological Assessment of Sampling 225 • to produce criteria of a technical and economic estimation of a sys- tem effectiveness of environment protection against pollution; • to create the apparatus with a wide range of change of operating con- ditions and a wide scope, including for clearing of gases of the basic industrial assemblies of a finely divided dust read more..

  • Page - 241

    226 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice cumambient and, accordingly, with definition of economic benefit of liquidation of this damage. These and other unresolved problems should be solved to the develop- ment engineers, initiating to master designing a gas-cleaning installation of constructions [21–24]. 14.3 CALCULATION OF THE PREVENTED DAMAGE FROM read more..

  • Page - 242

    Technical and Ecological Assessment of Sampling 227 pr—a pollutant emission reduced mass in the region, scaled down as a result of conducting of matching nature protection provisions, 1,000 tons/year. K ei—factor of relative ekologo-economic hazard to ith pollutant. N—quantity of considered pollutants. pr cn MM M =Δ − 12 new MM M M Δ= − + where M—total volume of a read more..

  • Page - 243

    228 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 14.4 TECHNICAL AND ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT GAS- CLEANING PLANT SAMPLING In ecology and harmonious exploitation bases, estimations of economic efficiency of nature protection provisions are resulted. The problem is put to inject into calculation of a damage to a circumambient operational pa- rameters of the given read more..

  • Page - 244

    Technical and Ecological Assessment of Sampling 229 If to size up the gas-cleaning plant on average parameters, h i=η () ioi m 1 1 1 N i BA AA C Y N η η = ⋅⋅ − =⋅ ⋅ = ∑ Let us formulate a principle of ecological ef ciency of nature protec- tion provisions at least a damage put to a circumambient. Purpose function in this case will appear in the form read more..

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    230 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice ing stage, h i =0. For the xed technological circuit design of manufacture ef ciency of a stage of clearing, we will size up in shares from the maxi- mum damage =Y /Y 1 1 N iHi i p i n N î iHi i AC Y E Y AC η = = ×× == × ∑ ∑ . (14.4) To consider that all components of harmful read more..

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    Technical and Ecological Assessment of Sampling 231 P Q C Δ ⋅ ⋅ = Ζ e e The prevented damage Y computed on rouble of expenses, we will nd as Ð C C A Â Å N Δ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ∑ = ý i o i 1 i i ï η ρ . (14.5) The criterion of relative ecological ef ciency of the whirlwind appa- ratus = 1/ 0, is computed on values for two installations 1and 0, read more..

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    232 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Nop/p Theindicatorname Unit mea- surements Basic hard- ware New installa- tion 4 Concentration of emissions af- ter installation Mg/m3 127.5 39 5 The occupied space in the plan m2 17 5.3 6 Metal consumption m2 6.8 4.9 7 The general power consump- tion kilowatt·h 30 31 8 The specific expense of the electric power on read more..

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    Technical and Ecological Assessment of Sampling 233 14.5 RESULTS OF INDUSTRIAL TESTS OF THE GAS-CLEANING PLANT ON THE BASIS OF DEVICE “ROTOKLON” Let us consider the system of wet clearing of the gases departing from the closed ferroalloy furnace 1. On this furnace, comparative researches of the described system of wet dust separation (see Figure 14.2) have been conducted. The read more..

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    234 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 14.2 The scheme of clearing of flue gas with gas cooling in a venturiscrubber and the subsequent clearing in a rotoklon: (1)—baking oven; (2)—gas exit branch; (3)— venturi scrubber; (4)—bunker the drop catcher; (5)—arotoklon; (6)—gas pipeline; (7)— inertial heat and a mist eliminator; read more..

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    Technical and Ecological Assessment of Sampling 235 TABLE 14.3 Results of calculation of a payment for pollutant emission The list of pollut- ants (the substance name) It is thrown out for the accounting period, t/year The base specification of a payment within ad- missible specifications, a Russian rouble/t The size of a payment for a maximum per- missible emis- sion, Russian read more..

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    236 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice In Table14.3 results of calculation of a payment for pollutant emission of system of dust separation are shown: Thus, we have chosen the scheme of clearing of gases which allows to lower concentration of pollutants to preset values and consequently, and to lower payments by the enterprise for emissions. read more..

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    Technical and Ecological Assessment of Sampling 237 2. Belevitsky, A. M.;Economy and Technical and Economic Optimisationof Dust-Col- lecting Plants (on an Example of Installations of Cyclonic Dust Separation): Help Supervising Material. Clearing of Gas Emissions L.;1982. 3. Berezhinsky, A. I.; and Homutinnikov, J. S.; Recycling, Cooling and Clearing of Gas- es. : Metallurgy;1967. 4. read more..

  • Page - 253

    238 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 24. Straus, V.; Industrial clearing of gases. The Lane with English. .: Chemistry; 1981. 25. Skryabin, J. I.; The Industrial dust Atlas. .: Tsintihim-Neftemash;1982. 26. Semenova, . .; et al. Clearing of Technological Gases. .: Chemistry;1969. 27. Technics of environment protection. In: The Textbook for High read more..

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    PART III BUBBLING-VORTEX APPARATUSES © 2015 by Apple Academic Press, Inc. read more..

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    CHAPTER 15 SURVEY OF ALTERNATIVES OF A DESIGN OF VORTEX GENERATORS CONTENTS 15.1 Introduction ................................................................................ 242 15.2 Designing of Rotary Connections .............................................. 243 15.3 Designing of Contact Echelons of Whirlwind Apparatuses....... 249 15.4 Conclusions read more..

  • Page - 256

    242 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 15.1 INTRODUCTION Multistage whirlwind apparatuses (WA) with the general counterflow motion of co-operating streams on a build are analogous to columns of bubbling type but has also some differences causing them of advantage (Frolov, 1987; Nikolaev, 1907; and Nikolaev, 1971). The first difference consists that on read more..

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    Technical and Ecological Assessment of Sampling 243 Transitive Way of submission of a liquid Peripheral In a zone of contact Central Combined Way of separation Centrifugal—gravitational Centrifugal—inertial Centrifugal— ltration In devices with descending parallel ow, a liquid and pairs (gas) in a zone of contact move from top to down, therefore they read more..

  • Page - 258

    244 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 15.1 Axial air swirlers (a)–dual-lead spiral; (b)–the multiple-start screw insert; and (b–a)multibladeaxial air swirler. FIGURE 15.2 Combined vortex generator: ( )–slot-hole; ( )–blades; and ( )–cyclonic. The greatest distribution have received multiblade axial vortex genera- tor (Figure 15.2) read more..

  • Page - 259

    Technical and Ecological Assessment of Sampling 245 FIGURE 15.3 Combined vortex generator: ( )–conic; ( )–tangential-curvilinear; ( )– tangential-step; and ( )–tangential-axial. Vortex generator is characterized by relative section, a degree of over- lapping and factor twist. The relative section is an attitude of the total area of cross-section sections of gas channels to read more..

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    246 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice TABLE 15.2 Definition of factor twist for (wd) with ascending parallel flow Diameter of the contact device Type vortex generator Degree twist Input of a liquid Relative height of a contact branch pipe H/D Type of a sepa- rator 20–40 Spiral or tangential- slot-hole 0.5–1.0 Peripheral above vortex generator read more..

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    Technical and Ecological Assessment of Sampling 247 1967). At liquid feeding into in a zone over an axial air swirler (Figure 15.5a) is formed a cone-shaped spray of liquid drops. FIGURE 15.5 The central input of a liquid through branch pipes: ( )–axial; ( )–shaped; ( )–radial; ( )–shaped. Gas penetrates this torch and intensively cooperates with a liquid. Un- der read more..

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    248 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice of contact branch pipes ledges or the plates increasing turbulence of a stream (Galkovski, 1979; and Levdanskij, 1974), the design of the no rigid contact branch pipe, capable to vibrate (Diarov, 1979). Is offered also, however, it complicates manufacturing (wcd) and raises{increases} their hydraulic resistance a read more..

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    Technical and Ecological Assessment of Sampling 249 15.3 DESIGNING OF CONTACT ECHELONS OF WHIRLWIND APPARATUSES Constructive registration of contact steps of industrial vortical devices is carried out in two basic directions. The rst direction assumes increase in diameter (wcd) with the central input of a liquid till the sizes of the device. Single-element steps are simple read more..

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    250 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 15.7 Contact steps with recirculation liquids: (a)–with the general{common} overflow; and ( )–with the distributed{allocated} overflow. The rst way allows increasing the length of “way” of a liquid by steps, and the second—enables more full to use section of the device. Mixture of a procontacted read more..

  • Page - 265

    Technical and Ecological Assessment of Sampling 251 Partial recirculation, it is created by installation on (wcd) below separa- tors of inclined collars, re ective washers (Figure15.9) (Mamayev, 1978; and Nurste, 1973) or use of special system of liquid channels (Figure 15.9) (Galkovski, 1979). The raised{increased} metal consumption, complexity of manufacturing, and installation are the read more..

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    252 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 15.4 CONCLUSIONS The analysis of merits and demerits of various methods of clearing of gas- es from gaseous impurity has allowed to draw a conclusion that at clearing of great volumes of gas emissions by the most simple and in implementa- tion the method of centrifugal separation is reliable. However, read more..

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    Technical and Ecological Assessment of Sampling 253 5. Prihodko, V. P.; Safonov, E. N.; and Lebedyk, G. K.; Centrifugal drip pan with blade vortex generator. The Survey Information. Data Centre;1979. 6. Diarov, R. K.; Ovcinnikova, A. N.; and Nikolaev, N. A.; Device for separation and uniform distribution of multiphase streams on technological devices of preparation of oil. The read more..

  • Page - 268

    254 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 25. Kiselev, V. M.; Hydrodynamic of the characteristic and mass transfer on a cyclonic plate at adsorption dioxides of carbon. “Chemistry”;1967, 7, 1630–1634,(inRussian). 26. Karpenkov, A. F.; Nikolaev, . .;and Nikolaev, . .; About an opportunity of in- crease of productivity mass transfer devices due to read more..

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    CHAPTER 16 AERODYNAMICS OF VORTEX APPARATUSES CONTENTS 16.1 Introduction ................................................................................ 256 16.2 Regularity of Motion of Gas and a Liquid ................................. 256 16.3 Factors Influencing Aerodynamic Formation of a Stream ......... 259 16.4 Conclusions ................................................................................ 264 Keywords read more..

  • Page - 270

    256 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 16.1 INTRODUCTION The formation of the turbulent twirled stream essentially differs from the forward. Under the influence of a centrifugal force in the twirled stream, there are pressure gradient on radius, the return currents, the raised speeds at a wall, non-linearity of a profile of tangential stresses, read more..

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    Aerodynamics of Vortex Apparatuses 257 () () ; ; mm zZ b bb mm b zz b rr WW W W r r rr r WW W W r r r φφ φφ == ≤ == ≥ (16.1) where W and W z—the maximum values of the peripheral (tangential) and axial speeds of gas accordingly; r b—radius of a zone of quasi rm twirl. Directly over an axial air swirler where the vortex ow is formed, it is offered to read more..

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    258 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice (16.5) where —dynamic viscosity of a liquid, N/sm2; q—A water concentration, m3/mh. In the literature particularizes on hydrodynamics of lm current (Karpenkov, 1960; Margolin, 1977; and Bunkin, 1970) are resulted {brought}. At input of a liquid in central part (cd), it {she} is splitter up for read more..

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    Aerodynamics of Vortex Apparatuses 259 16.3 FACTORS INFLUENCING AERODYNAMIC FORMATION OF A STREAM For the characteristic of intensity of blade twist of an air stream created by various air swirlers, usually use a mean of speed of the stream, found on geometrical characteristics of apparatuses. Strict enough de nition of twisting ability of an air swirler on its geo- metrical read more..

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    260 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Equality of design data n testi es to identity of aerodynamic charac- teristics of the twirled streams on an exit from geometrically similar air swirlers of the same type. It is necessary to mean, however, that the real blade twist of a stream expressed in parameter, R K M ⋅ = θ (16.12) where read more..

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    Aerodynamics of Vortex Apparatuses 261 ATVC l a W Wτ n ()( ) () 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 cos 6 β ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ + − + + d d d d d d r () ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ + + z d d h d π β 2 2 | 2 1 2 2 sin 2 () () ( ) ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ + − − + + − z d d h d d d d d d d π β π β 2 2 | 2 2 2 1 2 | 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 sin 4 3 cos 8 TBVP l a read more..

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    262 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice TBVL depends not only on design data n, but also from an outlet angle of a stream from an air swirler 2. Except design data n, the twirled stream in a deduster is characterized: (a) In extent of irregularity of a velocity distribution. max min ,% cp WW W ψ − = (16.13) (b) Magnitude of a read more..

  • Page - 277

    Aerodynamics of Vortex Apparatuses 263 The stream formation on small removal x = 0.2 + 0.3 from air swirlers of type TBVL at all values of a slope of guide vanes 2 is characterized by presence of a powerful zone of return currents, almost equal to diameter of the overhead disk of an air swirler. The gas stream moves in the ring channel between the body and read more..

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    264 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 16.4 CONCLUSIONS Design data of intensity of blade twist n, inferred for various types of air swirlers are observed. The parameter n on the physical sense is relative value of an entrance angular momentum. For the characteristic of intensity of blade twist of an air stream created by various air read more..

  • Page - 279

    Aerodynamics of Vortex Apparatuses 265 6. Karpenkov, A. F.; The Dust Separation Theory in the Turbulent Wet Washer. Works CTU; 1970, 45, 40–45, (in Russian). 7. Nurste, H. O.; Ref. Diss. Cand. Tech. Sci. Institute Warmly—to Electrophysicists an Academy of Sciences of Est. Tallinn: The Soviet Socialist Republic; 1973. 8. Schukin, V. K.; Heat exchange and hydrodynamics of read more..

  • Page - 280

    CHAPTER 17 EFFECT REGIME-DESIGN DATA ON EFFICIENCY OF CLEARING OF GAS AND A HYDRAULIC RESISTANCE CONTENTS 17.1 Introduction ................................................................................. 268 17.2 Water Resistance of Rotary Connections .................................... 269 17.3 Centrifugal Dedusters with Axial Air Swirlers of Type AV ........ 270 17.4 Centrifugal Dedusters with read more..

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    268 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 17.1 INTRODUCTION The majority of known methods of calculation and designing of whirl- wind apparatuses for conducting of processes of separation are based on methods of laboratory modeling and similarity theory. Such approach con- siderably narrows possibilities of designers at sampling constructive and operating read more..

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    Effect Regime-Design Data on Efficiency of Clearing 269 paratuses (Adamar, 1970; Jo nov, 1975; and Uzhov, 1973 ) with a different relative height of the separation chamber, which real values do not fall outside the limits 1.5–3.0. Pressure losses in an air swirler depend on its geometry and extent of a twisting of gas. The exit loss depends on extent of a twisting of read more..

  • Page - 283

    270 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice increase in losses due to compression a stream on an output{exit} from the chan- nel with its{his} subsequent expansion or narrowing (Kolborn, 1964; Kepelman, 1960) . Hydraulic resistance water gas a layer is de ned {determined} basically by quantity {amount} of a liquid acting on separation (L, kg/kg) and read more..

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    Effect Regime-Design Data on Efficiency of Clearing 271 In work (Margolin, 1977) in which results of researches screw vortex gen- erator in a wide range of measurement of height of the screw are presented, it is shown, that dependence, () 1 11 2 h S Pf h h l lZ Δ= = = where h 1 – relative height vortex generator; l – the minimal height vortex generator at which read more..

  • Page - 285

    272 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice It {She} is fair at Re 5.9·104. In the basic range of change S/D 1.75. The deviation {rejection} of skilled data from settlement does not exceed 5 per cent. At S/D = 1.8 2.5, dependence is received, 0,74 0,35 4, 72 Re d D ζ ⎛⎞ = ⎜⎟ ⎝⎠ (17.7) This formula is fair at read more..

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    Effect Regime-Design Data on Efficiency of Clearing 273 17.4 CENTRIFUGAL DEDUSTERS WITH CYLINDRICAL AIR SWIRLERS OF TYPE TBVP Centrifugal devices with vortex generator type TBVP are most full investigated {researched} in connection with use of the twirled streams in processes heat- and mass transfer, and also burning (Samsonov, 1974; and Kolborn, 1964; and Ke- pelman, 1960 ). read more..

  • Page - 287

    274 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice induced eld of speeds and hydraulic resistance a nozzle only in a range 0.7 0.8. At 0.7 0.8, the factor of the resistance, which have been counted up on speed in section of a pipe, makes 1 = ζ , and, hence, the disk put across the follow- ing stream, does not cause additional read more..

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    Effect Regime-Design Data on Efficiency of Clearing 275 17.6 CENTRIFUGAL DEDUSTERS WITH CONIC VORTEX GENERATOR TYPE ATVP AND ATVC Hydraulic characteristics conic vortex generator type ATVP are most full inves- tigated {researched} by development high-economical direct-flow cyclones (Kouzov, 1972; and Adamar, 1970 ). By Researches, it is established {installed} that the increase in quantity read more..

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    276 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice sion of dependence of hydraulic resistance of different types vortex generator from design data can be presented in the form of 2 ;; out v out R F f FR ζβ ⎛⎞ = ⎜⎟ ⎝⎠ (17.16) In the right part, it is possible to make a complex meaning the settle- ment dimensionless moment of quantity read more..

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    Effect Regime-Design Data on Efficiency of Clearing 277 {determined} basically by relative diameter compression d 3 and with a suf cient degree of accuracy can be calculated on the equation 22,94 3 1, 45 out cp PW d ρ − Δ= ⋅ (17.21) At use of a target branch pipe in the form of diffuser with the central corner of disclosing = 8°30› and length 1.1 ·D hydraulic read more..

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    278 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice At tap {removal} of a lm of a liquid in the top part of the case of a deduster (turned parallel ow phases) decrease {reduction} in hydraulic resistance of the irrigated device occurs {happens} until the condition 0.5 0.6 is observed. At 0.6, the size v increases proportionally to read more..

  • Page - 292

    Effect Regime-Design Data on Efficiency of Clearing 279 Re 17800 1 g S D >= For dedusters with two entry axial vortex generator at factors of hydraulic resistance are de ned {determined} by the equations (Mielazarek, 1978) : 0,16 0 7,2Re vor l ζ = at Re 1200 l < ; 0,5 0 0, 676 Re vor l ζ = at Re 1200 l > ; For dedusters with conic vortex generator (Adamar, read more..

  • Page - 293

    280 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice REFERENCES Abramovich, G. N.; Applied fluid dynamics. M.: Publishing House the Tehniko- Theoretical Literature; 1953. Pravdin, V. A.; Aerohydrodynamic streams. Chem. Eng. Ind. 1973, 10, 35–37, (in Russian). Mustashkin, F. A.; Two-phase streams. Kazan: Works CTU; 1970, 45, 94–99, (in Russian). Karpenkov, A. read more..

  • Page - 294

    Effect Regime-Design Data on Efficiency of Clearing 281 Kepelman, M. N.; and Eskin, N. B.; Design procedure of horizontal film and cen- trifugal separators. Data Centre. 1960. Kutepov, A. M.; et al. Hydrodynamics and heat exchange at steam formation. M.: “Higher School.” 1977. Lang, C. U.; Heat mass transfer. Chem. Technol. 1964, 7, 1195. Marchall, J.; Heat mass transfer. read more..

  • Page - 295

    CHAPTER 18 EFFECT OF CONCRETION ON PROCESS OF SEDIMENTATION OF CORPUSCLES OF A DUST CONTENTS 18.1 Introduction ................................................................................ 284 18.2 Coagulation of Equigranular Spherical Corpuscles ................... 284 18.3 Dust Laying on Drops at Liquid Spraying ................................. 289 18.4 Coagulation of Unequigranular Spherical Corpuscles read more..

  • Page - 296

    284 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 18.1 INTRODUCTION Aerosols, as well as many other disperse systems, have the restricted life time. In them, there are the various processes leading to integration of primary corpuscles, to their aggregation, formation of offsprings, and the subsequent sedimentation. Some of these processes proceed spontane- ously, read more..

  • Page - 297

    Effect of Concretion on Process of Sedimentation 285 years for firm corpuscles and can form a basis for definition of a constant of concretion. It approaches and for the description of concretion of drops of a liquid as the size of drops after merge increases proportionally to a cube root from quantity of drops, its components [41]. This approach was offered read more..

  • Page - 298

    286 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 2 2 2 d CC C D rr r τ ⎛⎞ ∂∂ ∂ =+ ⎜⎟ ∂∂ ∂ ⎝⎠ (18.2) or in more convenient form: () () 2 2 d Cr Cr D r τ ∂∂ = ∂∂ (18.3) As corpuscles have the same size, we assume that they will face the central corpuscle when pass in distance limits 2R from it (Figure 18.2). Thus, read more..

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    Effect of Concretion on Process of Sedimentation 287 (), r C D J d ∂ ′ ∂ − = (18.5) Where the derivative (dC /dr) should be sized up at r = 2R. Thus, 2 16 . d C NR D r π ∂ ′ = ∂ (18.6) At r = 2R. And from the Eq. (18.4) we will gain 2 1 2 d CC R rR D πτ ⎡⎤ ∂ ′ =+ ⎢⎥ ∂ ⎢⎥ ⎣⎦ (18.7) Then the number of corpuscles, which read more..

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    288 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice The another member in brackets, it is possible not to consider, as it will be much less unit if it is great enough. The Fuchs (1955; and 1951) has shown that ξ π = d D R 2 The probability of that a corpuscle originally is near to the xed cor- puscle. Thus, it is aimed to null as stationary read more..

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    Effect of Concretion on Process of Sedimentation 289 18.3 DUST LAYING ON DROPS AT LIQUID SPRAYING Efficiency of sedimentation of corpuscles on drops of liquid (the kine- matic concretion) depends first of all on magnitude of their relative tra- verse speed w. The kinematic (gravitational) concretion to proceed at free falling of drops through motionless an aerosol of count read more..

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    290 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice FIGURE 18.3 The loading diagram of efficiency of the apparatus for motion: (a)—a forward flow; (b)—a backward flow; and (c)—a cross current. Let’s gate out an element of space with a size dldbdh(Figure 18.3). We will mark out a heading of material streams depending on the motion circuit design. read more..

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    Effect of Concretion on Process of Sedimentation 291 ()( ) 2 g u dldb C dC =− (18.18) For the circuit design about a gas cross- ow ()( ) 2 g u dbdh C dC =− (18.19) Dust laying on drops occurs to relative speed w. In the circuit design about a forward ow this speed w=u v tbackward ow w=u v 9and in case of cross motion in a gas stream heading read more..

  • Page - 304

    292 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice () 3 0 2 K C uCdbdh u C dC dbdh dldbdh d αω η ∑ −− − ⋅ = (18.24) After transformations, we will gain for the rst two circuit designs, where uv ω =± 3 2 K dC dh Cd u αη ω ∑ =− ⋅ ⋅ (18.25) And for a cross current, where w=u at u =0, 3 2 K dC dl Cd αη ∑ =− read more..

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    Effect of Concretion on Process of Sedimentation 293 3 2 K dC mdh Cv d η ω ∑ =− 3 2 K dC mdh Cd η ∑ =− (18.29) After integration on all altitude of a zone of contact of a dust with drops of liquid (apparatus altitude) expression (18.29) can be written down in an aspect. For circuit designs with line and counter ow motion and ⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ ⋅ read more..

  • Page - 306

    294 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice ()() 12 12 12 4. KR R B B kT π =+ + (18.33) () ( ) 6 dc BD kT R ζπμ == —mobility of a corpuscle. The concretion constant has the minimum value in case of corpuscles of equal sizes. 18.4 COAGULATION OF UNEQUIGRANULAR SPHERICAL CORPUSCLES 18.4.1 COAGULATION OF UNEQUIGRANULAR CORPUSCLES Tikhomirov, Tunitsky, read more..

  • Page - 307

    Effect of Concretion on Process of Sedimentation 295 leads in the beginning to polydispersity increase so for any coagulating an aerosol the concretion constant is not constant, and depends on speed of concretion. It is no wonder that interpretation of the data on concretion is dif cult, but knocks that fact that simple theory of concretion stated here is suitable for the read more..

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    296 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice () , 2 exp 2 1 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪ ⎬ ⎫ ⎪⎩ ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ − − = σ π σ C C C C C p (18.39) where —a dispersion () () d d n n C V C V e 0 0 ln 2 1 π σ = (18.40) and () () 00 33 . ln ln d n VV Vk V =− (18.41) Our problem consists in sizing up, as read more..

  • Page - 309

    Effect of Concretion on Process of Sedimentation 297 To take advantage of the offered model, it is necessary to set magnitude of control volume or some linear scale. We will accept in the capacity of such scale a pseudo-average free way of an aerosol corpuscle () 00 8, d lw kT m ττ π Β == (18.44) Which for a corpuscle in diameter 0.01 μm will make 0.027 μ m. As read more..

  • Page - 310

    298 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice corpuscles. How concentration of small corpuscles will decrease at affect- ing of the large? Admitting that speed of the arranged in sequence motion of small corpuscles is much less than speed of a large corpuscle, it is pos- sible to consider that the large corpuscle in unit of time entrains all small read more..

  • Page - 311

    Effect of Concretion on Process of Sedimentation 299 same as at medium, they will move approximately with the same speed as well as the sections of air surrounding them. In this case, motion of corpus- cles can be presented by means of factor of turbulent diffusion D. This factor can matter, in 104–106 times more than factors of thermal diffusion. Pro- cesses of the read more..

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    300 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice () ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1,2 1 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 ,, KR R w R w R R R πε ⎡⎤ =+ − ⎣⎦ (18.46) The deviation of a capture cross-section from geometrical, called by a mutual bending of paths of corpuscles is characterized by magnitude (R 1, R 2), which usually is called as capture factor. Not each read more..

  • Page - 313

    Effect of Concretion on Process of Sedimentation 301 Stokes St c is number (parameter of the inertia collision); w 0(R2) is a vector of a hydrodynamic eld of the big corpuscle in a coordinate system rigidly connected with it. Passing round formally resulted equation of motion of a small cor- puscle up to physical contact of both corpuscles, we come to a problem of read more..

  • Page - 314

    302 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice (18.49) Numerical calculations of Langmuir and Blodzhett were repeatedly mustered by other researchers (Veviorsky, 1968; and Johnstone, 1954). The divergence of results was gained small, therefore at the analysis of the inertia concretion of corpuscles of essentially different sizes, in our opin- ion, with suf read more..

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    Effect of Concretion on Process of Sedimentation 303 FIGURE 18.4 Dependence of factor of capture from to at a various reynolds number. FIGURE 18.5 Comparison of experimental values of factor of capture with design data. © 2015 by Apple Academic Press, Inc. read more..

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    304 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 18.6 CONCLUSIONS 1. As appears from stated above the theory Smoluhovsky, it is fair for process of concretion of a monodisperse aerosol. In practice such aerosols meet rather seldom, the methods allowing at conserva- tion of substantive provisions of rapid sweeping concretion to use of them for calculation of read more..

  • Page - 317

    Effect of Concretion on Process of Sedimentation 305 REFERENCES 1. Fuchs, N. A.; Mechanics of Aerosols. Publishing House: Academies of Sciences the USSR; 1955. 2. Fuchs, N. A.; To the theory of a sprinkler irrigation of “warm” clouds. The Rep Acad. Sci. USSR.1951,81(6), 1043–1045 (in Russian). 3. Smoluhovsky, M.; Experience of the mathematical theory of kinetics of concretion of read more..

  • Page - 318

    306 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 28. Technical Manual:Cyclone Separators. Goshimizdat: Scientific Research Institute of Gas; 1956. 29. Dergachev, N. F.; Fly-Ash Scrubbers of System VTI. The State Power Publishing House; 1960. 30. Johnstone, H. F.; and Roberts, M. H.; Ind. Eng. Chem.1949, 41, 2417. a1de bank, P. H.; Trans. Inst. Chem. read more..

  • Page - 319

    CHAPTER 19 MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF PROCESS OF SEPARATION OF DISPERSION PARTICLES AND CHECK OF ADEQUACY OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL CONTENTS 19.1 Introduction ................................................................................. 308 19.2 Development of the Construction Bubble-Vortex Apparatus with Adjustable Blades ............................................................... 308 19.3 Derive the Equation read more..

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    308 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 19.1 INTRODUCTION One of the most promising methods for increasing the efficiency of dust collection of fine particles is scrubbing. For this method are characterized by complex mass transfer processes in the course of interaction with the gas-dispersion flow scrubbing liquid droplets, resulting in the speed and read more..

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    Mathematical Simulation of Process of Separation 309 FIGURE 19.1 Research facility: (1)—cylindrical chamber, (2)—inlet pipe, (3)—swirl, (4)—central nozzle, (5)—peripheral nozzles, (6)—overflow pipe cuttings, (7)—chip catcher, and (8)—cyclone. Bubble-vortex machine with adjustable blades works as follows. The dusty gas is fed into a cylindrical chamber 1, where the swirl 3 with read more..

  • Page - 322

    310 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice ' p st dv mF dt = (19.1) where m—mass of the particle; dv p—velocity of the particle; F st—aerodynamic force. For the calculations necessary to present the vector Eq. (19.1) motion in scalar form. Position of the particle will be given by its cylindrical co- ordinates (r; ; z). Velocity of a read more..

  • Page - 323

    Mathematical Simulation of Process of Separation 311 ' '' ' ' 0 2 p st p p p p dv m F ma mr mr m r m v dt ωω ω ω ω ⎡⎤ ⎡⎤ ⎡⎤ ⎡⎤ ⎡⎤ = − +⋅ +⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⎣⎦ ⎢⎥ ⎣⎦ ⎣⎦ ⎣⎦ ⎣⎦ or '' ' 0 1 2 p st p p p dv Fa r r v dt m ωω ω ω ⎡⎤ ⎡⎤ ⎡⎤ ⎡⎤ =− + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⎣⎦ ⎢⎥ ⎣⎦ ⎣⎦ ⎣⎦ (19.3) where a read more..

  • Page - 324

    312 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice p, v, z—vectors of the reference frame and used the fact that p x ÷ x p V v r e r = ⋅ ⋅ = Substituting these expressions in the equation of motion Eq. (19.3), ' '' ' ' 0 2 p st p p p p dv m F ma mr mr m r m v dt ωω ω ω ω ⎡⎤ ⎡⎤ ⎡⎤ ⎡⎤ ⎡⎤ = − +⋅ +⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + read more..

  • Page - 325

    Mathematical Simulation of Process of Separation 313 () () () 2 2 2 2 18 18 18 pp gp pp p pp p gp ÷÷ p p gp pp dV U VV dt d r dU U V UU dt d r dW WW dt d μ ρ μ ρ μ ρ ⎧ =− + ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎪ =− ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =− ⎪⎩ (19.6) 19.4 STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AIR CLEANING Studies were conducted on a bubble—vortex apparatus with a cylindrical chamber with a read more..

  • Page - 326

    314 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice In bubble-vortex device at the minimum speed is reduced purity, with a maximum—a sharp increase hydraulic resistance. It has also the effect of the coef cient K spin rotator on the effective dust collection: as K increases the degree of puri cation. Found a range of values K, at which the read more..

  • Page - 327

    Mathematical Simulation of Process of Separation 315 When preliminary calculations, the crude treatment can be de ned graphically, Figure 19.4. C—is a function of the geometric parameters of the machine and can be calculated for vehicles designed by the known method (Leith, 1971). —modi ed inertia parameter of the state of dust-gas systems. FIGURE 19.4 Cleaning efficiency of read more..

  • Page - 328

    316 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 19.5 STUDY OF HYDRODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS Investigated the resistance bubble—vortex apparatus, depending on its classification regime—design parameters. Found that, the most ef cient and cost effective mode of operation is at K = 5 8 (Usmanova, 2006). The technique of pressure loss and speci c energy read more..

  • Page - 329

    Mathematical Simulation of Process of Separation 317 2 32 g x l K D φ ϑ πϑ =⋅ ⋅ , Because the value K g does not match the real twist coef cient, taken the following relation: 0,72 1.4 g KK =⋅ , The experimental results are presented graphically dependencies of hydraulic resistance of regime—the design parameters, Figures 19.5 and 19.6. FIGURE 19.5 Dependence of read more..

  • Page - 330

    318 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 19.6 OUTPUT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE GEOMETRICAL AND OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS Formal analysis of relationships that define the motion of gas and solids in the scrubber. The analysis shows that the strict observance of similarity of movements in the devices of different sizes requires the preservation of four read more..

  • Page - 331

    Mathematical Simulation of Process of Separation 319 2 K μ α ρδ = K-factor, which takes into account the effect of particle shape (take K = 2). The axial component of the velocity of gas and particles are the same, as follows from the equations of motion by neglecting gravity. Indeed, if the () z zz dw wv dt α =− , then taking z z z w v w Δ = − , we get read more..

  • Page - 332

    320 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice then with the obvious boundary condition t = 0, vr = 0, we have () 2 1 av 1 dt r w we r φ α − ⎛⎞ ≅− ⎜⎟ ⎝⎠ The time during which the ow passes from the blade to the swirler exit from the apparatus as well 1 zav l t w = On the other hand, knowing the law of the radial read more..

  • Page - 333

    Mathematical Simulation of Process of Separation 321 Dependence structure Eq. (19.7) shows the feasibility of introducing two sets, one of which 2 2 t l A WK μ ρδ = characterizes the effect of the ow regime and the particle diameter, and the other is a geometric characteristic of the device. () β ctg r l r A r 2 1 2 1 − − = (19.9) In Eq. (19.8) through r 1 read more..

  • Page - 334

    322 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice ( )2 wz o wzo δ δ = Unfortunately, a signi cant increase W z permitted as this may lead to the capture of dust from the walls and ash. You can also change the twist angle and the height of the ow system, without changing the axial ve- locity. If the reduction of the particle diameter read more..

  • Page - 335

    Mathematical Simulation of Process of Separation 323 eu CP Q r C =Δ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ The full expression for calculating the cost of cleaning a gas cubic me- ter can be obtained using the formula (19.1) to calculate the ef ciency and Eq. (19.2) to calculate the hydraulic resistance. 19.8 CONCLUSIONS 1. Developed a method of calculating the total and fractional dust col- lection read more..

  • Page - 336

    324 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice KEYWORDS • Cost of gas purification • Custodial complex • Efficiency gas purification • Geometric complex • Hydraulic resistance • The coefficient of resistance • The trajectory of particles • Vortex apparatus REFERENCES 1. R. R. Usmanov . Patent 2234358 RF bubble-vortex machine with read more..

  • Page - 337

    Mathematical Simulation of Process of Separation 325 15. Litvinov, A. T.; J. Appl. Chem. 1971, 44(6), 1221–1231, (in Russian). 16. Kutepov, A. M.; Hydrodynamics and Heat Exchange at Steam Formation. “Higher school”; 1977. 17. Jofinov, G. A.; Collection: Institutes of a Lab Our Safety of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions. 1975. © 2015 by Apple Academic Press, read more..

  • Page - 338

    CHAPTER 20 MODERNIZING AND COMMERCIAL OPERATION OF INSTALLATIONS FOR REFINING OF GAS EMISSIONS CONTENTS 20.1 Introduction ................................................................................ 328 20.2 Bubbling—The Vortical Device ................................................. 328 20.3 Bubbling—The Vortical Device with Adjustable Blades .......... 330 20.4 Rotoklon With Adjustable read more..

  • Page - 339

    328 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 20.1 INTRODUCTION The Analysis of merits and demerits of various methods of clearing of gas from gaseous impurity, such as condensation, adsorptive, absorpritive a method, has allowed to draw a conclusion that at clearing great volumes of gas emissions by the most simple and reliable in realization is read more..

  • Page - 340

    Modernizing and Commercial Operation of Installations 329 ing at it{this} disperse particles move to walls of the cylindrical chamber 1. For improvement of conditions of clearing of gases, before and after vortex generator 2 are established{installed} one central and four periph- eral 3 atomizers in which the irrigating liquid moves. The central atom- izer established{installed} before read more..

  • Page - 341

    330 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice and the greater party{side} concern{touch} an internal surface of the cy- lindrical chamber 1 and are rigidly attached to it{her} on all to their length. Separated slime, it is washed off by a liquid, sprayed by four periph- eral atomizers 3 established{installed} in each owing section after vortex read more..

  • Page - 342

    Modernizing and Commercial Operation of Installations 331 welded thickenings. On an input{entrance} and an output{exit} of each blade 2 ledges 6 by means of which the blade is in contact to pair clowns 7 are stipulated. Adjustment of position of blades 2 is carried out by turn of the clowns 7 fastened to the cylindrical chamber 1 by means of spring washers 8 and counter read more..

  • Page - 343

    332 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice output{exit} of each blade 2 two ledges by means of which the blade is in contact to pair clowns 7 are stipulated. Clowns 7 carry out turn of blades on entrance and target sites of the cylindrical chamber 1 in various direc- tions owing to what blades 2 are established{installed} in the position read more..

  • Page - 344

    Modernizing and Commercial Operation of Installations 333 20.4 ROTOKLON WITH ADJUSTABLE SINE WAVE BLADES Cylindrical vortex generator with the central input of a stream within the limits of at z=0 represents nozzles. It{he} has found application for catch- ing drops and distributions of ventilating air in premises{rooms} [4]. The Invention concerns to devices for wet clearing gases read more..

  • Page - 345

    334 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice condition of constancy—speeds dust gas a stream. For regulation of a cor- ner of turn of a target part of the bottom blades 6 ywheels 8 are stipulated. The Quantity {Amount} of pairs blades is de ned {determined} by productivity of the device and a dust content dust gas a stream that is a read more..

  • Page - 346

    Modernizing and Commercial Operation of Installations 335 Dusty gas acts in an entrance branch pipe 2 in the top part of the case of 1 device. Hitting about a surface of a liquid, it{he} changes the direction and passes{takes place} in the slot-hole channel formed top 4 and bottom 6 blades. Owing to high speed of the movement, cleared gas grasps the top layer of a read more..

  • Page - 347

    336 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Under action arising thus of centrifugal force disperse particles move to walls of the cylindrical chamber 1. For improvement of conditions of clearing of gas on length of the cylindrical chamber 1 (Figure 20.5) the axial sprinkler 3 punched—is established{installed} by apertures of small diameter 4 in which read more..

  • Page - 348

    Modernizing and Commercial Operation of Installations 337 FIGURE 20.6 The general view bubbling—the vortical device with screw vortex generator. 20.6 BUBBLING—THE VORTICAL DEVICE WITH AN AXIAL SPRINKLER In the developed device clearing of gas emissions is carried out due to more effective utilization of working volume of the device that intensifies process of gas purification. read more..

  • Page - 349

    338 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 7, rejects a stream and gives to it{him} rotary movement. Under action of centrifugal force arising at it{this} disperse particles moveto walls of the cylindrical chamber 1. For improvement of conditions of clearing in the cylindrical chamber 1 the axial sprinkler 3 in which the irrigating liquid moves is read more..

  • Page - 350

    Modernizing and Commercial Operation of Installations 339 FIGURE 20.8 Longitudinal and cross-section cuts{sections} of the cylindrical chamber [3]. 20.7 BUBBLING—VORTICAL GAS WASHER The Technical result provided bubbling—vortical gas washer is expressed in increase of efficiency dust separation due to installation in the device of the axial branch pipe punched by apertures of small read more..

  • Page - 351

    340 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice vortex generator that reduces the hydraulic losses characterized in factor of hydraulic resistance. Owing to that the offered device has low factor of hydraulic resis- tance, there is an opportunity to raise{increase} speed of a gas stream that provides more intensive display centrifugal—inertial forces and read more..

  • Page - 352

    Modernizing and Commercial Operation of Installations 341 For improvement of conditions of clearing in the cylindrical cham- ber 1, the axial branch pipe 4 in which the irrigating liquid moves is established{installed}. Owing to that the axial branch pipe 4 is punched by apertures small, diameter 5, located in each owing section vortex gen- erator 3, the surface of contact of read more..

  • Page - 353

    342 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 20.8 ROTOR BUBBLING—THE VORTICAL DEVICE The Invention is directed on an intensification of process of gas purifica- tion due to more effective utilization of action of centrifugal forces and increases in a surface of contact of phases. Increase of ef ciency dust separation is caused by tangential input of read more..

  • Page - 354

    Modernizing and Commercial Operation of Installations 343 provides repeated change of an interphase surface. Rejected on walls of the cylindrical chamber 1 (deposit) is cleaned off and transported screw 4 to a pipe of an over ow 7. The subsequent division of suspension occurs{happens} in a cyclone 6, whence slime acts in slime collector 8. FIGURE 20.10 The longitudinal read more..

  • Page - 355

    344 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Accommodation of a drain branch pipe on the center of the bottom promotes the most effective removal{distance} slime, concentrating under action of hydrodynamical forces at an axis of rotation of a stream. In Figure 20.11, the magnetic hydrocatcher, a longitudinal section is presented. The Magnetic hydrocatcher read more..

  • Page - 356

    Modernizing and Commercial Operation of Installations 345 The Dusty gas stream hits about a surface of a liquid 4 and chang- es the direction. Thus, under action of centrifugal forces, it{he} also is resulted{brought} in rotary movement. Rotating water gas the mix passes{takes place} between walls confuser 1 and diffuser 6, thus the ef- fect of pipe Venturi is formed. Besides read more..

  • Page - 357

    346 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Before vortex generator 5, the axial branch pipe 10 supplies of a liquid is placed, at a level top cut, which the basis conic dissector 7 is located with a backlash. On an output{exit} of a gas stream are stipulated drip pan 11. Vortex generator 5, it is xed on a rotor 12, which is read more..

  • Page - 358

    Modernizing and Commercial Operation of Installations 347 FIGURE 20.12 Dynamic gas washer [7]. FIGURE 20.13 The top view and a cut{section} and. © 2015 by Apple Academic Press, Inc. read more..

  • Page - 359

    348 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice 20.11 THE WHIRLWIND APPARATUS WITH APPLICATION OF ULTRASONIC VIBRATIONS The offered build will allow raising efficiency of clearing of aerodisper- sion mixes at the expense of superposition of ultrasonic oscillations in a zone of screw curling to 96 percent. The best results have been had at fre- quency of read more..

  • Page - 360

    Modernizing and Commercial Operation of Installations 349 a course of a stream of a part with the chamber of the cleared gas 4 is installed. Over the chamber of power separation, the chamber 5, which is supplied by the point for supply of an entrance stream 6 is placed. From an outer side of the chamber of power separation, two magnetostrictive converters 7 supplied read more..

  • Page - 361

    350 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice magnetostrictive converters 7 in the form of the twirled stream gets to the chamber of power separation 1. The dispersoid separated by a centrifugal force under the in uence of ultrasound from magnetostrictive converters 7 gets to the sludge remover 13, coarsens and inferred through a discharge opening read more..

  • Page - 362

    Modernizing and Commercial Operation of Installations 351 is rigidly fixed with axial sprinkler, while second swirler has centralbore and is jointed to cylindrical chamber walls tomake a gap for gas flow to pass to apparatus central zone. Said swirlers represent an elliptic parabo- loid with its guide blades bent along helicoid to form curvilinear confuser channels. Intensi ed gas read more..

  • Page - 363

    352 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice The bubbling—swirling apparatus works as follows. Dusty gas is fed in the cylindrical chamber 1 on an entrance pipe 2. Simultaneously in an axial sprinkler 3, the irrigation water, which disperses on all volume of the cylindrical chamber from sprinkler holes arrives. The gas containing rm and gaseous read more..

  • Page - 364

    Modernizing and Commercial Operation of Installations 353 Are installed with formation of the zigzag channel 6 for passage of a gas stream. Air swirlers are executed in the form of hollow frustums of a cone 7, the big basis of plates lying in a plane 5. A surface of frustums of a cone pro le on a conic spiral. The cylindrical chamber 1 is af liated with an read more..

  • Page - 365

    354 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice that leads to crushing of a liquid and an intensi cation of process of an interphase exchange. In positive allowances between plates, there is an intensive collision of corpuscles with irrigation water drops that promotes trapping of nely divided impurity. The roll forming of an air swirler 7 on a read more..

  • Page - 366

    Modernizing and Commercial Operation of Installations 355 Application bubbling—the vortical device allows to achieve an inten- si cation of process of gas puri cation with reduction of a gassed condi- tion of air pool (Figure 20.17). FIGURE 20.17 Flowchart of clearing of gas emissions. 20.15 CONCLUSIONS Necessity of creation of high-efficiency mass transfer equipment has led to read more..

  • Page - 367

    356 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice Intensive researches of hydrodynamics direct- ow and parallel ow- vortical, one-and two-phase streams as such streams are widely used and in other branches of techniques {technical equipment} are carried out. The saved up{saved} theoretical and experimental material allows veri cation to count the basic read more..

  • Page - 368

    Modernizing and Commercial Operation of Installations 357 2. Usmanova, R. R.; Bubbling—the Vortical Device with Adjustable Blades. The Patent of the Russian Federation the Invention No 2234358. August 20,2004. The Bulletin No 23. 3. Usmanova, R. R.; Bubbling—the Vortical Device with an Axial Sprinkler. The Patent of the Russian Federation the Invention No 2316383. February read more..

  • Page - 369

    INDEX A Abramovich, G. N., 259 Absolute motion, 88 Acid fog/rain, 224 Aerodynamic stream formation, 259–263 Aerohydrodynamic circumstances, experi- mental research, 198–201 Aerosols, 284 Airborne dust flow, 167–168 Air cleaning efectivenes, 313–315 Air-conditioning of gases, 7 Air pollution by gas emissions, 4 Air swirler design data, 86 Air swirler water resistance, 143 Aitkena-Steffensena read more..

  • Page - 370

    360 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice optimum mode, 328 process flowsheet, 145 Clearing smoke gases of furnaces (roast- ing), 354–355 Coagulation calculation in moving medium, 297–303 unequigranular spherical corpuscles, 294–297 Computational model boundary condi- tions, 45 Concretion loading diagram, 285 Condensational deduster, 12–13 Conic air swirler, 11, read more..

  • Page - 371

    Index 361 Gas cleaning efficiency, 172–176 Gas cleaning installation, 23–24, 139–140, 166, 225 of buildings, 139–140 expenses, 230 Gas-cleaning plant, 144 industrial test result, 233–236 technical and ecological assessment, 228–232 Gas emissions air pollution by, 4 clearing. see Clearing gas emissions industrial outputs and, 4 optimum mode of clearing, 328 Gaseous-dust stream, 16, 115 read more..

  • Page - 372

    362 Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice O Optimization, 53–56, 225 Optimum angular speed of twirl, 78 Optimum location of sprinklers, 108–109 Optimum speed increase in, 80 regime-design data for, 77–82 rotation direction of air swirler for, 74–77 of twirl, 74, 78 P Paths of corpuscles dust, 189 Polydispersity, 294–295 Poorly twirled stream, 256 read more..

  • Page - 373

    Index 363 Twirled stream, 11 moderately, 256 poorly, 256 sharp, 256 turbulent, 19–20, 256 Twirled vortex generator, 39 U Unequigranular spherical corpuscles, coagulation of, 294–297 V Vector speed projections, 51 Velocity vector of particle, 310 Venturi scrubber, 233 Viscosity, 214–215 Viscous fluid models, 20 Visualization tools, 47 VOF (volume occupied with liquid), 34 Volume of fluid read more..

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